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BHEL-an overview
y First plant was established at Bhopal in 1956. y Today BHEL has-:

Turnover(Rs. In crore) 50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

15 manufacturing divisions, 2 repair units, 4 power sector regions, 8 service centers.

y BHEL cater to following core sector,

power sector, industry sector, transposition sector, transmission sector, defence sector etc.

Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (H.E.E.P.) Central Foundry Forge Plant (C.F.F.P.)

Block-1 Electrical Machine Block

Block-2 Fabrication Block

Block-3 Turbine Block

Block-4 CIM & ACM Block

Block-5 Forging Block

Block-6 Stamping Block

Block-7 Wood Working Block

Block-8 Heat Exchanger Block

Insulation of turbo generator stator bars

y Insulation of stator bars is done at Block-IV (coil insulation and manufacturing

y Insulation is done to prevent short circuit between the bar end and stator core. y Stator bars are insulated with micalastic insulation. y Cutting , transposition, bending, testing etc. are done on conductor. y In tapping section, insulation by sunmika therm tape and sunmika pleese tape. y Then bars are fed to impregnation section.

Insulation system
Bhel has Bituminous insulation system Insulation system

Based on process

Thermosetting process

Thermoplastic process

Resin rich system

Resin poor system

Resin poor V/s resin rich system

Resin poor system Epoxy resin % Process Time cycle Processing job Cost Repairing Chemical 8% Thermosetting Short Stator bars and exciter coils Less Complicated Resin rich polyester backed epoxy mica folium Resin rich system 40% Thermosetting Long Stator bars More easy Resin poor epoxy mica paper tape

What is Epoxy resin?

y It is a thermosetting polymer formed from reaction of an epoxide resin with

polyamine hardener.
y Epoxy resins are protect electrical components from short circuiting, dust and

y Properties-:

-Outstanding toughness. -Chemical inertness. -Excellent mechanical and thermal shock resistance . -Efficient coating material. -Good mechanical strength. -Can be used continuously up to 300F.

What is Micalastic insulation?

y It is a system developed by Siemens AG, Germany. y It includes both resin rich and resin poor system. y Properties-:

-Long electric life. -Good conductor of heat. -High thermal stability. -Low flammability. -Provides protection against moisture.

Insulating material
 An ideal insulating material should have y High dielectric strength. y High specific resistance. y Low dielectric hysteresis. y Good thermal conductivity. y High degree of thermal stability. y Low dissipation factor. y Resistant to oils, gases, liquid, flames and acids. y Resistant to thermal and chemical deterioration.

Insulating design shop

y Manufacturer of insulating material of different shapes and sizes. y The row material used in this shop are,

Glass based textolite sheet, Cotton based textolite sheet, Paper based textolite sheet, Mica glass sheet, Teflon sheet, Nylon sheet, Ebonite, Nomex paper.

Insulation tapping section

y The bar is provided with 14 layers of insulation. y 12 layers by automatic machine called CNC tapping machine, rest two layers

are provided manually.

y Sunmika therm tape is used, combination of mica+glass+varnish.


y What is the impregnation technique?

It is the permanent solution to the porosity networks without impacting the functional or dimensional characteristics of material.
y Why is impregnation needed?

It improves the quality and increases the productivity.

y What is porosity?

It is the absence of material where it should be present.

y What impregnates are used?

Methacrylate base resin, polyester resin, epoxies, Phenolic resin, sodium silicate etc.

Vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) Vacuum impregnation pressure (VIP)

 The latest technology of insulation is Vacuum Pressure Impregnation which is of resin poor thermosetting type , also adopted by BHEL.

VPI insulation process

Preheating Vacuum cycle Drop test

Post curing

Pressurization of job

Resin heating and resin inlet

Performance test

Impregnation plant
y Horizontal chamber for higher capacity and vertical for small capacity system. y Horizontal chamber dimension-

Inner diameter:4000 mm Length:9000 mm

y Vertical chamber dimension-

Inner diameter:1600 mm Length:3080 mm

y Impregnation medium-

Epoxy resin: Araldite MY-790 Hardener:BD1102 Operating pressure:6 bars nitrogen Temperature:90C

y Parts of impregnation plant-:

 Impregnation tank  Trolleys  Impregnation tub  Resin mixture storage tank  Vacuum system  Brine solution tank  Nitrogen storage tank  Preheating furnace  Post heating furnace

Insulation test
y Also known as high voltage test. y To check the insulation of bars. y High voltage is applied to aluminum wrapped bars and increased in steps

according to working voltage.

y Working voltage,

for 500 MW 64.5 KV for 210 MW 63 KV

y If insulation is weak, the bar will puncture at the place of weaker insulation.