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Seismic Waves

wavelength = velocity frequency

f = 35Hz, v = 2700m/s

Any continuing constant cyclic phenomenon may be represented graphically by a sine or cosine wave. Each circle can be described by the amplitude and the wavelength.

77m

The amplitude is the peak value to which each cycle rises or falls in reference to a base line. The wavelength is the distance from peak to peak of one full cycle. Wavelength measured in time is period of oscillation (frequency = no. of cycles per second). Phase is the point in the cycle at which the sequence started These three coordinates are sufficient to describe each frequency component.

Information Theory I

Complex signals are composed of the sum of a number of elementary wave forms, each at some constant amplitude and frequency, starting at some defined phase angle. Two frequencies ± a base frequency and a harmonic twice the base can be added together to produce a signal different in appearance from either of the components. Changing the amplitude of either of the components will immediately affect the appearance of the output. See handouts for sketches

. repeating the output waveform twice over the interval. four and eight periodic cycles over some interval will itself be periodic. The sum of frequencies representing two. the phase of each component may vary.5 sec.) The output from the summation of a number of periodic components will itself be periodic over the interval into which all of the component wavelengths will divide evenly In addition to variation in the amplitude and frequency. 8 Hz.Information Theory II Addition of more frequencies will produce still more complex signals. 4. periodicity is 0. For frequencies of 2.5 sec. ( 2 times in one sec and once is 0.

Fourier Synthesis ± sum of zero phase monofrequencies .

Fourier Synthesis ± Sum of 90o phase shifted monofrequencies .

**Information Theory III
**

Any composite signal may be changed substantially in appearance by a relatively minor change in the phase of the components The change in phase does not change the periodicity of the signal. The peak may shift in time but the relative time difference (periodicity) will not. Any continuous signal can be approximated by simply summing a set of individual frequency components at some specified amplitude and phase relationship. See sketch The complete specification of the range of frequencies contained in a given signal, defined in terms of amplitude and phase of each frequency, forms the Fourier Transform of that signal. It is a description of the signal in the frequency domain. The computation is reversible.

Information Theory IV

A time domain and frequency domain description of the same signal are known as the transform pair. Observations: Frequencies near 30Hz are most dominant. Absence of frequencies below 5Hz (low cut filter). The band of energy between 5 and 10Hz has high amplitude. Loss of high frequencies with increasing reflection time. (What is the impact of high frequencies). 5. Individual component signals visible before the time break but flat on the summed output.

The ability to separate a signal into its component parts is a powerful tool for analysis and operation. The Fourier transform is completely linear. An operation in one domain has an equivalent in the other One and only one value of amplitude and phase defines each frequency Component in the transform of the seismic trace.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Information Theory V

Vector Analysis

Each frequency component may be considered as a vector of length equal to the amplitude and directed to the corresponding phase angle. The sum of two vectors will produce the amplitude and phase of the output frequency component. This applies to any number of components. Advantages of Fourier Transform 1. Quantitative analyses and comparisons of several related signals. 2. Modification of signals by removal or change of specified components of the signal in a controlled manner. 3. Determination of changes produced in a signal as it passes through a given process.

For all frequencies. Pictures. Therefore. the amplitude spectrum is of a spike in unity. while its phase spectrum is zero.Information Theory VI Increasing the frequency components (adding higher frequencies to the Fourier synthesis) gives a compressed signal in the time domain if the zero phase character is unchanged. then the resulting wavelet becomes a spike. If all the frequencies in the inverse Fourier transformation are included. . a spike is characterized as the in-phase synthesis of all frequencies from zero to the Nyquist.

True random noise measured over a sufficiently long time period will also contain equal amounts of all frequencies. What is the difference between the two? . A single spike in the time domain contains all frequencies.Information Theory VII Common Relationships A sinusoidal wave can be designated by a single point having coordinates of amplitude and frequency on the amplitude spectrum.

Typical values vary between 1 ± 4ms A fundamental rule: Two cycles per second must be taken if any given frequency is to be defined properly. The sampling rate must be at least twice the frequency to be sampled. Signal frequencies outside the limit fold back into the frequency sprectrum .Sampling Theory I Once a continuous function is sampled all information between the samples is lost. The sampling interval is the rate in time at which the signal is sampled. Therefore the signal must be sampled often enough to make sure the set of samples truly represent the signal. . Highest frequency which can be defined correctly is Nyquist frequency Frequencies higher than Nyquist frequency corresponding to a given sample rate will appear on the frequency spectrum having frequency equal to diff between signal frequency and the sampling frequency. This sets a mathematical limit of the highest frequency to be sampled.

. If sampling rate is Ìt the Nyquist freq. Frequencies above the Nyquist frequency fold back into the spectrum (aliasing) Formula for aliased frequency. is 1/(2 Ìt) If Ìt = 2ms Nq = 250Hz What of 4ms. If the adequate sampling interval is not used the higher frequencies in the seismic trace will be lost. 8ms The coarser the sampling interval.Sampling Theory II Filters are designed to remove any frequency above the Nyquist frequency . the smoother the signal (resulting from the loss of higher frequencies).

e. The wavelet was synthesised using the zero-phase sinusoids of equal peak amplitude. a signal with a finite duration. A wavelet is a transient signal i. Inverse Fourier Transform . It has a start time and a finish time and its energy is confined within the two time positions. The wavelet is symmetrical around time t = 0 and has a positive peak amplitude at t = 0.Phase Considerations ± Zero Phase Zero phase Summation gives a time domain signal called a wavelet. Such a wavelet is called zero phase.

Phase Considerations ± Time Shift A zero phase wavelet is symmetrical with respect to zero time and peaks at zero time. The wavelet has shifted by ± 0.2secs. Its shape has not changed. . A linear phase shift is a constant time shift applied to the wavelet.

Phase Considerations ± Time Shift .

They wavelets all have the same amplitude spectrum. . then and anti symmetrical wavelet is derived.Phase Considerations ± Phase Shift If 90 degree is applied to each of the sinusoids and the zero crossing aligned at t = 0. The difference in wavelet shape is due to difference in phase spectra.

Phase Considerations ± Phase Shift .

By keeping the amplitude spectrum unchanged.Phase Considerations ± Phase + Time Shift A time shift combined with a phase shift results in a time shifted antisymmetrical wavelet. the wavelet shape can be changed by modifying the phase spectrum. .

Phase Considerations ± Modifications to Phase .

Bandwidth and Vertical Resolution All frequencies are needed. not just high frequencies alone. .

Seismic Processing Domains Shot CMP Stack Migration .

Shot Domain Offset Time shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

Resorting from Shot Domain to CMP Domain Sort: CMP Time Fold = 4 CMP shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

Stack Domain Offset Offset CMP Apply NMO Stack Time Time Time CMP shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

Seismic Processing Velocity Analysis/NMO .

Dots below the reflector show subsurface reflection points (halfway between the source and a receiver ± midpoint). so does the travel time from source to receiver.I A shot record is the collection of seismic traces generated when one source shoots into many receivers. These are shown as black dots above the acquisition surface As the offset increases. This characteristic delay of reflection times with increasing offset is called normal moveout. .NMO Basics .

As the shots roll along. In short.NMO Basics ± What is NMO? A seismic processing step whereby reflection events are flattened in a common midpoint gather in preparation for stacking.removing the effect of offset. reflection events should be flat after NMO . The reason for gathering multifold data is that we get redundant information which can be used to reduce noise and create a more reliable image. there will be many source-receiver pairs with the same CMP location. NMO is aimed at removing the hyperbolic curvature in reflection Events i. Our goal is to eventually process all these traces as a family and add them together (CMP stack) to make one trace that lives at this CMP location. The reflection should come in at the same time for all offsets (since we have removed any travel time delay due to offset).e.

NMO Basics ± What is NMO? .

The right side has been marked-up to identify different kinds of events ± direct arrivals (p-wave.NMO Basics . s-wave. .II Reflections can be seen in real data along with other kinds of events. surface wave). The reflection events have a hyperbolic shape characteristic of normal moveout. head waves and (a few) reflections. The left side is uninterpreted. There are receivers on both sides of the shot shown. air wave.

The velocity that best flattens the reflection hyperbola is the velocity that best corrects fro NMO before stacking the traces in the gather . This is undercorrection. If a higher velocity is used. Usually NMO correction is applied to the input CMP gather using a number of trial Constant velocity values (panels). NMO Correction Using the correct NMO velocity in very important. overcorrection results. then the hyperbola is not completely flattened.NMO Basics . If a lower velocity is used.III The time difference between traveltime at a give offset and at zero offset is called normal move out (NMO) The velocity required to correct for NMO is called NMO velocity.

NMO Basics ± What is NMO? t(x) = traveltime along raypath x = offset v = velocity of medium above t(0) = travel time along vertical path .

NMO Correction Appropriate velocity 2264m/s Overcorrection Too low velocity 2000m/s Undercorrection Too high velocity 2500m/s .

C1 = 1/v2rms and C2. «. v2. provided the small spread approximation is made ..NMO in a horizontally stratified earth The layers have interval velocities (v1. The rms velocity down to the reflector on which depth point D is situated is defined as i 2 vrms (t i = vertical 2 way travel time through the ith layer and 1 N 2 ! § v1 (ti (0) t (0) i !1 t ( 0) ! § (t k !1 k By making the small spread approximation (offset small compared to depth). Co = t2(0).vN) where N is the number of layers. the series in the equation can be truncated as follows t2(x) = t2(0) + x2/v2rms The velocity required for NMO correction for horizontally stratified medium is equal to the rms velocity. C3 Are complicated functions that depend on layer thicknesses and interval velocities.. t2(x) = Co + C1x2 +C2x4 + C3x6 + «««.

NMO in a horizontally stratified earth .

NMO for several layers with arbitrary dips t2(x) = t2(0) + x2/v2NMO + higher order terms Final equation: t2st(x) = t2st(0) + x2/v2st .

This is called NMO Stretching. The waveform with dominant period T is stretched so that its period T¶ after NMO Correction is greater than T. particularly for shallow events at large offsets. Stretching is quantified as f/f = tNMO/t(0) The stretching is normally confined to large offset and shallow times.NMO Stretching As a result of NMO correction a frequency distortion occurs. . Stretching is a frequency distortion in which events are shifted to lower frequencies. Muting is applied to correct for the stretching.

NMO Stretching I .

NMO Stretching II

Velocity Analysis

The sonic log is a direct measurement of velocity while the seismic method is an indirect method. Based on these two types of velocity information, you can derive a large number of velocities: Interval (velocity in an interval b/w twp reflectors) Apparent Average Root mean square (rms) Instantaneous Phase Group NMO Stacking Migration

The velocity that can reliably be derived from seismic is the velocity that yields the best stack.

Velocity Analysis

Interval velocity is the average velocity in a interval between two reflectors. Factors affecting interval velocity: Pore shape Pore pressure Pore fluid saturation Confining pressure Temperature

Velocity increases with confining pressure ± i.e. with depth (the most important) Possibility of velocity inversion due to pore pressure.

6 Confining Pressure (kbar) 0.4 1. then gradually levels off P wave velocity is greater that S wave velocity regardless on confining pressure The saturated rock sample (S) has a higher P-wave velocity that the dry (D) sample ± why? At higher confining pressures the saturated and dry samples have the same P-wave velocity P-wave velocity in the saturated sample does not change as rapidly as the dry sample Fluids do not support S-waves .2 Confining Pressure (kbar) 0.Velocity Analysis 4 5 Velocity (km/s) S Velocity (km/s) Vp Vp D 3 3 S D Vs 2 Rounded pores Vs Pores as microcracks 1 0.6 Velocity increases rapidly with confining pressure at small confining pressures.8 2.

from the equation: t2st(x) = t2st(0) + x2/v2st A practical way of determining the stacking velocity from the CMP gather can be determined.Velocity Analysis t2-x2 method . Connect the two tangential points and measure the slope of this line (Slope2). The slope is 1/v2st and intercept at x = 0 is t(0) Claerbout¶s method Measure slope along a slanted path that is tangential to both the top and bottom reflections (Slope 1). . The interval velocity is the square root of the product of the two slopes values. the equation describes a line on the t2(x) versus x2 plane.

Velocity Analysis II .

Velocity Analysis III Real data example .

two way time domain to the stacking velocity vs. Velocity spectrum Move from the offset vs.Velocity Analysis Constant Velocity Scans Display NMO corrected gathers from different velocities in panels. two way zero offset time domain. The most reliable velocity gives the best stack. Stacking velocities are estimated from data stacked with the range of constant velocities on the basis of stacked event amplitude and continuity. .

Velocity Analysis IV .

Velocity Analysis I .

Velocity Analysis Factors Affecting Velocity Estimates: Spread Length Stacking fold S/N ratio Muting Time Gate Length Velocity Sampling Choice of Coherency Measure Time departures from hyperbolic movement Bandwidth of Data .

computational costs increase. typically 20 to 40ms. If too coarse the spectrum suffers from lack of temporal resolution.Velocity Analysis Spread Length: Adequate resolution in the velocity spectrum can only be obtained with a sufficiently large spread that spans both near and far offsets. Stacking fold: The lower the stacking fold the lower the resolution of velocity analysis S/N ratio: Noise on seismic data has a direct effect on the quality of a velocity spectrum. Muting: Muting reduced fold for shallow data and has an adverse effect on the velocity spectrum Time Gate Length If the gate is chosen too small. Lack of large offset means lack of significant moveout required for velocity discrimination. The accuracy of the velocity spectrum is limited when the S/N ratio is poor. The gate length is chosen between one-half and one times the dominant period of the signal. .

Influence of Maximum Offset .

Influence of Random Noise .

Velocity Analysis

Velocity Sampling Velocity range should correspond to those velocities to those of primary reflections present on the CMP gather. Velocity increment must not be too coarse. Choice of Coherency Measure Compare different gathers. True departures from hyperbolic moveout Special correction is required. Bandwidth of Data Choose a wide corridor to cover velocity variations vertically and laterally in the survey area.

NMO for a dipping layer

For horizontal layers, CDP = CMP. For a dipping layer the two are not the same.

**t2(x) = t2(0) + x2cos2 J /v2rms
**

The NMO velocity now is given by the medium velocity divided by the cosine of the dip angle.

vNMO = v/cos J

Proper stacking of a dipping event requires a velocity that is greater than the velocity of the medium above the reflector.

Why stacking?

To improve S/N ratio Obtain zero offset / normal incidence trace Data reduction Attenuate multiples Obtain velocity information

shot domain

CMP domain

stack domain

migration domain

Multiples .

Attenuation of multiples by stacking .

Seismic Processing Objectives Data identing and editing Noise reduction Correction for elevation. source depth. shallow anomalies Compensation of loss of amplitude Compensation for loss of bandwidth Multiple removal Imaging Wavelet processing .

Nyquist wavenumber is [1/(2* trace interval)] = 20 cycles/km since trace spacing is 25m. Compute total time dip across section ± (23traces/section) x (15ms/traces) = 345 ms/section Convert this to cycles by dividing by the temporal period: (345ms/section)/[(1000ms/s)/(12 cycles/sec)] = (4.Wavenumber Temporal frequency is no. of cycles per unit distance or wavenumber. The fourier dual is spatial frequency which is no.575km/section) = 7. .14cycles/sec)/(0.2 cycles/km. count the number of peaks within a unit distance say 1km.14 cycles/sec) Spatial extent is 575m therefore. wavenumber is: (4. of cycles per sec. Compute wavenumber in section on next page. along the horizontal direction. In a dipping event.

+ve dips are defined as downdip from left to right so all events map to the +ve quandrant. Zero dip is equivalent to zero wavenumber. Bottom row: Their respective amplitude spectra. .Wavenumber . Trace spacing is 25m. Dots represent mapping of events on the gathers.the f/k plane 6 gathers containing 6 Hz monofrequency events with dips ranging from 0 to 15ms/trace.

the f/k plane The f-k plane corresponds to the x-t plane in the time domain. 575m/0.2 cycles/km) 1.67km/s f/k = (12 cycles/s)/(7. Compute inverse of stepout dt/dx I.67 km/s The higher the dips the higher the wavenumbers Spatial aliasing. 24Hz 36Hz 48Hz .e dx/dt.345s = 1.Wavenumber .The higher the frequency the smaller the dip at which aliasing occurs.

.the f/k plane 60Hz 72Hz Same as earlier pictures except using 60 Hz and 72Hz.Wavenumber .

Amplitude spectra shown in bottom row. .e. similar dips but different frequencies).the f/k plane Six gathers.Wavenumber . each formed by summing gathers of the like dips in earlier pictures (i. Trace spacing is 25m.

no frequency is spatially aliased Single event.the f/k plane Single event. frequencies beyond 21Hz are spatially aliased .Wavenumber .

the f/k plane 6 events.Wavenumber . frequencies beyond 21Hz are spatially aliased . no frequencies are spatially aliased 6 events.

the f/k plane A single isolated event sampled at three different trace spacings. Low pass filter to retain required low frequencies Use smaller trace spacings. No spatial aliasing occurs with the 12.Wavenumber . .5m spacing. How do you avoid spatial aliasing? Apply time shifts so that steeper events appear to have lower dips.

the f/k plane .Wavenumber .

Wavenumber .f/k plane .

Wavenumber ± dip filtering .

Wavenumber ± dip filtering .

Wavenumber ± dip filtering .

Wavenumber ± dip filtering .

Wavenumber ± dip filtering .

4. B. . and C. sampled at three different rates. and 8 ms.Wavenumber ± dip filtering A signal with three frequency components A. 2. Frequency aliasing occurs at coarser sampling interevals.

Some initial corrections have bben applied to the data (including statics). temporal frequencies from bottom to top. and the panel on the right shows the part of the data highlighted in (very light) red. from white through blue to yellow and red. You can see the (temporal) band limited nature of this data (from about 10 to 90 Hz). Here then is the FK analysis of the above shot.Wavenumber ± dip filtering This is a high resolution land shot record. and spatial frequencies across the top. some strong dips (probably the first breaks) and even some spatial aliasing (the yellow line ending at the "W" of "Wavenumber . giving a spatial range of (500/25) 20 cycles per kilometre. . The offsets in the above section increment by 25 m. The amplitude scale is in dB.

0026 = 9615 m/s) Here's what the above filter looks like in three dimensions .6 ms per trace (a horizontal velocity of 25/0.Wavenumber ± dip filtering The same FK analysis after a heavy "dip" or "fan" filter.a wedge shaped filter (these filters are sometimes called "pie-slices") with sharp edges. In practice we would normally smooth the edges a little to avoid sharp changes in the frequency domain . .these introduce long anomalies in the time domain. We have removed all events with dips in excess of 2.

We have removed all of the high dips (especially the ground roll). We determine this.Wavenumber ± dip filtering The inverse transform of the filtered FK spectrum. as usual. which allows us to modify the filter response for different parts of the record. by testing . We are generally allowed to make this mix-back time and space variant. One common way of reducing the effects of a heavy FK filter is to "mix-back" some of the original (unfiltered) data with the output. but the data now has a slightly "wormy" appearance (it lacks spatial detail) indicating that we've probably overdone the spatial filtering.

Generalised Processing Sequence Field data Geometry definition editing amplitude corrections Static corrections F-K filtering Sorting to CMP domain Deconvolution DMO Velocity analysis. stacking Migration Filter Display Improving vertical resolution Improving horizontal resolution Improving signal-to-noise ratio Improving horizontal resolution Post-processing Improving signal-to-noise ratio TOPO Pre-processing . dynamic (NMO) corrections.

Seismic Processing Step-by-Step: Identing shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

Shot Domain Processing (signal processing) De-absorption Statics Deconvolution Ground Roll Removal Source & Survey Matching Zero-Phasing shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

Static Correction: Shot ± Receiver Statics Geophone Shot Receiver static Datum Shot static shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

Bevaart.First Break Statics Velocity of weathering layer Elevation of weathering layer Source statics Receiver statics shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain M. NAM .

Successful Statics Stack with simple statics Stack with full range of statics shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

Seismic Processing Deconvolution .

The problem ± That of retrieval The fundamental concept of seismic exploration is to send into the earth a short signal which is then reflected back from a boundary between two units. contaminated by noise.Signal Theory A pure signal having some well defined shape or characteristic is transmitted from a source and is later received. at some distant recording point. The impulse response of a system is the output signal when a spike is the input signal. .

The effect of the system on the input might be described as a stretching in time and a change of shape.The System Model I The simple basic model of the system includes a single spike or impulse input which is modified by the system to a different form at the output. The input is a spike which all values as zero except at one An integration of all frequencies is a spike at zero phase .

The combined effect of the loss of several of the input frequency components and the phase shifting of the remainder produces a wavelet which is quite different from the sharp source spike. The output of the system is a waveform different from the input.The System Model II The signal from the output is not at all like the input but extends over several samples and is not symmetrical. . The result is defined as the unit impulse response. Signals that are not symmetrical are not at zero phase. earth acts as a filter to remove all but a very limited band of frequencies from the broad band input. Some phase shifting must have occurred in the transmission of the signal through the system. The transmission medium.

The amplitude and phase response define the changes that have taken place to the input which would have amplitude at 100% for all frequencies at the zero phase. the earth. . The time domain response to a unit impulse is the wavelet. which acts as a filter to remove all but a very limited band of frequencies from the broad band input.The System Model III The seismic signal travels from the source to the geophone through the transmission medium.

the impulsive source generates an implosion with amplitude -½ Time of onset Reflectivity Sequence 1. A reflectivity sequence (1. ½ Source -½ Response -½. Time of onset Reflectivity Sequence 1.) 2. 0. 0 . ½ Source 1 Response 1. ½. ½ 0 One unit time later.Time Domain Operations Consider: 1. 0 . Impulsive source with explosion at t = 0 with amplitude 1 The response of the reflectivity sequence to the impulse is the impulse response of the system. -¼ 0 . 0. 0.

0. ½ 1. ½. -½) = (1. ½ Source 1 1 -½ -½ Response 1 1 0 -½ -½ ½ 0 ½ 0 1 Superposition i. This process is called linear superposition.Superposition Since a general source function is considered to be sequence of explosive and implosive impulses.Time Domain Operations. -½. the individual impulse responses are added to obtain the combined response. -¼) * Is called convolution . Time of onset Reflectivity Sequence 1. 0. ½ )*(1.e -¼ -¼ (1. 0.

-½) with the reflectivity sequence (1.Time Domain Operations . 0. ½ ) with the reflectivity sequence (1. ½ ) Reflectivity Sequence 1 0 ½ 1 -½ 1 -½ 1 -½ 1 ½ Output Response -½ 1 -½ ½ -¼ Convolution of a source wavelet (1.Convolution Convolution of a source wavelet (1. 0. -½) Reflectivity Output Sequence Response 1 -½ 0 1 ½ 0 1 ½ 0 1 ½ 0 ½ 1 1 -½ ½ -¼ .

3 2 1 x x x Convolution 3 1 2 3 1 1 Output 1 .

2 -1 1 2 0 0 1 -1 0 0 -1 1 2 0 0 Output -2 1 6 1 -2 0 0 0 0 Lag -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 -1 1 2 0 0 -1 1 2 0 0 -1 1 2 0 0 -1 1 -1 2 1 -1 0 2 1 -1 Most identical at time lag ±2 (6) . 0) 2. wavelet 1.Time Domain Operations ± Crosscorrelation Measurement of similarity or time alignment of two traces is sometimes required in processing. Carry out what was done for convolution on wavelet 1 without reversing wavelet 2. -1 . Correlation is used to make such measurements. Consider two wavelets: 1. -1) Identical but wavelet 2 is shifted by two samples wrt. The time lag at which they are most similar can be determined. 0. 1. (2. 0. 2. (0. 1.

0) 2. (2. 2. 1. 0. -1) Output Lag 2 1 -1 0 0 -4 2 1 -1 0 0 -3 2 1 0 0 0 -2 2 -1 0 0 0 -1 1 -1 0 0 -2 0 2 1 -1 0 0 1 1 2 1 -1 0 0 6 2 1 3 2 1 -1 0 0 2 1 -1 0 0 2 4 Most identical at time lag 2 (6). 1.e the output depends on which array is fixed and which is moving.Time Domain Operations ± Crosscorrelation Interchange the two arrays: 0 0 0 -1 1 2 1. 0. (0. crosscorellation is not commutative: I. If wavelet 2 were shifted forward 2 samples the 2 wavelets will be maximally similar. Unlike convolution. 0 2 1 -1 . -1 .

Cross Correlation 1 x 2 x 3 x Output 1 10 11 14 11 8 3 1 1 3 6 3 1 3 2 1 2 3 1 1 6 4 2 9 6 3 3 2 1 3 2 1 0 0 0 .

. The output is also symmetrical.Time Domain Operations ± Autocorrelation Crosscorrelation of a time series with itself is called autocorrelation 2 0 0 -1 1 2 1 -1 0 0 0 -1 1 2 0 Output 0 0 -2 1 6 1 -2 0 0 Lag -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 2 1 -1 0 2 1 -1 2 1 2 0 0 -1 1 2 0 0 -1 1 2 0 0 -1 1 2 0 0 0 -1 0 0 1 -1 0 0 Maximum correlation occurs at zero lag.

The output contains only those frequencies present in the wavelet. Multiply the amplitude spectrum of the seismic trace by that of the filter operator (convolution in the time domain). This is called zero phase frequency filtering. Spike A zero phase band limited wavelet can used to filter a seismic trace. Phases are additive in convolution and subtractive in correlation. . Convolution is multiplication 2.Frequency Domain Operations 1.

Frequency Domain Operations Construct a zero phase wavelet with an amplitude spectrum that meets one of these: Band pass (to eliminate groundroll and high frequency ambient noise) Band reject High pass (low cut) Low pass (hight cut .

Ground Roll (Surface Wave) Removal shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain M. NAM . Bevaart.

e.Filtering Crosscorrelation of a pure sine or cosine wave with a signal will extract that same frequency component from the signal. . square each component of the amplitude spectrum and subtract the phase spectrum from itself which will yield a zero phase output. Information regarding any other components of the signal will be lost from the output. This is used to advantage in band pass filtering In autocorrelation the signal is correlated with itself i.

Time Variant Filtering .

It is the process designed to reverse the effects of the passage of the input signal through the earth.Deconvolution Stacking can remove noise but there is still the problem of the filtering caused by the earth. The impulse response of the earth contains primary reflections (reflectivity series). The process by which the attenuated elements are restored is called deconvolution. Autocorrelate the signal to get a spike . It improves the temporal resolution of the seismic data by compressing the basic seismic wavelet. multiples and noise.

2. Under such circumstances. Based on 1 and 2 we have: R! NV2 N 1 2 1V NV2 N 1 2 1V Generation of Synthetic Seismograms . 1. Assumption 1 fails in structurally complex areas and assumption 2 implies zero offset. The earth is made up of horizontal layers of constant velocity The source generates a compressional plane wave that impinges on layer boundaries at normal incidence. This is used in deriving the forward model with some assumptions.The Convolutional Model Sonic and density logs provide measurements of the acoustic impedances and impedance contrasts at various rock boundaries. no shear waves are generated.

The Reflectivity Series

a - sonic log, b - reflection coefficient series, c ± b in twt domain d ± impulse response, e ± synthetic seismogram

**The Convolutional Model (2)
**

The characteristic wave created by an impulsive source such as dynamite or airgun is called the signature of the source. All signatures can be described as band limited wavelets of finite duration. As the wavelet travels through the earth, two things happen. 1. Overall amplitude decays ± wavefront divergence 2. Frequencies are absorbed At any time the wavelet is not the same as it was at the onset. This time dependent change in waveform is called non-stationarity A compensation for non-stationarity is carried out before deconvolution (spherical spreading function). Assumption 3 The source waveform does not change as it travels in the subsurface; i.e. it is stationary.

Waveform Nonstationarity

As the wavelet travels into the earth, the amplitude level drops (geometric spreading) ans a loss of high frequencies occurs

To identify closely spaced reflecting boundaries from the composite response. The building block of convolution is: x(t) = w(t) * e(t) + n(t) x(t) = recorded seismogram w(t) = basic seismic wavelet e(t) = earth¶s impulse response n(t) = random ambient noise * = convolution . This is a linear process called superposition. the response to the basic wavelet is a superposition of the individual impulse responses. It is achieved computationally by convolving the basic wavelet with the reflectivity series. The reverse process is called deconvolution. the source waveform must be removed to obtain the sparse spike series. Deconvolution tries to recover the reflectivity series.The Convolutional Model (3) For reflection coefficients that are closely spaced (sparse spike series).

The Principle of Superposition .

The Convolutional Model Noise ± a pure random series with infinite length has a flat amplitude spectrum and an autocorrelogram that is zero at all lags except the zero lag. .

. All that is known in the equation is x(t) the recorded seismogram. But in reality neither of these two assumptions is valid. There is no a priori knowledge of the ambient noise n(t). Therefore. To solve for the unknown e(t). The noise component n(t) is zero Assumption 5. The source waveform w(t) is unknown.The Convolutional Model (4) Deconvolution tries to restore the reflectivity series from the seismogram.e(t) in the equation. The earth¶s impulse response e(t) must be estimated elsewhere apart from the borehole location with good sonic logs. The source wavelet is known With this we have only one unknown . we have to make further assumptions Assumption 4. we examine the convolutional model further in the frequency domain to relax assumption 4.

There is similarity in the overall shape of the amplitude spectrum of the wavelet and the seismogram. If not known. Assumption 6 The seismogram has the characteristics of the seismic wavelet in that their autocorrelations and amplitude spectra are the same. A smoothed version will be indistinguishable from the amplitude spectrum of the seismogram.The Convolutional Model (5) Frequency Domain If the source signature is known. then the solution to the convolutional model is deterministic. Convolution in time domain is equivalent to multiplication in the frequency domain. This is the key to implementing the predictive deconvolution. then the solution is statistical. .

Frequency Domain .

for the filter operator a(t) we obtain: a(t) = (t) * w¶(t) w¶(t) = inverse of the seismic wavelet w(t) which is assumed to be known .The Convolutional Model ± Inverse Filtering (6) If a filter operator a(t) were defined such that convolution of a(t) with the known seismogram x(t) yields an estimate of the earth¶s impulse response e(t).a (t) = 1. elsewhere By solving equation «a above. t = 0 0. then Substitution e(t) in e(t) = a(t) * x(t) x(t) = w(t) * e(t): x(t) = w(t) * a(t) * x(t) Eliminating x(t) from both sides of the equation: (t) = w(t) * a(t) where (t) = Kronecher delta function «.

a implies that the inverse filter converts the basic wavelet to a spike at t = 0. Equation «. . Likewise. Therefore.The Convolutional Model ± Inverse Filtering (6) Therefore the filter operator needed to compute the earth¶s impulse response from the recorded seismogram turns out to be the mathematical inverse of the seismic wavelet. inverse filtering is a method of deconvolution provided the source waveform is known (deterministic deconvolution). the inverse converts the seismogram to a series of spikes that defines the earth¶s impulse response.

the z transform is defined by the following polynomial W(z) = 1 ± ( ½ )z . If the basic wavelet is a two point time series given by (1.½ ).w¶(t).The z transform How do we compute the inverse of the seismic wavelet? The z transform is used to mathematically compute the inverse of the seismic wavelet . .

. although they decay rapidly.The z transform The power of variable z is the number of unit time delays associated with each sample in the series. ««].. (¼).. This is the filter operator a(t).e. As more terms are included in the inverse filter. so z is raised to first power. The inverse time series is the coefficient of W¶(z) i.. Hence the z transform of a time series is a polynomial in z. so z is raised to zero power.. The second term has unit delay. W¶(z) = 1/ [1 ± ( ½ )z ] = 1 + (½ )z + (¼)z2 + .. whose coefficients are the values of the time samples. (½ ). Note it has an infinite number of coefficients. The inverse of the wavelet w¶(t) is obtained by polynomial division of the z transform. the output is closer to being a spike. The first term has zero delay. [1. Convolve with more terms in the inverse filter .

(-½)] 1 ¼ ½ 1 ¼ ½ ¼ -½ 1 ½ 1 Output 1 0 -¼ -½ 1 ½ 1 ¼ ½ 1 Output 1 0 0 -1/8 The three point filter is spikier. the output is closer c. (-¼)]. As more terms are included in the the inverse filter. ¼] with the input wavelet [1.loser to being a spike at zero lag.The z transform Consider the two point operator [1.0. (-½)]. [1. (-½)] 1 ½ 1 ½ Convolution of the truncated inverse filter [1. (½)] Convolution of this operator with the wavelet yields [1. (½)] with the input wavelet [1. . The ideal result is a zero delay spike (1. 0. Convolution of the truncated inverse filter [1. Although not ideal the actual result is spikier than the input wavelet.0). (½).

-½)] 1 b a b -½ a b -2 a Actual Output a b . b) with the input wavelet [(1. 1)]? Here the polynomial division gives the divergent series (-2.).The z transform The inverse of the input wavelet [1. Truncate this and convolve with the two point operator.a/2 .. Convolution of the truncated inverse filter [(-2.b/2 Desired Output 1 0 0 The inverse filter coefficients increase in time rather than decay! What happens if 8 is kept as one of the coefficients? . -4. What of the inverse of the input wavelet [(-½).1] -½ -4 -2 -4 1 -2 -4 Output 1 0 -4 Convolution of a filter (a. -4)] with the input wavelet [(-½). The result is far from the desired output. -8 ««. (-½ )] has coefficients that rapidly decay to zero.

The Convolutional Model (7) Least Square Inverse Filtering The least square filter yields less error when converting the input wavelet to a spike. .

½ ) . Wavelet 1 has more energy at the onset.0) than the second wavelet.1]. A minimum phase wavelet is one-sided in that it is zero before t = 0.1. The second wavelet is closer to being a delayed spike (0.Minimum Phase 1 2 Error in converting [1.0). wavelet 2 more energy at the end.½ )] to a spike is less than that of [(. . The error is reduced if the desired output closely resembles the energy distribution in the input series. Minimum Phase A wavelet is minimum phase if its energy is maximally concentrated at its onset A wavelet is maximum phase if its energy is maximally concentrated at its end In all in-between situations the wavelet is mixed phase A wavelet is defined as a transient waveform with a finite duration i.e. it is realizable. A wavelet that is zero for t < 0 is called causal. (. The first wavelet is closer to being a zero delay wavelet (1.0. A minimum phase is causal and realizable.

but with a different phase spectra. As a result.Minimum Phase Three wavelets with the same amplitude spectrurn. middle has its energy concentrated at the centre and the wavelet at the bottom has its energy concentrated at the end. their shapes differ. . The wavelet at the top has more energy concentrated at the onset.

-1) B: (2. 4) Compute the cummulative energy of each wavelet at any one time (add the square of the amplitudes). . 0 1 2 A 16 16 17 B 4 13 17 C 4 13 17 D 1 1 17 A builds up energy rapidly.Minimum Phase Consider the following four 3-point wavelets A: (4. 3. 3. A minimum phase wavelet has the least energy delay. -2) C: (-2. 0. 2) D: (-1. 0. has the least energy delay while D builds up energy slowly and has the largest energy delay.

D (all have same amplitude spectrum) A has the minimum phase change that is why it is referred to as minimum phase. C and B mixed phase.Minimum Phase Amplitude spectrum for wavelets A. .B. Wavelet D has the maximum phase change across the frequencies and is referred to as maximum phase.C.

then it does not have a stable inverse. (.½ ) .]. The zero lag of the autocorrelation is equal to the total energy contained in each wavelet (i.1]. If the filter were maximum phase.e. 17 units). Therefore it has a minimum phase inverse. This is the case for wavelet [1. Performance depends on filter length and whether the input wavelet is minimum phase. (¼ ). The process by which the seismic wavelet is compressed to a zero-lag spike is called spiking deconvolution.. -4. -8. The spiking deconvolution operator is the inverse of the wavelet. the coefficients decrease decrease in time (and vanish at time t = ) therefore filter has finite energy. Assumption 7: The seismic wavelet is minimum phase. then we get a stable inverse which is also minimum phase.Minimum Phase The autocorrelations of the wavelets give the same output.½ )] with an inverse [1. whose inverse is given by the divergent series [-2. The inverse is a stable spiking deconvolution filter. . If the wavelet were minimum phase.e. The term stable means that the filter coefficients make a convergent series i. A mixed phase does not have a stable inverse. «. (½ ). This is the case for the wavelet [(. ««].

The idea is to predict the value of the input at some particular time. It is also identical to least squares inverse filter. . Predictive deconvolution is when the output can be predicted given a particular type of input. The least squares error between the actual and desired outputs is minimum Spiking deconvolution is when the output is a zero lag spike.Weiner filters Filters are designed to make the output approximate a spike as much as possible.

0 .Example Undeconvolved 0 Deconvolved 1.0 2.Deconvolution .

Deconvolution ± here to remove waterbottom reflections P -RP (-)2R2P Without deconvolution shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain With deconvolution .

Field Statics Corrections .

Seismic Processing Migration .

or when the structures are just too complex to see with post-stack migration. It involves the geometric repositioning of return signals to show an event (layer boundary or other structure) where it is being hit by the seismic wave rather than where it is picked up. there will be some error in the image. Overall. The PDM will adjust the picture according to the velocities given. This error is caused by dipping reflectors or diffractions. pre-stack migration will eventually become more economical. Pre-stack migration is essentially when seismic data is adjusted before the stacking sequence occurs. However. The popular form of pre-stack migration is depth migration (PDM). Once the user inputs these into the data with velocity analysis methods. is a valuable tool in better imaging seismic data. pre-stack migration. PDM requires the user to know more about velocites of the layers. Pre-stack migration is often applied only when the layers being observed have complicated velocity profiles. and today. with advances in computers. . depth and time. Most of the pre-stack migration will be run when post-stacking has failed to resolve the layers or structures. but it is limited by the amount of time and money required to conduct a pre-stack migration. Pre-stack is an important tool in modeling salt diapirs because of their complexity and this has immediate benefits if the resolution can pick up any hydrocarbons trapped by the diapir.Pre Stack Migration Migration is a tool used in seismic processing to get an accurate picture of underground layers. Migration was first used in the 1920's. it is has evolved into many variations. Two of the more important migration methods are: pre-stack and post-stack migration.

The reason that migration is needed is due to the fact that variable velocities and dipping horizons cause the data to record surface positions different from their sub-surface positions. Filtering is involved with stacking because of timing errors or wave-shape difference among the data being stacked. mainly because of its reasonable cost compared to pre-stack migration. when the dip is small and where events with different dips do not interfere on the migrated section. As in pre-stack migration. post stack migration is based on the idea that all data elements represent either primary reflections or diffractions. The stacking is accomplished by making a composite record by combining traces from different records. This is done by using an operation involving the rearrangement of seismic information so that reflections and diffractions are plotted at their true locations. A disadvantage of using post stack migration compared to pre-stack migration is that it does not give as clear results as pre-stack. . Post stack usually gives good results though.Post Stack Migration Post stack migration is the process of migration in which the data is migrated after it has been stacked. This process is for many reasons.

Migration Post Stack Migration Pre Stack Migration .

rather.Migration Migration moves dipping reflectors into their true subsurface positions and collapses diffraction. the output of which is a depth section. When the lateral velocity gradients are significant. thereby delineating detailed subsurface features such as fault planes. Note that migration does not displace horizontal events. time migration does not produce the true subsurface picture. . The migration that produces a migrated time section is called time migration. The goal of migration is to make the stacked section appear similar to geologic cross section across the seismic line. thus enabling delineation of faults. In this respect migration can be viewed as a form of spatial deconvolution that increases spatial resolution. Instead depth migration is used. it moves dipping events in the updip direction and collapses diffractions.

CMP stack.Migration a . c ± sketch of of prominent diffraction D and dipping event before (B) migration and after (A) migration. b ± Migration. .

Migration .

Migration Time Migration Depth Migration .B .

Migration Types Stack Time Migration Depth Migration Prestack Partial Migration (PSPM) Depth Migration Before Stack 3-D Time Migration After Stack 3-D Depth Migration After Stack The section the interpreter always wants Diffractions or structural dip Structural dip with large lateral velocity variation Lots of conflicting dips with different stacking velocities or large lateral velocity gradients Strong/large lateral velocity gradients that cannot be treated properly by stacking Needed when the stack contains dipping events that are out of the profile plane (crossdips) Needed when the problem of strong lateral velocity gradients involves 3-D structural complexity When PSPM fails and stack contains crossdips Everyone¶s dream if computer time were available and 3-D subsurface velocity model were well known 3-D Time Migration Before Stack 3-D Depth Migration Before Stack .

Choice of Migration Techniques 4 types of migration post-stack time post-stack depth pre-stack time pre-stack depth Difficulty & Expense shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

and pre-stack data. .Time migration versus depth migration Time migration Cannot handle large lateral velocity contrasts Cannot handle large ray-bending effects No need for a model Depth migration Can handle lateral velocity contrasts and raybending Needs a velocity model Both time and depth migration can work on post.

Time migration vs. Pre-Stack Depth Migration shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

The horizontal displacement increases with the time of event 4. event is misplaced by an error of 44%.6seconds. Note that the dips after migration are greater than before migration. 2. 5. as seen in the geologic section. the more migration takes place e. is shorter than in the time section.g at 4s the horizontal displacement is more that 6km and the vertical displacement is 1. 3. 2.Migration Principles Reflection on the time section C¶D¶ must be migrated to its true position CD. Observations: 1. thus migration shortens reflections. . Displacement is a function of velocity squared (if there is a 20% error in velocity used. Migration moves reflectors in the updip direction. Exercise From the exercise: 1. Vertical displacement also increases with time. The deeper the event. The dip angle of the reflector in the geologic section is greater than in the time section: thus migration steepens reflections. The length of the reflector. 3.

The reflection arrival at location A is indicated by point C¶. The first normal incidence arrival from the dipping reflector is recorded at location A. We want to obtain zero offset section along the profile Ox. Zero offset seismic time section .Migration Principles True subsurface location depth Consider the dipping reflector CD of the geologic (depth) section.

Migration Principles d x ! (v t tan U t ) / 4 d t ! t{1 [1 (v 2 tan 2 U t ) / 4]1/ 2 } tan U t ! tan U t /[1 (v tan U t ) / 4] Where: 2 2 1/ 2 2 tanU t ! (t / (x .

Zero offset time section .Migration Principles Subsurface Model The steeper the dip the more the event moves during migration.

The converse is also true. the line length must be chosen considering the displacements of dipping layers. The structure below on a seismic line may not be recorded on the seismic section.Migration Principles We see that the dipping event migrates out of the recorded section. In areas of structural dip. Recording time must be long enough What of curved reflecting surfaces? (See Diagrams) Synclines broaden and anticlines compress Higher velocities mean more migration and hence smaller anticlines Why does a syncline look like a bowtie. The areal surface coverage must be larger than the subsurface coverage of interest. . The data on a recorded section are not necessarily confined to the subsurface below the seismic line.

Migration Principles ± Curved Surfaces .

Migration Principles ± Curved Surfaces Before Migration After Migration .

Migration Principles ± Curved Surfaces Migration unties bowties and turn them to synclines .

Waves recorded along the beach generated by Huygens¶ secondary source (the gap in the barrier has a hyperbolic traveltime trajectory. causing the circular wavefronts that approach the beachline. .Kirchhoff Migration The gap in the barrier acts as Huygens¶ secondary source.

Superposition of the zero offset response (b) of a discrete number of Huygens¶ secondary source in the depth section (a). The vertical axis in this section is two-way time. .Kirchhoff Migration A point that represents Huygens¶ secondary source in the depth section. maps onto a diffraction hyperbola on the zero offset time section (b).

2500m/s). A point in time section (a) maps onto a semicircle in depth section (b).Kirchhoff Migration Superposition of the zero offset response (b) of a continuum of Huygens¶ secondary source in the depth section (a). . constant velocity. (b) migration. (a) Zero-offset section (trace interval. 25m. Principles of migration based on semicircle superposition.

(b) migration. while the second method is based on the summation of amplitudes along hyperbolic paths (diffraction summation method). (a) Zero-offset section (trace interval. Principles of migration based on diffraction summation.Kirchhoff Migration The first method of migration is based on the superposition of semicircles. The amplitude at B along the flank is mapped onto apex A by the hyperbolic traveltime equation. 2500m/s). constant velocity. 25m. The summation is a straightforward summation of amplitudes along the hyperbolic trajectory whose curvature is governed by the velocity function. .

This search is carried out bu asumming the amplitudes in the (x.z) space. The migration scheme based on the diffraction summation consists of searching the input data in the (x.Kirchhoff Migration The migration scheme based on the semicircle superposition consists of mapping the amplitude at a sample in input (x.z) space. The migrated section is formed as a result of the superposition of the many semicircles. .t) space of the unmigrated time section onto a semicircle in output (x.z) space.z) space.t) space for energy that would have resulted if a diffracting source (Huygens¶ secondary source) were located at a particular point in the output (x.t) space along the diffraction curve that corresponds to Huygens¶ secondary source at each point in the (x. The result of the summation is then mapped onto the corresponding point in the (x.

Consider three factors associated with the amplitude and phase behaviour of the waveform along the diffraction hyperbola. Spherical divergence.Kirchhoff Migration Velocity function: Compute t(x). . Amplitude at location B is placed on the output section at location A corresponding to the output time t(0). Amplitude at A is stronger than B (B is at an oblique angle ± obliquity factor). (wavefront at C is weaker). These 3 factors must be considered. Restoration of resulting waveform from superposition must be restored in both phase and amplitude. B versus C.

Then apply the filter with the above specifications and sum along the hyperbolic path that is defined by the velocity function equation. Place the result on the migrated section a time t(0) corresponding to the apex of the hyperbola. is called the Kirchhoff migration. The rms velocity is used. To perform this. multiply the input data by the obliquity and spherical spreading factors. .Kirchhoff Migration The diffraction summation method of migration which incorporates these three factors.

shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .Synthetic Migration Example CMP Time Migration (seismic): An inversion operation involving rearrangement of seismic information elements so that reflections and diffractions are plotted at their true locations.

Real-Life Example of Step-wise Migration .

Migration Domain CMP Stack Time Migration shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

DMO & Migration Horizontal Reflector CMP = CDP Dipping Reflector CMP{ CDP CMP = common mid point CDP = common depth point .NMO.

1986) shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain . DMO & Migration NMO corrects for the time delay on an offset trace (assuming zero dip). DMO moves the data to the correct zero-offset trace location. Migration further moves it to the subsurface location.NMO. (after Deregowski.

PreSTM Post Stack Time Migration shot domain CMP domain stack domain Pre Stack Time Migration migration domain .Comparison PoSTM vs.

100 & 105% velocities Post stack time migration 95% velocities 100% velocities 105% velocities shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .Migration with 95.

Constant Salt Velocitiy Model Hard Floater Model 3D ray traces projected on 2D display Inline 7496 Inline 7496 Varying Salt Velocitiy Model Gridded Floater Model Inline 7496 Inline 7496 .Ray Tracing: various salt models (identical overburden) The hard anhydrite layers cause ray-tracing problems and refractions.

PreSDM Model UNSEA NSEA Velocity [m/s] CHALK Depth [m] VLIE ALTENA TRIAS SALT .

3D view of an interface from a PreSDM model. .

Successful Reprocessing Existing product Reprocessing .

Effect of Fold of Coverage 24 fold shot domain CMP domain stack domain 48 fold migration domain 96 fold .

Fold of Coverage shot domain CMP domain stack domain migration domain .

6 streamers @ 180 = 1080 channels.700 MB per square km Marine survey.Seismic Data Volumes As acquired: 300 .100 data reduction: ~ 8 MB per square km Typical survey sizes: 200 . 3000 samples per channel @ 24 bit = 9 KB / channel / shot 10 MB per shot.1000 square km Annual acquisition volume 15000 sq km (~7500 Gb) . 66 shots per sq. km After processing a factor 50 .

- General Seismic Processing Workflow
- Part One
- Seismic Processing
- Part Two
- Part Three
- Seismic Processing Report..
- 48417087 Seismic Inversion
- seismic interpretation
- AVO Analysis
- Calibration of Seismic and Well Data
- Seismic Interpretation
- Seismic Data Processing
- Seismic Processing II
- Part Four
- Using 3d Seismic Attributes in Reservoir Characterization1041[1]
- Seismic Interpretation
- Understanding Avo
- Seismic Data Processing
- 2d and 3d Seismic Interpret a Ion
- Seismic Processing Steps
- Seismic Processing
- Seismic data Processing
- 2D and 3D Land Seismic Data Acquisition
- Seismic
- Using Seismic Attributes
- Seismic Data Acquisition
- Advanced Seismic Processing
- Seismic Processing
- Geophysical Methods

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