After collecting, editing, coding and classification ,when a mass of data has been assembled ,it becomes necessary for researcher to arrange the same in concise and logical manner. The process of placing classified data into tabular form is known as tabulation. OR Tabulation is the process of summarizing raw data and displaying the same in compact form. Rows are horizontal arrangements whereas columns are vertical arrangements. It may be simple, double or complex depending upon the type of classification.

Choice Depends on :      size. type of study. cost considerations. time pressures and availability of machines/computers. . Can be done by : hand or mechanically through electronic devices.

Direct tally Count method Hand tabulation Can be done using list Card sort . Hand tabulation is preferred in small inquiries where number of questionnaires are less.

It helps in detection of errors and ommisions. It facilitates the summation of items. It provides a basis for various statistical computations.IMPORTANCE Tabulation is essential for following reasons: It conserves space and reduces explanatory and descriptive statement to a minimum. It facilitates the process of comparison. .

CONTENTS OF TABLE Table number. Foot note. Source data. . Body/field. Head note. Caption. Stub. Title of table.

Stub headings Columnhead Subhead Column head Caption Subhead Columnhead Column head Total (rows) Stub Entries Total (columns) Foot note : Source note: .

Complex: shows data about two or more categories having some inter-relationship.TYPES OF TABULATION SIMPLE TABULATION COMPLEX TABULATION & Simple : shows data about one or more groups of independent questions. .

it is said to be complex tabulation. Gender and Literacy. It is said to be double tabulation or two-way tabulation. For Example: Tabulation of data on population of world classified by two characteristics like Religion and Gender.(1) Double Tabulation or Two-way Tabulation: When the data are tabulated according to two characteristics at a time. (2) Three way Tabulation: When the data are tabulated according to three characteristics. For Example: Tabulation of data on population of world classified by three characteristics like Religion. .

gender.(3) Manifold Tabulation: When the data tabulated according to several inter-related characteristics it is said to be manifold table. income etc. For example: religion. . age. literacy.

CROSS TABULATION Cross tabulation is the process of creating a contingency table from the multivariate frequency distribution of statistical variables. including some that are specialized for the task. Unweighted tables can be easily produced by some spreadsheets and other business intelligence tools. . Heavily used in survey research. cross tabulations (or crosstabs for short) can be produced by a range of statistical packages. Survey weights often need to be incorporated. where they are commonly known as pivot tables.

The following table lists the gender and the handedness for a sample population of 12 individuals: Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Female Male Male Female Female Male Male Male Female Female Male Female Gender Handedness Right-handed Left-handed Right-handed Right-handed Right-handed Right-handed Left-handed Right-handed Right-handed Left-handed Right-handed Right-handed . containing frequency counts of number of subjects in each bivariate category is called a contingency table.Definition: A matrix display of the categories of two nominal scaled variables.

then crosstab analysis is the answer. If you have ever used pivot tables in Excel. .Cross-tabulation leads to the following contingency table: Left-handed Males Females Total 2 1 3 Right-handed 4 5 9 6 6 12 Total If you want to better understand how two different survey items inter-relate. then you are already familiar with cross tabulation.

The benefits of cross tabulation are best illustrated with an example. The screen shots below show examples of the kind of information you get with crosstab analysis. You can quickly zoom in on "hot spots" and see the most significant relationships between the two items that you select. .


the red shading reveals several things.In this example from a market research survey. Not surprising.but note that there are only 8 people in this group. It is also interesting to see that a large percentage of respondents under 15 plan to purchase a hydration pack . . so you might want to gather more data before drawing conclusions from what is shown here. For example: Notice how there is a clear relationship between age and video game system purchases. but certainly interesting to see it revealed in the data.

you might have some idea of what you expect to find there. This is informative information that could easily be overlooked. .Remember these final tips as you apply this technique to the survey: 1. we would not have noticed that there is actually not a strong relationship between these two things. 2.Before you even start looking at the data.Formulate Hypothesis .Look for What is NOT There .In the above example. Starting with a hypothesis or two is part of the scientific method and a great place to begin your analysis. This is often more effective than just mindlessly digging around looking for anything to pop up. if we had not started with the hypothesis that people with greater incomes would be planning to make more purchases.

the "student hypothesis" becomes a likely possibility. you might wonder at first why there are so many people between 19 and 23 with small incomes. . In the example above. step back and ask yourself why the results might be as they are. you validate your results and can proceed with greater confidence that the people who completed the survey did so accurately and honestly. When you step back and think about it. 4. Formulate new hypotheses and test them out to see if you are right.Look for the Obvious .By looking for and finding obvious relationships (like age and student status). When you see things you don't expect.Keep an Open Mind .Don't be a slave to your hypotheses.3.

the problem is probably not with the data. In the first screen shot above.5. but rather with your expectations. This is an opportunity to learn something new about your data. If there are few respondents in a particular category.Be wary of small totals.Watch the "n" .Part of keeping an open mind. If things don't look the way they are "supposed" to look. 6. .Trust the Data . you should NOT trust the data. you should look for much stronger trends before trusting the results. or at least. you see that 38% of those under 15 want hydration packs.

To economize space. To save time. To facilitate statistical analysis. To facilitate comparison. . To help refernce.OBJECTIVES OF TABULATION To simplify complex data.

Simplifies the complex data. Helps in references.ADVANTAGES OF TABULATION Clarifies the object. Facilitates the comparison. Depict the trend. Economic space. .

Lack of flexibility. Each and every data cannot be put into table. .DISADVANTAGES OF TABULATION Complicated process.

Units of measurements under each heading should be indicated.concise and adequate title. Every table should have a clear .GENERALLY ACCEPTED PRINCIPLES OF TABULATION. Explanatory footnotes and the source should be indicated just below the table. Column (captions) and row (stubs) headings should be clear and brief. It should be given a distinct number to facilitate easy reference. .

to separate the data under one class should be dark and thick enough. Should be clear.(+) . accurate and simple. All column figures should be properly aligned and decimal points . (.) should be aligned too. Ditto marks to be avoided. Total of rows should be placed in extreme right column and that of column should be placed at the bottom. concise. .The lines . Best to approximate figures before tabulation.

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