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What Is Change?

Change
 An alteration of an organization s environment, structure, technology, or people
A

constant force  An organizational reality  An opportunity or a threat

Change agent
 A person who initiates and assumes the responsibility for managing a change in an organization

Types of Changes
Technological change
 Machines  Process  Management Information Systems (MIS) are formal systems for collecting, processing, and disseminating information necessary to aid managers in decision making.  Automation is the simplification or reduction of human effort to de a job.

Structural change (reengineering) Task change People change (sociotechnical)

Stages in the Change Process

Denial

Resistance

Exploration

Commitment

Forces For Change


External forces
 Marketplace competition  Government laws and regulations  New technologies  Labor market shifts  Cycles in the economy  Social change

Internal forces
 Strategy modifications  New equipment  New processes  Workforce composition  Restructured jobs  Compensation and benefits  Labor surpluses and shortages  Employee attitudes

Two Views Of The Change Process


Calm waters metaphor
 A description of traditional practices in and theories about organizations that likens the organization to a large ship making a predictable trip across a calm sea and experiencing an occasional storm

White-water rapids metaphor


 A description of the organization as a small raft navigating a raging river

Change in Calm Waters


Kurt Lewins Three-Step Process
 Unfreezing
 The

driving forces, which direct behavior away from the status quo, can be increased. restraining forces, which hinder movement from the existing equilibrium, can be decreased. two approaches can be combined.

 The

 The

 Implementation of change  Refreezing

The Change Process

Change Models
Lewins Change Model Step 1. Unfreezing Step 2. Moving Step 3. Refreezing Lussiers Change Model Step 1. Define the change. Step 2. Identify possible resistance to change. Step 3. Plan the change. Step 4. Implement the change. Give the facts. Involve employees. Provide support. Step 5. Control the change (reinforcement of change.)

Change In White-water Rapids


Change is constant in a dynamic environment. The only certainty is continuing uncertainty. Competitive advantages do not last. Managers must quickly and properly react to unexpected events.
 Be alert to problems and opportunities  Become change agents in stimulating, implementing and supporting change in the organization

Why People Resist Change

Overcoming Resistance to Change


Develop a positive climate for change. Encourage interest in improvement. Plan. Give facts. Clearly state the reasons for change and how it will affect employees. Create a win-win situation. Involve employees. Provide support. Stay calm. Avoid direct confrontation. Use power and ethical politics.

R e s i s OLD t a n c e

C h a NEW n g e

Responding to Resistance

Blocker - I dont want to do it that way. Response: What are your objections to the change? How would you prefer to do it? Roller - What do you want me to do? Response:I want you to(Be specific). Staller - Ill do it when I can. Response:What is more important?

Responding to Resistance

Reverser - Thats a good idea.(But never does it.) Response: What is it you like about the change? Sidestepper - Why dont you have XYZ do it? Response:I asked you to do it because Threatener - Ill do it, but the guys upstairs will not like it. Response:Let me worry about it. What are your objections?

Responding to Resistance

Politician - You owe me one. Let me slide. Response: I do owe you one, but I need the change. Ill pay you back later. Traditionalist - Thats not way we do things around here. Response: This is a unique situation; it needs to be done. Assaulter - Youre a(pick a word). Response:I will not tolerate that type of behavior. or This is really upsetting you, isnt it.

Techniques for Reducing Resistance to Change


TECHNIQUE Education and communication Participation Facilitation and support Negotiation Manipulation Coercion WHEN USED When resistance is due to misinformation When resisters have the expertise to make a contribution When resisters are fearful and anxiety-ridden Necessary when resistance comes from a powerful group When a powerful groups cooperation and an endorsement is is needed When a powerful groups endorsement is needed

Implementing Planned Changes


Organization development (OD)
 An activity (intervention) designed to facilitate planned, long-term organization-wide change
 Focuses

on the attitudes and values of organizational members;

 Is

essentially an effort to change an organizations culture.

Organizational Development
is the ongoing planned process of change used as a means of improving the organizations effectiveness in solving problems and achieving its objectives. Five OD techniques
Training and development Grid OD Survey feedback Force field analysis Team building

Training and Development


Step 1. Needs assessment Step 2. Set objectives Step 3. Prepare for training Step 4. Conduct the training Step 5. Measure and evaluate training results

Grid OD
Grid OD: a six-phase program designed to improve management and organizational effectiveness. Phase 1. Training Phase 2. Team development Phase 3. Intergroup development Phase 4. Organizational goal setting Phase 5. Goal attainment Phase 6. Stabilization

Survey Feedback
Survey feedback: an OD technique that uses a questionnaire to gather data that are used as the basis for change. 1. Management and the change agent do some preliminary planning to develop an appropriate survey questionnaire. 2. the questionnaire is administered to all members of the organization/unit. 3. The survey data are analyzed to uncover problem areas for improvement. 4. The change agent feeds back the results to management. 5. Managers evaluate the feedback and discuss the results with their subordinates. 6. Corrective action plans are developed and implemented.

Force Field Analysis


Force field analysis: a technique that diagrams the current level of performance, the hindering forces toward change, and the driving forces toward change.
Hindering forces: H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4 H-5 H-6
High Longevity Slow production of product delivery cost High Poor Inadequate sales- performancesales training people of three turnover salespeople

Present performance: 1,000 units sold per month


Good HighQuality Good Seven Skilled reputation of quality advertising service excellent supervisor organization product salespeople

Driving forces:

D-1

D-2

D-3

D-4

D-5

D-6

Team-building
 An activity that helps work groups set goals, develop positive interpersonal relationships, and clarify the roles and responsibilities of each team member

Intergroup development
 An activity that attempts to make several work groups become more cohesive

Personality Types
Type A personality
 People who have a chronic sense of urgency and an excessive competitive drive

Type B personality
 People who are relaxed and easygoing and accept change easily

Reducing Stress
Person-job fit concerns
 Match employees to their jobs, clarify expectations, redesign jobs, and increase employee involvement and participation

Employee assistance programs (EAPs)


 Programs that help employees overcome personal and health-related problems

Wellness programs
 Programs that help employees prevent health problems

HR Variables Affecting Innovation


HR practices that foster innovation
 Promotion of training and development so employee knowledge remains current  Offer employees high job security to reduce fear of making mistakes and taking risks  Encourage employees to become champions of change