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Submitted By- Harjot Singh B.Arch. Sem. VI Roll No. 07614
* Retaining wall is a structure used to maintain difference in the elevation of the two ground surfaces. * Retaining wall may be effectively utilized to tackle the problem of landslide in hill area by stabilizing the slopes. * The retaining walls are used extensively to develop sites for building complexes.
Breast walls are normally stone masonry walls provided to protect the slopes from the action of weather.
CLASSIFICATI ON on the basis of type of construction and mechanics of behavior 1 Gravity walls 2 Tie back walls 3 Driven cantilever walls 4 Reinforced earth walls 5 RCC walls .
to improve stability. concrete or other heavy material) to resist pressures from behind and will often have a slight 'batter' setback.GRAVITY WALLS ´ Depend on the weight of their mass (stone. .
rod. ´ One end of the tieback secured to the wall. other end anchored to a stable structure. ´ .TIE BACK WALLS A horizontal wire. anchored into earth with sufficient resistance. or an anchor used to reinforce retaining walls.
DRIVEN CANTILEVER WALLS ´ relatively thin stem of steel-reinforced. cast-inplace concrete or mortared masonry .
REINFORCED EARTH WALLS ´ Consist of alternating layers of reinforcing strips with a precast concrete facing. .
RCC WALLS .
timber logged Cantilever L-type Buttressed wall Frame retaining wall 9 RCC walls .with respect to their design and probable behavior of construction medium 1 Bin walls i) Rectangular ii) Circular iii) Cross tied i) Concrete crib ii) Timber crib 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Crib walls Gabions walls and wire crated/sausage walls Cement masonry walls Dry stone masonry walls Drum walls Reinforced backfill walls Anchored walls i) ii) i) ii) iii) i) ii) iii) iv) Reinforced earth Fabric Horizontal sheet pile Vertical sheet pile H-pile.
BIN WALLS .
CRIB WALLS .
GABION WALLS .
CEMENT MASONRY WALLS .
DRY STONE MASONRY WALLS .
GUIDELINES FOR SELECTION OF TYPE OF WALLS ´ ´ For hilly roads. High walls may. It is economical to repair failed walls after earthquake. Earthquake considerations lead to excessive wall dimensions. being of low volume. walls may not be designed for earthquake forces. Walls with dip at the base towards hillside will reduce the base width in seismic areas. . therefore. be avoided by alternative geometric designs of roads and terraces.
´ Proper drainage behind the walls shall be provided.Front battered retaining walls are many times more expensive than back battered walls in steep hilly areas. ´ .
etc. . slope shall be stabilized by afforestation. In such cases. surface/subsurface drainage system.´ The construction of series of retaining walls one above another on an unstable or marginally stable slope shall be avoided as it adds more pressure on the lower walls destabilizing the slope.
.´ Undertaking wall construction after hill cutting poses the problem of disposal of excavated material and loss of top soil that could otherwise be used for vegetation. the excavated material shall be disposed off at suitable identified sites. Hence during construction of retaining walls.
breast walls and timber crib are economical but least durable. Banded dry stone masonry (height < 6 m) and cement masonry walls are most durable but being non ductile structures. These are most susceptible to earthquake damages. Batter (negative) of the backfill side reduce base width of the wall significantly. . non-ductile structures. are susceptible to earthquake damage.´ ´ ´ Breast walls are more economical for cut slopes. Dry stone retaining walls.
dry stone masonry walls may be provided for hill slope angle less than 30° and. These are not suitable for terrace development because of short life. height less than 4 m in low volume roads. These are not suitable for terrace development because of short life. dry stone masonry walls may be provided for hill slope angle less than 30° and. Timber crib. Timber crib. height less than 4 m in low volume roads. .´ ´ ´ Gabion/wire crated walls shall be used in case of poor foundation or seepage conditions. These can take considerable differential settlement and some slope movement.
T.I. HAMIRPUR .Retaining solutions in N.
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