3G Technology

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INTRODUCTION
3G is the third generation of wireless technologies. It comes with enhancements over previous wireless technologies, like high-speed transmission, advanced multimedia access and global roaming. 3G is mostly used with mobile phones and handsets as a means to connect the phone to the Internet or other IP networks in order to make voice and video calls, to download and upload data and to surf the net.

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Why 3G?
Higher bandwidth enables a range of new applications! For the consumer: Video streaming, TV broadcast Video calls, video clips ² news, music, sports Enhanced gaming, chat, location services« For business: Sales force automation Video conferencing Real-time financial information
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3G Technical Specifications
transfer rate for 3G networks is between 128 and 144 kbps and for fixed wireless LANs, the speed goes beyond 2 Mbps. 3G is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000(IMT 2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union . The aim of IMT-2000 is to harmonize worldwide 3G systems to provide Global Roaming. 
The

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Evolution of Mobile Systems to 3G-drivers are capacity, data speeds, lower cost of delivery for revenue growth
Expected market share

TDMA GSM PDC GPRS

EDGE
3GPP Core Network

EDGE Evolution

90%
HSDPA

WCDMA

cdmaOne
.
2G

CDMA2000 1x
First Step into 3G

CDMA2000 1x EV/DV CDMA2000 1x EV/DO
3G phase 1 Evolved 3G

10%

Evolution of the Mobile Market 

The first generation (1G) systems were analog systems developed in late 1960·s. Second generation (2G) systems were digital cellular systems were first developed at the end of the 1980s. Third generation (3G) systems promise faster communications services, including voice, fax and Internet, anytime and anywhere with seamless global roaming. It is packet based. The first 3G network was deployed in Japan in 2001.   

Access Technologies 

FDMA : In this technique spectrum is divided up into frequencies and then assigned to users. TDMA : It allows each user to access the entire radio frequency channel for the short period of a call. Other users share this same frequency channel at different time slots. CDMA : It increases spectrum capacity by allowing all users to occupy all channels at the same time. Transmissions are spread over the whole radio band, and each voice or data call are assigned a unique code to differentiate from the other calls carried over the same spectrum.  

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2G to 3G
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 3G networks that descended from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows:‡ General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps. ‡ Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps. ‡ UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps. ‡ High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps. ‡ LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps.

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The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) was formed to help North American and Asian operators using CDMA2000 transition to 3G. 3GPP2 technologies evolved as follows:‡ One Times Radio Transmission Technology (1xRTT) offered speeds up to 144 Kbps. ‡ Evolution Data Optimized (EV-DO) increased downlink speeds up to 2.4 Mbps. ‡ EV-DO Rev. A boosted downlink peak speed to 3.1 Mbps and reduced latency. ‡ EV-DO Rev. B can use 2 to 15 channels, with each downlink peaking at 4.9 Mbps. ‡ Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) was slated to reach 288 Mbps on the downlink.

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Requirements For 3G 
The first thing required is a device (e.g. a

mobile phone) that is 3G compatible.  3G phone having two cameras for video calling.  Subscription to a service provider to get 3G network connectivity, often called as data plan or network plan.  Internet.
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Cost of 3G  

3G is not very cheap, but it is worthwhile for users that need connectivity on the move. Some providers offer it within a somewhat costly package. It is expected to cost less with more evolution.

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3G in INDIA 
With the increasing demand, 3G is growing at a very fast rate in India.  11 December 2008, India entered the 3G arena with the launch of 3G enabled Mobile and Data services by Government owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd MTNL in Delhi and later in Mumbai.  The first Private-sector service provider that launched 3G services is Tata DoCoMo, on November 5, 2010.  All the operators provide 3G services on the 2100 MHz band.  In India BSNL has more the 3 million subscribers of 3G with a coverage in 826 cities.

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Advantages
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Several times higher data speed. Enhanced audio and video streaming. Video-conferencing support. Web and WAP browsing at higher speeds. IPTV (TV through the Internet) support. Enhanced quality and clarity. Core banking. Online Games. 3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors.
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Disadvantages
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Expensive . Consumes lot of power from mobile. Devices(3G enabled phones) are also Expensive. Connectivity. Hardware and Software Faults. Base stations need to be closer to each other.

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Future of 3G
‡ With the increasing demand for 3G

services such as video calling and the advancements of technologies, 3G is expected to have a very bright future especially in countries like India provided that this technology will be available to reach the people at a lower cost and with more advancements which can rectify the disadvantages that 3G currently have.
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References 
 

en.wikipedia.org voip.about.com searchtelecom.techtarget.com

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THANK YOU

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