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PLASMA TREATMENT- Solving Many Practical Problems
RAJEEV SHARAN DFT (AP-06)
Mr. VASSANT KOTHARI
Ever-changing Customer Demands
OBJECTIVE OF FINISHING
³ Impart desirable functional and aesthetical functional characteristics to textiles and garments.´
Challenging Operation Has several problems.
PROBLEMS OF FINISHING
High Water Consumption
High Energy Consumption
Increased Cost Production
High Chemical Consumption Environmental Pollution
PROBLEMS OF CONVENTIONAL WET PROCESSING
Large Water Consumption
Excess Chemicals Used
Energy Intensive Expensive Process
neutrons.PLASMA.ranging from blue-white to dark purple. . Depends on the type of gas used. electrons. ± Highly reactive species.INTRODUCTION ³Considered as fourth state of matter. photons and free radicals. ³Collection of nearly an equal number of positive & negative charges which act collectively on the fabric surface´ Complex reaction with fabric surface.´ Ionized Gas ± Mixture of excited ions. Color. molecules.
Initially used in micro-electronics & PCB Industries.1929. Identified by Sir William Crookes.1879.PLASMA. Term coined by Irving Langmuir.1980. .INTRODUCTION Also known as µdischarge¶. Use for various finishing operations.
DIFFERENT PROCESSES OF PLASMA TREATMENT Adsorption Desorption Etching Cleaning Surface activation Cross linking Deposition of a thin coating .
.´ Changes the surface properties not the bulk properties of material.PROCESS PARAMETERS Type of gas Discharge power Treatment time Gas pressure Supply frequency ³By varying parameters we can obtain different finishes.
IONIZATION OF GASES .
.IONIZATION OF GASES Produced by ionizing a gas mixture by applying an electromagnetic field. Constant random motion. ± Temperature and density gradients Consist identical molecules ± ± ± ± small compared to the average space between them. Incompressible. Collide with each other and transfer energy through such collisions.
At ionization potential ± Gas conduct electricity .COLLISION OF MOLECULES About 109 collisions per second ± At atmospheric pressure and room temperature.
Ionization Potential ³Energy required to remove a single electron from a molecule or atom´ Factors deciding ionization potential ± ± ± ± Type of gas Pressure Flow rate The gap between electrodes Breakdown voltage ³Voltage at which electron is removed from a molecule´ .
PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF PLASMA .
± Two electrodes (separated by a gap less than 10 mm and filled with gas) ± Low or high voltage (220V -20 KV) ± Low or high frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz.2.45 GHz) HIGH FREQUENCY VOLTAGE BREAK DOWN OF GAS IONIZED GAS .PRODUCTION SYSTEM Objective ± To generate specific reactive species from relatively inert feed gas Ionization of gases at low or atmospheric pressure in the Plasma Reactors.
45 GHz) Power Requirement: 10-5000 watts ± Depending Factors Size of the reactor Desired treatment . 50-450 KHz) Radio Frequency (RF.TYPES OF POWER SUPPLY Low frequency (LF. 915MHz or 2.12MHz) Microwave (MW. 13.56 or 27.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PLASMA .
TYPES OF PLASMA PLASMA Low Pressure Plasma Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Corona Discharge (CD) Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (APGD) .
TYPES OF PLASMA ± ACCORDING TO TEMPERATURE OF PLASMA COLD PLASMA (room temperature) HOT PLASMA (1000-10000K) .
TYPES OF GASES USED Inert gases Reactive & nonpolymerisable gases Reactive & nonpolymerisable gases Helium Argon Nitrogen Ammonia Tetrafluoroethylene Hexamethyldisiloxane .
LOW PRESSURE PLASMA .
0 mbar.5-1.8 KV) High frequency electromagnetic field (40 KHz.0.4.45 GHz) . created by vacuum pump Power supply High voltage (0.2.1 mbar For microwave range pressure is kept at 0.LOW PRESSURE PLASMA Oldest types of cold plasma Produced in a vacuum vessel having reduced pressure (10-2 to 10-3 mbar) For radio frequency pressure is at 0.
& FLEXIBLE BATCH MODE OPERATIONS CONTROLLABLE LESS CONSUMPTION OF CHEMICALS .LOW PRESSURE PLASMA ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES ACCURATE & RELIABLE MORE ENERGY CONSUMPTION UNIFORM.
CORONA DISCHARGE (CD) .
Do not require vacuum.108 electrons/cm3 Free electron temperature. .CORONA DISCHARGE (CD) Weekly ionized gas Less free electron density. Density drops off rapidly with distance from the point of generation so requires a very small gap between electrodes (less than 1mm). Produced at atmospheric pressure.excess of 100000 K.
Geometry of electrode Sharply pointed needle or Wire opposed by flat plane or Large diameter cylinder Power supply Continuous or pulsed DC or AC voltage (15KV) Frequency: 20-40 KHz Discharge Fountain like spray Narrow Residence time Too short for commercial operations .CORONA DISCHARGE (CD) SYSTEM Highly asymmetric opposing electrodes.
CORONA DISCHARGE (CD). Advantages ± ± ± ± Wider width Higher production speed Low power consumption Can be continuously operated at atmospheric pressure.Application Of Finishing Effective with loose fibers. Cannot penetrate deeply into yarn and fabric. Disadvantages ± Limited application ± Non uniform ± Short lived .
DIELECTRIC BARRIER DISCHARGE (DBD) .
DIELECTRIC BARRIER DISCHARGE (DBD) Higher free electron density than CD ± 1010 electrons/cm3 ± Temperature.2000-5000 K Produces numerous random micro discharge ± Not uniform ± Uneven treatment .
DIELECTRIC BARRIER DISCHARGE (DBD).1-100KHz .1-20 KV ± Frequency.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Electrodes ± Symmetrical ± Covered with dielectric material (such as ceramic or glass) ± Prevents the uneven discharge ± Helps to spread over the large area Power supply ± Voltage.
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW DISCHARGE (APGD) .
10000-20000 K Bright Uniform Homogeneous Stable .ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW DISCHARGE (APGD) Cold plasma Denser ± 1011±1012 electrons/cm3 ± Temperature.
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW DISCHARGE (APGD).range of 200V ± Frequency High Very high Radio frequency (2-60 MHz) .PRODUCTION SYSTEM Electrode ± Symmetrical plane or curved ± Bare metals ± Not covered with dielectric materials Power supply ± Voltage.
FINISHING OPERATION .
BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF PLASMA TECHNOLOGY FOR FINISHING Cool processing Temperature below than 50 C Wider machines Upto 5 m High throughput rate Arround 20 m per minute .
carbon di-oxide Modifies surface chemical groups .EFFECTS OF GAS PLASMA Argon Increased surface roughness Oxygen Improves wettability fluorocarbons Improves water repellency Ammonia.
CELLULOSIC BASE MATERIAL .
oxygen and argon treatment (low pressure) ± ± ± ± Moisture absorbency Dye uptake wicking rate Breaking strength Crease resistance .PLASMA TREATMENT OF CELLULOSIC BASE MATERIAL APGD (low pressure) & corona discharge (atmospheric pressure) ± ± ± ± Wettability Dye.ability Water repellency Surface resistivity Air.
PLASMA TREATMENT OF CELLULOSIC BASE MATERIAL Hexamethyl disiloxane ± Water repellency ± Smooth surface Corona treatment of air and oxygen plasma ± Frictional values ± Dye uptake wicking rate ± Breaking strength Plasma containing phosphorous and halogen compounds ± Flame retardancy .
PLASMA TREATMENT OF CELLULOSIC BASE MATERIAL Air-oxygen-helium atmospheric plasma treatment ± Removal PVA ± Increased PDR by cold water washing Non-polymerisable(oxygen) plasma ± Scouring (improved by 50%) Plasma-induced graft polymerisation ± Special finishes Flame retardancy. and mechanical proerties. moisture absorption. .
WOOL BASE MATERIAL .
PLASMA TREATMENT OF WOOL Air or oxygen-helium plasma treatment (low or atmospheric pressure) ± ± ± ± ± wettability Strength Shrinkage resistance Anti-felting Dye-ability Plasma treatment followed by silicone treatment ± Dimensional stability ± Wrinkle resistance Plasma treatment followed by biopolymer chitosan treatment ± Shrink resistance .
SILK BASE MATERIAL .
PLASMA TREATMENT OF SILK Tetramethyl disiloxane. oxygen plasma ± Dye absorption ± Flame resistance ± Wrinkle recovery Low temperature plasma treatment ± Bio-compatibility Fluorinating plasma treatment ± Water repellancy .
SYNTHETIC MATERIAL .
MAIN AIM Improve ± ± ± ± Hydrophilicity Dye-ability Anti-static properties printability .
oxygen. nitrogen and ammonia plasma (low or atmospheric pressure) ± Wettability ± Antistatic and adhesive properties .PLASMA TREATMENT OF POLYPROPYLENE (HYDROPHOBIC FIBRES) air.
PLASMA TREATMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBRE Hexafluoroethane / hydrogen plasma treatment ± Diffusion barrier on surface ± Reduced hydrolysis tendency .
PLASMA TREATMENT OF POLYESTER Radio frequency air plasma treatment ± Reduced surface resistance ± Increased moisture content .
ADVANTAGES OF PLASMA TREATMENT Versatile Flexible Fast Gentle Energy efficient Economical Environment friendly .
DISADVANTAGES & CHALLENGES OF PLASMA TREATMENT Deep knowledge of physical & chemical characteristics is essential. High investment cost Long payback period Slow developments of suitable industrial plasma systems ± Less public transparency .
CONCLUSION ³Due to emerging trends of nano-technology & ecofriendly products.´ . plasma technology will become popular and occupy a prominent space in the apparel & textile industry.
REFERENCE ³Plasma finishing of textiles helps to solve many practical problems´ By P. Saminathan THE TEXTILE MAGAZINE FEBRUARY 2009 . Muguntharajan and R.
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