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Cerebrovascular accident: The sudden death of some brain cells due to lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery to the brain. A CVA is also referred to as a stroke. Symptoms of a stroke depend on the area of the brain affected. The most common symptom is weakness or paralysis of one side of the body with partial or complete loss of voluntary movement or sensation in a leg or arm. There can be speech problems and weak face muscles, causing drooling. Numbness or tingling is very common. A stroke involving the base of the brain can affect balance, vision, swallowing, breathing and even unconsciousness
Anyone suspected of having a stroke should be taken immediately to a medical facility for diagnosis and treatment. plugging it up and stopping the flow of blood. this is referred to as an embolic stroke. such clots usually stay attached to the inner lining of the heart but they may break off. travel through the blood stream. it can travel through the circulation and lodge in an artery of the brain. When a blood clot or a piece of an atherosclerotic plaque (a cholesterol and calcium deposit on the wall of the artery) breaks loose. also causes stroke. as from an aneurysm (a widening and weakening) of a blood vessel in the brain. The causes of stroke: An artery to the brain may be blocked by a clot (thrombosis) which typically occurs in a blood vessel that has previously been narrowed due to atherosclerosis ("hardening of the artery"). form a plug (embolus) in a brain artery and cause a stroke. A cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain). as in atrial fibrillation. A blood clot can form in a chamber of the heart when the heart beats irregularly. .A stroke is a medical emergency.
The diagnosis of stroke involves a medical history and a physical examination. A soundwave of the heart (echocardiogram) may be done to look for a source of blood clots in the heart. Certain blood proteins are tested that can increase the chance of stroke by thickening the blood. Tests are done to search for treatable causes of a stroke and help prevent further brain damage. Narrowing of the carotid artery (the main artery that supplies blood to each side of the brain) in the neck can be seen with a soundwave test called a carotid ultrasound. this is treated differently than a stroke caused by lack of blood supply. A CAT scan (a special X-ray study) of the brain is often done to show bleeding into the brain. . A CAT scan also can rule out some other conditions that may mimic a stroke. Blood tests are done to look for signs of inflammation which can suggest inflamed arteries.
Stroke look-alikes: Just because a person has slurred speech or weakness on one side of the body does not necessarily mean that person has had a stroke. as can an overdose of certain medications. or glucose can cause neurologic abnormalities similar to a stroke. a subdural hematoma (a collection of blood between the brain and the skull) or a brain abscess (a pool of pus in the brain caused by bacteria or a fungus). Dehydration or an imbalance of sodium. Virus infection of the brain (viral encephalitis) can cause symptoms similar to those of a stroke. calcium. . There are many other nervous system disorders that can mimic a stroke including a brain tumor.
. Drugs that can dissolve blood clots may be useful in stroke treatment. Oxygen is given as needed. New medications that can help oxygen-starved brain cells survive while circulation is reestablished are being developed. Treatment of blood pressure that is too high or too low may be necessary.Treatment of a stroke: Early use of anticoagulants to minimize blood clotting has value in some patients.) The blood sugar glucose in diabetics is often quite high after a stroke. (Lowering elevated blood pressure into the normal range is no longer recommended during the first few days following a stroke since this may further reduce blood flow through narrowed arteries and make the stroke worse. controlling the glucose level may minimize the size of a stroke.
physical therapy for improving strength and walking. occupational therapy for regaining dexterity of the arms and hands. .Rehabilitation: When a patient is no longer acutely ill after a stroke. The rehabilitation process can involve speech therapy to relearn talking and swallowing. This can be done in an inpatient rehabilitation hospital or in a special area of a general hospital and in a nursing facility. etc. the aim turns to maximizing the patient's functional abilities. The goal is for the patient to resume as many of their pre-stroke activities as possible.
Objectives General Objective: To be able to acquire knowledge on how to deal or manage a patient with Cerebrovascular Accident. . To formulate a plan of care for patients with CVA. To formulate appropriate nursing interventions that can be applied for a patient with CVA. Specific Objective: To thoroughly assess the clinical manifestations of patient with CVA based on the patient s history. To formulate comprehensive nursing diagnosis for a client with CVA. To evaluate the plan of care for a patient with CVA.
NURSING HEALTH HISTORY .
L Address: San Bartolome. F. QC Age: 65 yrs old Sex: M Race: Filipino Marital Status: Married Occupation: Markerting Manager Religious Orientation: Roman Catholic Health Care Financing: Phil health .BIOGRAPHIC DATA Name: Mr. Novaliches.H.
As stated .CHIEF COMPLAINT Nahihilo ako .
2011 at 3:30 P. The patient was diagnosed with C. the patient experienced dizziness and the patient was rushed to the hospital because his son saw him that he fell down in the ground. with vital sign of Temp: 36. BP: 200/110 mmHg.8°C. He was admitted December 8. PR: 90 bpm.M. RR: 21 cpm.HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS Few hours prior to admission.A. The patient was conscious but not responsive.V. .
She does not smoke or drink alcohol. measles. .PAST HISTORY The client received 2 immunizations only (BCG and DPT) because the family is not aware of its importance. Client has no history of accidents or injuries. and chicken pox and sore eyes . The childhood diseases that he acquired are mumps.There were no known food or medication allergy. The client commonly had cough and fever. Had PTB before.
FAMILY HISTORY OF ILLNESS The clients father and mother has a history of hypertension. .
6 APC: 168 Seg: 87 Lym: 06 Bo: 04 Mono:83 BUN: 2.7 Hct: 39 WBC: 54.2 NA: 112 .64 CREA: 527 K: 4.Laboratory Result CBC Hgb: 12.
Diagnostic Procedure .
Name of Diagnostic Procedure .is a medical imaging method employing tomography.CT Scan Definition: . . Digital geometry processing is used to generate a threedimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two dimensional x-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.
etc..Indication: CT Scanning of the head is typically used to detect: Bleeding. . brain injury and skin fractures Brain Tumors A blood clot or Bleeding Enlarged brain cavities .
and blood diseases. and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood. . clinical laboratory. internal medicine. pathology. the blood forming organs.Hematology Description: The branch of biology (physiology).Name of Diagnostic Procedure .
this is used to evaluate anemia. hemolytic disease of the newborn.Indication: . leukemia. peripheral blood cellular characters. reaction to inflammation and infections. polycythemia. to manage chemotheraphy decisions . state of hydration and dehydration.
MRI makes use of the property of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body.Magnetic Resonance Imaging Description: is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures.Name of Diagnostic Procedure . .
. and cancers compared with other medical imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) or Xrays. Unlike CT scans or traditional Xrays. the heart. which makes it especially useful in imaging the brain. MRI does not use ionizing radiation.Indication: MRI provides good contrast between the different soft tissues of the body. muscles.
Anatomy and Physiology .
The cerebellum is at the back of the brain. and circulating blood . The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles Cerebellum. digesting food. But it's a very important part of the brain.The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. and coordination (how your muscles work together). like breathing air.Cerebrum. It controls balance. below the cerebrum. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive. which runs down your neck and back. It's a lot smaller than the cerebrum at only 1/8 of its size. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord. and it's easy to see why. movement.The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. Brain Stem. The cerebrum makes up 85% of the brain's weight.
. Some structures within the pons are linked to the cerebellum. which includes the tectum and tegmentum. It has parts that are important for the level of consciousness and for sleep. hearing.the rostral part of the brain stem.Midbrain/ Mesencephalon. It is involved in functions such as vision. for example. The cardiac center is the part of the medulla oblongata responsible for controlling the heart rate. eyemovement. information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons. which is a huge bundle of axons traveling from the cerebral cortex through the brain stem and these fibers (along with other structures) are important for voluntary motor function. and body movement. The anterior part has the cerebral peduncle. Pons. .. Medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis.part of the metencephalon in the hindbrain. It deals with autonomic functions. thus are involved in movement and posture. such as breathing and blood pressure.
Hypothalamus.The hypothalamus is like your brain's inner thermostat (that little box on the wall that controls the heat in your house). .6° Fahrenheit or 37° Celsius). The hypothalamus knows what temperature your body should be (about 98.
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