Physical refraction
Cornea - 40 D, fluid of anterior chamber ± 0,5 D, lens ± 20-40 D, vitreous body ± 1 D

Clinical refraction .

.Myopia ("nearsightedness") is a refractive defect of the eye in which collimated light produces image focus in front of the retina when accomodation is relaxed.


Refractive myopia . Cataracts may lead to index myopia. Curvature myopia .to variation in the index of refraction of one or more of the ocular media. or increased. curvature of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the the condition of the refractive elements of the eye. .Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eye's axial length. especially the corne . Index myopia .

lassifi ation by degree or severity: 1. Pseudomyopia is the blurring of distance vision brought about by spasm of the ciliary muscle. 2. 3.00 diopters or less.00 or more Simple myopia is characterized by an eye that is too long for its optical power or optically too powerful for its axial length.00 and í6. Fuchs dystrofy) and associated with a high refractive error and subnormal visual acuity after correction. pathological. nuclear sclerosis. results from exposure to various pharmaceuticals. Myopia . progressive myopia) is characterized by marked fundus changes (posterior staphyloma. Medium myopia .between í3. Induced myopia. Degenerative myopia (malignant. increases in glucose levels. Low myopia . oxygen toxicity or other anomalous conditions. High myopia .of í6. also known as acquired myopia.of í3. This form of myopia gets progressively worse over time.00 dpt.

Cause Myopia 1. environment changes . genetic predisposition 2.

2.Objective-autorefractor. 1.Myopia Diagnosis. . phoropter. Subjectiv ± Visual acuty.

Concave lenses .

Contact lens correction Complications .

Laser correction .


Myopia Complications .

Complains: blurred vision. . accomodative dysfunction.Hyperopia ("farsightedness" or "long-sightedness³) . binocular dysfunction.images focus at a point behind the retina: 1) cornea is too flat. asthenopia. amblyopia and strabismus. 2) eye is too small.convex lenses .

Presbyopia Presbyopia is a condition where the eye exhibits a progressively diminished ability to focus on near objects with age. .

Astigmatism .

Astigmatism .

Astigmatism ‡ Regular ± principal meridians are perpendicular. ‡ Irregular ± principal meridians are not perpendicular. ‡ Oblique ± the steepest curve lies in between 120 and 150 degrees and 30 and 60 degrees. .

Mixed ± focal lines are on both sides of the retina. Compound ± both focal lines are located behind the retina (hyperopic) or in front of the retina (myopic astigmatism).Astigmatism Simple ± first focal line coincides with the retina while the second is located behind the retina (hyperopic) or in front of the retina (myopic astigmatism). Em M-4D Hm+2D Em Hm+4D M-3D Hm+1D Hm+1D M-5D M-1D M-1D Hm+3D .

Astigmatism Em M-1D With-the-rule ± the vertical meridian is steepest Against-the-rule ± the horizontal meridian is steepest. Hm+2D Hm+5D Em M-4D Hm+2D Hm+1D Em Em Hm+1D Hm+4D Hm+4D M-3D M-1D M-4D M-5D M-1D M-1D Hm+1D .

oculus sinister (LE . .distance vision. OS .right eye).left eye).both eyes). OD .oculus dexter (RE . OU .oculi uterque (BE . Pupillary Distance (PD) is the distance between pupils.DV . A cylindrical correction corrects astigmatic refractive error in a meridian specified by the prescribed axis. The axis indicates the angle in degrees of one of two major meridians the prescribed cylindrical power is in.near vision.corrects refractive error with a single convergent or divergent refractive power in all meridians. A spherical correction . NV . usually given in millimeters.

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