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TYPES OF SENTENCES

} A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period. } An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point. } An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. } An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses a strong feeling and ends with an exclamation mark.

Sentences
1. A sentence is a word or word group that contains a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought 2. The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. 3. The simple subject is the main word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about. 4. The complete subject consists of all of the words that tell whom or what the sentence is about. 5. The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.

Sentences Continued
6. The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject. 7. The complete predicate consists of a verb and all the words that describe the verb and describe its meaning. 8. A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb. 9. A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject.

Individual Work Assignment #1 BE SURE TO WRITE THE PAGE NUMBER ON YOUR PAPER!
} GET A GRAMMAR BOOK! } If you pulled a C: Do Page 577-578 Exercise 2 Numbers 1-10. You must write the sentences for your answers.

} If you pulled an P Do page 713 Exercise 36 Numbers 1-20 Write only the answers.

} If you pulled an S: Do page 657 Exercise 2 Numbers 1-20 Write the complete word.

Narrative Notes
1. Narrative writing tells a story. 2. Narrative writing includes: Accurate ordering of events Conflict that generates action A climax or turning point in the action 3. Use narrative writing in Stories Skits and Plays Personal experience essays Plot summaries

What is Narrative Writing?


}A narrative is a story containing specific elements that work together to create interest for not only the author but also the reader. }This type of writing makes the reader feel as if he or she were part of the story, as if it was being told directly to him or her.

Elements of Narrative Writing

PLOT
}The who, what, where, when, why, and how outline that gives the narrative direction. }What is the story about? }Events unfold as they happen. }The frame of the narrative.

Plot Structure of Narrative Writing


}Beginning: }Enticing opening to capture readers interest. }Setting revealed. }Main characters introduced. }Conflict presented.

Plot Structure of Narrative Writing


} Middle } Characters attempt to resolve conflicts or problems. } Action progresses sequentially, step by step. } Climax } The turning point of the narrative. } Reveals the process involved for solving the conflicts.

Plot Structure of Narrative Writing


}End }Tells how the resolution of the conflicts have affected the characters. }No new characters or plot ideas introduced. }Theme or message understood by reader.

Elements of Narrative Writing

CHARACTERS
The people, animals, or inanimate objects who are affected by the actions of the plot or who are the cause of certain events. Characters, real or imaginative, should be brought to life through the narrative. If a character is not described well, the story will not be believable.

Elements of Narrative Writing

SETTING
} Where and when the narrative takes place. } Allows the readers to visualize the scenes and the characters in those scenes. } Although the setting may be clear for the author, he/she must create a picture for the readers.

Elements of Narrative Writing

STYLE
} The figurative language (similes, metaphors, etc.), sensory imagery, vivid verbs, strong sentences, dialogue, and point of view that makes each author unique. } Every student has his/her own style and technique. Although we have the same topic, everyone will write differently.

Nouns
1. A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or idea. 2. A compound noun is a single noun made up of two or more words used together. 3. A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea and begins with a capital letter. 4. A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas and is generally not capitalized. 5. A concrete noun names a person, place or thing that can be perceived by one or more of the senses. 6. An abstract noun names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic.

Pronouns
1. A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns. 2. A word or group of words that a pronoun stands for (or refers to) is called an antecedent. 3. A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken about (third person). 4. A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. 5. An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun and is unnecessary to the sentence.

Pronouns Continued

6. An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. 7. An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that may or may not be specifically named. 8. A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.

Expository Writing Notes


1. Expository writing gives facts or directions, identifies terms, or clarifies ideas. 2. Expository writing includes: definitions cause and effect relationships comparisons and contrasts illustrations and examples. 3. Use expository writing inL research reports how-to speeches newspaper articles glossaries

Adjectives
1. An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. 2. The most commonly used adjectives are a, an, and the. These adjectives are called articles. 3. A and an are called indefinite articles because they refer to any member of a general group. 4. The is called the definite article because it refers to someone or something in particular. 5. This, that, these, and those can be used as adjectives and pronouns. 6. When they modify a noun or pronoun they are called demonstrative adjectives. 7. When they are used alone, they are called demonstrative pronouns.

Persuasive Writing Notes


1. Persuasive writing expresses an opinion and attempts to convince the reader that this opinion is correct. 2. Persuasive writing includes: a clear and direct opinion statement specific facts examples or statistics to back up the opinion and disprove opposing opinions, 3. Use persuasive writing in: essays editorials book reviews

Verbs
1. A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being. 2. An action verb is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity. 3. A linking verb is a verb that expresses a state of being. A linking verb connects, or links, the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. 4. A helping verb (auxiliary verb) helps the main verb express action or a state of being. 5. A verb phrase contains one main verb and one or more helping verbs.

Verbs Continued
6. A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing, or idea. It has a direct object. 7. An intransitive verb expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver, or object. 8. A verb in active voice expresses an action done by its subject. 9. A verb in passive voice expresses action done to a subject.

Adverbs
1. An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. 2. Many adverbs end in ly. These adverbs are generally formed by adding ly to an adjective. 3. One characteristic of adverbs is that they may appear at various places in a sentence. Adverbs may come before, after, or in between the words they modify. 4. When an adverb modifies a verb phrase, it frequently comes in the middle of the phrase. 5. An adverb that introduces a question, however, appears at the beginning of a sentence.

Prepositions

1. A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word. 2. A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the proposition, and any modifiers of that object. 3. A preposition may have more than one object. 4. Some words may be used either as prepositions or as adverbs. Remember that a preposition always has an object. An adverb never does.

Descriptive Writing Notes


1. Descriptive writing gives a clear and vivid picture of a person, place, thing, or event. 2. Descriptive writing includes: a clear focus on the subject significant details that appeal to the senses specific, lively, and interesting words figurative language when appropriate 3. Use descriptive writing in: poetry character descriptions book reports science observations

Traits of Good Writing Part 1


IDEAS AND CONTENT } Gather and organize your ideas } Explore a topic thoroughly and try to connect the writing to your experiences. } Use interesting and important details, and include examples when possible. } Develop your story so that every part adds to the whole.

Traits of Good Writing Part 1


WORD CHOICE } Listen to how words sound and ask yourself if they make sense to the writing. } Use words that help the reader see what is written. } Write with descriptive words. } Choose Words that sound natural to the piece your are writing. VOICE } Write in a way that shows your individual personality. } Draw from your thoughts and feelings. } Write to the reader, and stay focused on the audience. } Write using a style that brings the topic to life.

Traits of Good Writing Part 2


FLUENCY } Be sure ideas begin with a purpose and flow smoothly from one idea to another. } Use words that match the mood of the writing piece. } Use different word patterns and vary the length and structure, } Read the writing aloud to see if it makes sense. ORGANIZATION } Plan writing so that ideas are in a logical order. } Remind yourself that ideas need to tie together. } Write so that readers know your direction and purpose. } Include an attention getting introduction and a conclusion that makes the reader think.

Traits of Good Writing Part 2


CONVENTIONS Ask yourself: } Did I use correct spelling, capitalization, and punctuation? } Did I check for correct grammar and word usage? } Did I choose a good title and use appropriate paragraphs? } Did I follow the editing process correctly? PRESENTATION } Organize your ideas, and use notes to summarize main points. } Speak clearly and make eye contact with the audience. } Include visuals such as photos, drawings, charts, diagrams, and graphs. } Ask and respond to questions from the audience.

Conjunctions
1. A conjunction is a word that joins words or word groups. 2. Coordinating conjunctions join words or word groups that are used in the same way. 3. Coordinating conjunctions that join independent clauses are almost always preceded by a comma. 4. Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way. 5. A subordinating conjunction introduces an adverb clause.

Interjections

1. An interjection is a word that expresses an emotion. 2. An interjection has no grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence. 3. Usually an interjection is followed by an exclamation point. 4. Sometimes an interjection is set off by a comma.

Complements
1. A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb. 2. A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb. 3. An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects. 4. A subject complement is a word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject. 5. A predicate nominative is a word or word group that identifies the subject. 6. A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.

Phrases
1. A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject. 2. A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. 3. An adjective phrase modifies a noun or pronoun. 4. A prepositional phrase used as an adjective is called an adjective phrase. 5. An adverbial phrase modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. 6. A prepositional phrase used as an adverb is called an adverb phrase.

Verbals and Verb Phrases


1. A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. 2. Present participles end in ing. 3. Past participles end in d or ed. Some past participles are formed irregularly. 4. A participle phrase consists of a participle together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase is used as an adjective. 5. An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to. 6. An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

Clauses
1. A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject that is used as a sentence or as a part of a sentence. 2. An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. 3. A subordinate clause (or dependent clause) does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone by itself as a complete sentence. 4. An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. 5. An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, and adjective, or an adverb.

Sentence Structure

1. A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses. 2. A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses. 3. A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause. 4. A compound-complex sentence contains tow or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

Ways to Invigorate Style Part 1


1. Vary the length of your sentences. } If most of your sentences are short and simple, combine some of them. If most are long and complicated, break some of them up. Be bold. Be surprising. Use short sentences to set off long ones.

2. Make the voice of your verbs emphasize your meaning. } When the subject of a verb acts directly on something named in the sentence, the voice of the verb is active. The active voice stresses the activity of the subject and helps to make a sentence direct, concise, and vigorous.

Ways to Invigorate Style Part 1

} The voice of the verb is passive when the subject undergoes an action. The passive voice lets you keep the focus on something or something important that is acted upon. 3. Use action verbs instead of be.

Ways to Invigorate Style Part 2


4. Combine general and abstract terms with concrete and specific words. } Concrete words name something you can see, touch, taste, smell, or hear. } Abstract words name feelings (jealousy), concepts (democracy), fields of study (biology), or a class of things too broad to be visualized (merchandise). } EXAMPLE: General to Specific Fido is a (creature-animal-dog-hound-basset).

Ways to Invigorate Style Part 2


5. Use figurative language. } Simile: The writer says or implies that one thing is like another. } Metaphor: The writer implies that one thing is another. } Avoid mixed metaphors (a set of two or more metaphors that do not work together.) 6. Use modifiers. Modifiers indicate such things as size, color, shape, or the way an action is performed. By fleshing out the bare bones of a sentence, modifiers help to make it vivid, specific, emphatic, and lively.

Ways to Invigorate Style Part 3


7. Ask questions. Break the forward march of your statements with an occasional question. 8. Be concise. Good writers waste no words. } Dont repeat a word unless you need it for clarity or emphasis.

} Avoid redundancy, two or more words that mean essentially the same thing. } Avoid patterns such as: There are.who, and It is ..that. } Whenever possible turn nouns into verbs.

Ways to Invigorate Style Part 3

} Whenever possible, cut such adjective clauses as who are, which was, and that had been. } Whenever possible replace prepositional phrases with a single word. } Avoid using to be after any form of the verb consider } Whenever possible, avoid using the fact that. } Avoid overuse of the word that.