# FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY

B.HARIKA 08261A1408

.WHAT IS FUEL CELL? Fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.

Why are we studying fuel cells? Enabling the continuation of R & D and eventual rollout of commercialization. Process of fuel cell will change application of energy dependent devices. .

How do fuel cell work? Hydrogen turning the fuel into positively charged ion and negatively charged electron A typical fuel cell produces a voltage from 0.7v .6v to 0.

Classification Loss Of Actual Fuel Cell Activation Losses Ohmic Losses Mass Transportation Losses .

Through experimentation Tafel was able to mathematically describe these losses. .Activation Loss Activation losses are those losses associated with the initial dramatic voltage losses in low temperature fuel cells.

A/m2. V i is the current density. A/m2 and i0 is the so called "exchange current density". V A is the so called "Tafel slope". .Tafel Equation Tafel equation is stated as V=Aln( i/io) where V is the overpotential.

v=I r i= current density r= specific area density . This allows for the ease of use in evaluating performance of the cell. and fuel cells are not an exception to this rule. since most cells are rated in terms of the current density.Ohmic Loss Ohmic loses are prevalent in every electronic device.

Mass Transportation If the hydrogen is being used at a very vigorous rate at the anode then the partial pressure of the hydrogen drops. V = RT /2Fln(p2/p1) . thus slowing the reaction rate.

Types Of Fuel Cells Alkali fuel cells (AFC) Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) Proton exchange membrane (PEM) Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) .

Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) The AFC is generally use a solution of potassium hydroxide in water as their electrolyte. and operating temperature is 150 to 200 degrees C O2 + 4e 4e + 2H2O --->4OH 2H ---> . Efficiency is about 70 percent.

Efficiency ranges from 60 to 80 percent.Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) MCFC use highhightemperature compounds of salt like sodium or magnesium carbonates as the electrolyte. and operating temperature is about 650 degrees C .

General schematic of reactions within a molten carbonate fuel cell .

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)  PEM is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct protons while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen and hydrogen. and operating temperature is about 80 degrees C . hydrogen. 2H2 + O2 => 2 H2O .  Efficiency is about 40 to 50 percent.

000 degrees C . and operating temperatures are about 1. Efficiency is about 60 percent. ceramic compound of metal like calcium or zirconium oxides as electrolyte.Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) SOFC use a hard. 1/2O 1/2O2 + 2e--->O 2e--->O .

. This fuel cell technology is used in wastewater treatment plants. This application has been eventually used as an alternative power supply for ships.Applications Used in Apollo spacecraft .

Advantages High Efficiency Reliability Low Emissions Very Low Noise and Vibrations .

Disadvantages Fuel Cell Construction Safe Consideration Vehicle Conversion Problems and Expense Performance and Range .

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