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# CLASSIFICATION OF NUMBERS

Natural Numbers : N = {1,2,3,4,……………….} Whole Numbers : W = {0,1,2,3,,……………...} Integers : Z = { …… ,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,……..} Rational Numbers : Any number which can be expressed in the form p/q , where p & q are integers and q ≠0. Any Natural Number is a Rational Number. Any Whole Number is a Rational Number. Any Integer is a Rational Number. Any terminating Decimal is a Rational Number. For e.g., 0.25 = 25/100 Any recurring decimal can be converted in to the form “p/q” where p & q are integers and q≠0. Therefore, any recurring decimal is a rational Number. Irrational Numbers: Any non-terminating decimal and non recurring decimal is an irrational number. π and “e” are irrational numbers

1

CLASSIFICATION OF NUMBERS

R

Z

N W

Q

Irrational numbers

2

CLASSIFICATION OF NUMBERS

What is the sum of first 10 Whole Numbers? Ans : 45 Product of 2 integers is 6. How many ordered pairs of integer solutions are possible ? a 1 2 3 6 * * * * * b 6 3 2 1 a*b 6 6 6 6 a -1 -2 -3 -6 * * * * * b -6 -3 -2 -1 a*b 6 6 6 6

**There are 8 ordered solutions are possible
**

3

77777… 10 S = 7.243333… 100S = 24.273273273273 S = 0.2434343… 10S = 2.2323.232323… 100S =23.233333… 10S = 2. 999S =273 S = 273 999 Let us consider 0.273273273… 1000S =273..243434343….3333… 1000S=243. S = 0..243333333…. S = 0..77777… 9S= 7 S= 7 9 Let us consider 0.777777……… S = 0...23333333…. S = 0.23232323….273273.Rational Numbers Let us consider 0.3333… 900S =219 S = 219/900 . S = 0. 99S =23 S = 23/99 Let us consider 0.333333… 100S =23.434343… 1000S=243.3333… 990S =241 S = 241/990 4 / / Let us consider 0..3333… 90S =21 S = 21/90 Let us consider 0.

171717 990 S = (42317-423) S = 42275/ 999 = 41894/ 990 42.317171717 10 S = 423.17171717 1000 S = 2317.317317 317317 S = 42.317317317 999 S = (42317 – 42) S = (42317-42)/999 S 42.3177777777…… S = 42.77777777… 900S = (42317-4231) S 2.3171717171717 S = 2.17171717 1000 S = 42317.77777777… 1000S = 42317.3177777… 100 S = 4231.317317317 1000 S = 42317.Rational Numbers 42.317171717 10 S = 23.171717 990 S = (2317-23) S = 38086/ 900 = 2294/ 990 5 .3171717171717 S = 42.

23 7/ 23/ 273/ 21/ 9 99 999 90 0.273 0.23 0. Kl.273 0. of recurring digits and as many “0’s” as the no.243 42. of nonrecurring digits.Rational Numbers Number 0.7 0.317 42. The number before the decimal does not contribute to the denominator but contributes to numerator.317 42.317 246/ 241/ 900 990 42275/ 999 41894/ 990 38086/ 900 Denominator has as many “9’s” as the no.abcdef =(klabcdef – klabc)/999000 6 .

Rational Numbers

If N =0.d1d2 and d1 & d2 are not necessarily distinct, how many values denominator can take? N=

d1 d2 N

d d 1 2

/

99

0 1

1/ 99

0 3

1/ 33

0 9

1/ 11

1 1

1/ 9

3 3

1/ 3

**Denominators are factors of 99 excluding 1 No. of denominators = 5
**

7

Rational Numbers

If N1 =.d1d2 & N2 =0.d1d2 . If N1 =.d1d2d3 &N2 = 0.d1d2d3

What is the least number with which N1 & N2 should be multiplied such that

What

is

the

least

**number with which N1 &
**

N2 should be multiplied such that these become

**these become integers?
**

N1 = d1d2 / N= 990 (LCM of 99 & 90 )

99 90

integers.

N1 = [d1d2d3 -d1]/990 N2 = (d1d2 d3- d1d2)/900 N= 9900 (LCM of 990 & 900 )

8

N2 = (d1d2 - d1)/

**Divisor Quotient Remainder
**

Any number can be written as N= d *q + r where “d” is the divisor, “q” is the quotient & “r” remainder. 4 = 4* 1 + 0 9 = 4* 2 + 1 16 = 4* 4 + 0 25 = 4* 6 + 1

36 = 4* 9 + 0

49 = 4*12 + 1

9

If the same number divided by 18 which of the following can be the reminders? (1) 15 (2) 12 (3) 10 (4) 17 (5) 16 Q 0 N 15 N/ 18 N = 72 q + 15 . 15 1 2 3 87 15 159 15 231 15 For various values of q. where q can take all values from 0 to infinity. . The issue to examine is whether remainder will change as q changes.Divisor Quotient Remainder A number divided by 72 leaves a remainder of 15. Why? 10 18 is a factor of 72. the remainder is only 15.

Q 0 1 N 25 73 N/ 12 1 1 2 3 121 169 1 1 11 . The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes.Divisor Quotient Remainder A number divided by 48 leaves a remainder of 25. If the same number divided by 12 which of the following can be the reminders? (1) 15 (2) 13 (3) 25 (4) 23 (5) None of the above N = 48 q + 25 . Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of “q”. the remainder is only 1. Why? 12 is a factor of 48. For various values of q. where q can take all values from 0 to infinity.

47 & 64. If the same number divided by 68 which of the following can be the reminders? Divisor Quotient Remainder Q 0 N 13 N /68 13 (1) 30 (2) 64 (3) 13 (4) 47 (5) All of the above N = 17 q + 13 . For various values of q.A number divided by 17 leaves a remainder of 13. 30. where q can take all values from 0 to infinity. remainders are 13. Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of “q”. Why 4 remainders? 68 = 4* 17 1 2 30 47 30 47 3 4 5 6 7 64 81 98 115 132 64 13 30 47 64 12 . The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes.

If the same number divided by 120 which of the following can be the reminders? (1)30 (2) 50 (3) 80 (4) 110 (5) All of the above N = 30 q + 20 . remainders are 30. 80 & 110 Why 4 remainders? 120 = 4* 30 Divisor Quotient Remainder Q 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 20 50 80 110 140 170 200 230 N /120 20 50 80 110 20 50 80 110 13 . The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes. For various values of q. Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of “q”.A number divided by 30 leaves a remainder of 20. where q can take all values from 1 to infinity. 50.

The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes. For various values of q. Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of “q”. If the same number divided by 60 which of the following can be the reminders? (1)18 (2) 3 (3) 48 (4) 33 (5) All of the above N = 45 q + 18 .A number divided by 45 leaves a remainder of 18.60) = 180 = 4*45 Divisor Quotient Remainder Q 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 18 63 108 153 198 243 288 333 N /60 18 3 48 33 18 3 48 33 14 . remainders are 18. where q can take all values from 1 to infinity.3.48 & 33 Why 4 remainders? LCM (45.

0 & 15 Why 3 remainders? LCM (45. remainders are 30. For various values of q. If the same number divided by 45 which of the following can be the reminders? (1)30 (2) 0 (3) 15 (4) 33 (5) More than one of the above N = 60 q + 30 . Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of “q”. where q can take all values from 1 to infinity.A number divided by 60 leaves a remainder of 30. The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes.60) = 180 = 3*60 Divisor Quotient Remainder Q 0 1 2 N 30 90 150 N /45 30 0 15 3 4 5 210 270 330 30 0 15 15 .

Therefore 3 remainders are possible. From the table we find out of 3 remainders only one value is odd. The same number divided by 65 leaves a remainder of 12. The issue is to find out how many of these remainders will be odd. Therefore n = 25 Divisor Quotient Remainder Q 0 1 2 N 12 77 142 N /39 12 38 25 3 4 5 207 272 337 12 38 25 16 . What is the value of n if n is odd? (1)21 (2) 25 (3) 35 (4) 29 (5) Cannot be determined (AIMCAT question) N = 65 q + 12 .A number divided by 39 leaves a remainder of n. where q can take all values from 1 to infinity. LCM (65.39) = 195 = 3*65.

Twice the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder 7. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + 22 2N = 2*d *q + 44 2N/d = (2*d *q)/d + 44/d Remainder when 2dq is divided by d is zero. why? d is a factor of 2d 44 = d*q1+ 7 d *q1 = 37 = 37*1 = Ans : 37 1*37 17 .A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 22.

How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + 32 3N = 3*d *q + 96 3N/d = (3*d *q)/d + 96/d Remainder when 3dq divided by d is zero.A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 32. why? d is a factor of 3d 96 = d*q1+ 6 d *q1 = 90 = 90*1 = 45*2 Ans: 90 or 45 18 . Thrice the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder 6.

why? d is a factor of 6d 192 = d*q1+ 48 :: d *q1 = 144 = 144*1 = 72*2 19 Ans : 144 or 72 . Six the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder 48. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + 32 6N = 6*d *q + 192 6N/d = (6*d *q)/d + 192/d Remainder when 6dq divided by d is zero.A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 32.

K times the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder “r2”.r2 ) d should be factors of the expression (k r1 . How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + r1 kN = k* d *q + k r1 kN/d = (k* d *q)/d + k r1/d k r1 = d *q1+ r2 d *q1 = (k r1 . r2 ) 20 .r2 ) and greater than Max (r1.A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder “r1”.

Square of the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder 4.A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 8. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + 8 d N2 = (d *q + 8)2 64 = d*q1+ 4 *q1 60 60 60 60 60 60 = (d2 q2+16dq+64)/d d * q1 60 * 1 30 * 2 20 * 3 15 * 4 12 * 5 10 * 6 d *q1 = 60 Six divisors satisfy the conditions 21 .

r2 ) 22 .r2 ) d should be factors of the expression ( r1k . How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = Nk = d *q + r1 (d *q + r1)k d *q1 = ( r1k .r2 ) greater than Max (r1. Nk divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder “r2”.A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder “r1”.

How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = D*q1 + 5 N = 3D*q2 +25 = 3D*q2 +25 D*q1 + 5 D*q1 – 3D*q2 = 20 D(q1 . The number divided by thrice the divisor leaves a remainder 25.3q2 ) D = = 20 20 (or) 10 23 .A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 5.

A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 8. Other factors of 20 not possible. 24 .2q2 ) = 20 D=20. The number divided by twice the divisor leaves a remainder 28. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = D*q1 + 8 = 2D*q2 +28 D*q1 + 8 = 2D*q2 +28 D*q1 – 2D*q2 = 20 D(q1 .

A teacher went to a class with a certain number of chocolates.3s*q2 = 20 s(q1 . Find the number of students present on the first day. he was left with 5 chocolates.3q2 ) = 20 s = 20 (or) 10 25 . he was left with 25 chocolates. He distributed the chocolates equally among the students. of Chocolates = s*q1 + 5 No. of Chocolates =3s*q2 +25 s*q1 + 5 = 3s*q2 +25 s*q1 . No. On dividing them equally among the students. Next day he carried the same number of chocolates and found there were three times the number of students present on the first day.

2s*q2 = 40 s(q1 .A teacher went to a class with a certain number of chocolates.2q2 ) = 40 s = 40 Other factors are not possible. he was left with 47 chocolates. Why? 26 . No. he was left with 7 chocolates. Find the number of students present on the first day. of Chocolates = s*q1 + 7 No. Next day he carried the same number of chocolates and found there were twice the number of students present on the first day. of Chocolates =2s*q2 +47 s*q1 + 7 = 2s*q2 +47 s*q1 . On dividing them equally among the students. He distributed the chocolates equally among the students.

r1) S should be factors of (r2 . No.ks*q2 = r2 s(q1 . On dividing them equally among the students. of Chocolates = s*q1 + r1 No.r1) such that s > r1 and ks> r2 27 . Find the number of students present on the first day.kq2 ) = (r2 .A teacher went to a class with a certain number of chocolates. He distributed the chocolates equally among the students. Next day he carried the same number of chocolates and found there were “k” times the number of students present on the first day. he was left with r2 chocolates. of Chocolates =ks*q2 + r2 s*q1 + r1 = ks*q2 + r2 s*q1 . he was left with r1 chocolates.

If product of “n” integers is even. then at least one number is even 28 . then all the numbers must be odd.N1 N2 Odd Even Even Odd Even Odd Odd N1+ N2 = Odd N1+ N2 = Even N1* N2 = Even N1* N2 = Odd Even Odd Even Odd Odd Even Odd If product of “n” integers is odd.

3 (3) 0..3 (3) 0. numbered from 1 to 50. Sum of ten odd numbers is always even. Answer : “0” A die is peculiarly numbered. The die is rolled ten times. next set of opposite faces are numbered 3 & 9 and the third set of opposite faces are numbered as 5 & 7 .4 (4) 0.5 (5) None of these. One set of opposite faces are numbered 1 & 11.e. P1+P2+P3+P4+P5+P6+P7+P8= 67 P1+P2 = 2k+1 :: P3+P4 = 2m+1 P5+P6 = 2n+1 :: P7+P8 = 2p+1 P1+P2+P3+P4+P5+P6+P7+P8 = Even.4 (4) 0. 8 pages) are torn off.Numbers From a book consisting of 50 pages. Answer : “0” 29 .2 (2) 0.5 (5) None of these. What is the probability that the sum of the page numbers on the pages that are torn off is 67? (1) 0. four leaves (i. What is the probability that the sum of the numbers 45? (1) 0.2 (2) 0.

3. 35 = 6*6 -1 but is not prime. Eg. 7. Any prime number (greater than 3) can be expressed in the form 6k + 1 where k is a natural number. 2 is the only even prime number.13. 11. 37=6*6+1 :: 31 = 6*5+1 Any number of the form 6k ±1 need not be a Prime Number.Prime Numbers A prime number is a number which is divisible by “1” and itself. In other words. 5. 30 .1 is neither prime nor composite. Eg : 2. it has exactly 2 factors. There are 25 prime numbers between 1 to 100 and 21 prime numbers between 101 and 200.

If p. how many values can p take? By observation. p+2 and p+4 are primes. Can we be sure that “p” can take no more value? Any prime Number greater than 3 can be written as 6k ±1 P 6k+1 p+2 p+4 6k+3= 6k+5 3(2k+1) Not prime p p+2 p+4 6k-1 6k+1 6k+3=3 (2k+1) Not prime 31 Prime Numbers P cannot take any value other than 3 . it can be seen that p =3.

Prime Numbers If p. p+2 and p+14 are primes. how many values can p take? By observation. Can we be sure that “p” can take no more value? Any prime Number greater than 3 can be written as 6k ±1 p 6k+1 p+2 p+14 K 1 3 5 10 P 6k-1 5 17 29 59 p+2 6k+1 7 19 31 61 p+14 6k+13 19 31 43 73 6k+3= 6k+15= 3(2k+1) 3(2k+5) Not prime Not prime So on… More than 5 Values 32 . it can be seen that p =3.

b. Number of factors is (p+1) (q+1) (r+1) ……… provided a.Factors of a Number N = ap * bq * cr ………. c are distinct prime numbers Why (p+1) (q+1) (r+1)…? 144 = 24*32 No of Factors = 5*3 = 15 20 30 31 32 1 3 9 21 2 6 18 22 4 12 36 23 8 36 72 24 16 48 144 33 .

of Factors =3*3*3 =27 30 20 1 3 9 5 21 2 6 18 10 22 4 12 36 20 50 31 32 30 51 52 31 32 30 31 32 15 225 25 75 45 30 450 50 150 90 60 900 100 300 180 34 .Factors of a Number 900 = 22*32*52 No.

Factors of a Number Prime Factors No. of Factors 3 3 3 9 9 9 21 Any Perfect Square has odd no. of factors. 35 . Any number which has odd no of factors will be a Perfect Square. Many numbers can have same no. of Factors 6 12 32 512 48 72 96 2048 150 2 *3 22 *3 25 29 24 *3 23 *32 25 *3 211 2*3*52 4 6 6 10 10 12 12 12 12 Prime Factors 25 49 169 196 225 256 576 52 72 132 22 *72 32 *52 28 26*32 No. of factors.

Factors of a Number If a number has 32 factors. in how many ways can it be expressed as a product of powers of prime number/s? 32*1 = 32 16*2 =32 N = a31 N = a15 *b If a number has 24 factors. in how many ways can it be expressed as a product of powers of prime number/s? 24*1 = 24 12*2 = 24 N = A23 N = a11 *b 8*4 = 32 8*2*2 = 32 4*4 *2 = 32 4*2*2*2= 32 N = a7 * b3 N = a7 * b * c N = a3 * b3 * c N = a3* b * c * d 8*3 = 24 6*4 = 24 6*2 *2 = 24 2*3*4 = 24 2*2*2*3= 24 N = a7 * b2 N = a5 * b3 N = a5 * b * c N = a* b2 * c3 N = a* b * c * d2 2*2*2*2*2= 32 N = a* b * c * d * e 36 .

= 720 The number can have a maximum of 7 prime factors Maximum number of Prime factors can be obtained by splitting 720 into as many prime numbers (not necessarily distinct) as possible.. 720 = 2*2*2*3*3*2*5 N =a * b * c * d 2 * e 2 * f * g 4 The number can have a maximum of 7 prime factors 37 .. 288 = 2*2*2*2*2*3*3 N = a* b * c * d * e* f 2 * g 2 A number has 720 factors.= 288 Maximum number of Prime factors can be obtained by splitting 288 into as many prime numbers (not necessarily distinct) as possible. What is the maximum number of prime factors the number can have? (p+1) (q+1) (r+1)……….Factors of a Number A number has 288 factors. What is the maximum number of prime factors the number can have? (p+1) (q+1) (r+1)……….

Having exactly 3 factors Single Digit Numbers Two digit Numbers Three Digit Numbers Four Digit Numbers 2 2 7 14 22 3 2 5 2 72 112 132 172 192 232 292 312 372 412 432 472 532 592 612 672 712 732 792 832 892 972 38 . it must be a square of a prime number .Factors of a Number How many 2 digit numbers have exactly three factors? If a number has exactly three factors . The numbers are 25 & 49.

Prime Numbers 2 11 31 41 43 53 3 13 5 7 17 37 47 59 19 23 29 61 71 73 83 67 79 89 97 39 .

Each clock gives alarms in minutes and has distinct alarm cycle time. These clocks give alarms together every 60 minutes.Prime Numbers How many prime numbers less than 100 can be written as sum of 2 prime numbers? 5 3 + 7 5 + 13 11 + 19 17 + 31 29 + 43 41 + 61 59 + 73 71 + 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 A room has certain clocks. What is the maximum number of clocks possible? C1 C2 C3 C4 15 C5 12 C6 10 C7 6 C8 5 C9 C10 C11 C12 4 3 2 1 40 Alarm time 60 30 20 .

P1 = 2 P1 3 How many pairs of two prime numbers less than 100 Satisfy the condition that 4 added to their product makes it a perfect square? P1* P2 + 4 = K2 P1 = K – 2 :: P2 = K +2 P2 .P1 = 4 P1 3 P2 5 P1*P2 P1*P2+1 15 16 P2 7 P1*P2 21 P1*P2+1 25 5 11 17 29 41 59 71 7 13 19 31 43 61 73 35 143 323 899 1763 3599 5183 36 144 324 900 1764 3600 5184 7 13 19 37 43 67 79 11 17 23 41 47 71 83 77 221 437 1527 2021 4757 6557 81 225 441 1541 2025 4761 6561 41 .Factors of a Number How many pairs of two prime numbers less than 100 Satisfy the condition that 1 added to their product makes it a perfect square? P1* P2 + 1 = K2 : P1 = K – 1 :: P2 = K +1 ::: P2 .

4. N2 has eleven factors (p+1) (q+1) (r+1)…… = 11 N2 = a10 N3 = a15 N3 has 16 factors N2 Let N2 = 16 then N = 4 . 9. 3. N is also a factor of N2. Factors less than N are two & factors greater than N are also two.Factors of a Number If N2 has 5 factors less than N. 4. how many factors N3 has ? For the given question . it will have 5 factors more than N and N is also a factor. as has five factors less than N. 6. Factors of 36 are 1. 18 & 36. 2. Factors of 16 are 1. 8 & 16. 2. Therefore N2 has 5 factors Let N2 = 36 then N = 6 . 12. Therefore N2 will have (2k+1) factors 42 . Therefore N2 has 9 factors Note: If N2 has k factors less than N. N is also a factor of N2. it will have k factors more than N . N will also be a factor. Factors less than N are four & factors greater than N are also four. So.

how many factors N3 has ? N2 has 27 factors (p+1) (q+1) (r+1)…… = 27 Case 1 27 = 27* 1 N2 = a26 N3 = a39 :: N3 has 40 factors Case 2 27 = 9* 3 N2 = a8 * b2 N3 = a12*b3 N3 has 52 factors Case 3 27 = 3* 3 * 3 N2 = a2 * b2 * c2 N3 = a3*b3*c3 N3 has 64 factors 43 N2 has 15 factors (p+1) (q+1) (r+1)…… = 15 Case 1 15 = 15* 1 N2 = a14 N3 = a21 N3 has 22 factors Case 2 15 = 5* 3 N2 = a4 * b2 N3 = a6 * b3 N3 has 28 factors .Factors of a Number If N2 has 7 factors less than N. how many factors N3 has ? If N2 has 13 factors less than N.

= ( m+n+p+1)(p+1) – 1. 3 2 x 2 3 x 21 2 = 23 x 34 x 72 Number of odd Proper divisors = number of ways of selecting any number of 3’s and 7’s from 4 identical 3’s and 2 identical 7’s.Factors of a Number Find the number of odd proper divisors of 3 2 x 23 x 21 2. 3m x6n x 21p = 3m x 2n x 3n x 3p x 7p = 2n x 3 m+n+p x 7p Hence number of odd proper divisors = number of ways of selecting any number of 3’s and 7’s from ( m+n+p) identical 3’s and p identical 7’s. 44 . = 5* 3 – 1 = 14 30 20 70 1 31 3 32 9 33 27 34 81 71 72 7 49 21 147 63 441 189 1323 567 3969 Find the number of odd proper divisors of 3m x 6 n x 21 p .

Factors of a Number How many factors of 1021 How many factors of integral multiples of 56 ? Factors of 511 are 50 56 51 57 52 58 53 59 54 55 How many factors of 900 are integral multiples of 15 ? 900 = K*15 K = 60 K = 22 *3*5 K has 12 factors 511 are are integral multiples of 1010 ? 1021 = K* 1010 K = 1011 = 211* 511 K has 144 factors 510 511 Six factors of 511 which are integral multiples of 56 511 = K* 56 K = 55 K has 6 factors 45 .

How many values N can take? Case 1 : N = a3 The factors are 1. How many values N can take? Case 1 : N = a3 The factors are 1. b and ab Given a + b = 42 a = 5 b = 37 N = 37*5 a = 11 b = 31 N = 11*31 a = 13 b = 29 N = 13*29 a = 19 b = 23 N = 19*23 N = 185 or 341 or 377 or 437 N Can take 4 Values 46 .Factors of a Number A number N has 4 factors. Sum of the factors other than 1 & itself is 30. Given a2 + a = 30 :: a = 5 N = 125 Case 2 : N = a * b The factors are 1. Case 2 : N = a * b The factors are 1. Given a2 + a = 42 :: a = 6 N. b and ab Given a + b = 30 a = 7 b = 23 N = 23*7 a = 11 b = 19 N = 11*19 a = 13 b = 17 N = 13*17 N = 125 or 161 or 209 or 221 N Can take 4 Values A number N has 4 factors. a2 & a3.a.a. a2 & a3. Sum of the factors other than 1 & itself is 42.a.a.A.

a0*b0*c2 a0*b0*c4 n =10 a0. a12.a2*b0. a2 .a4*b2.a0*b2. a8.a8 *b0 a4 *b3 a0*b0.a4 * b0.Factors of a Number A number N has 20 factors.a2*b2. a14. a2 * b0.a4*b0. a *b*c4 a0*b0*c0. how many values n can take? N N n =5 N= n=6 N= n=3 a19 a9 *b a0 * b0. a10. If “n” represents the no of factors which are perfect squares. a6. a4. a16. a18 47 .a6 * b0.

will (n+726)/(n-3) perfect square ? (n+726) be a / (n-3) = 1+729/(n-3) (n-3) should be factors of 729.Factors of a Number For how many values of n. (n-3) 729/ (n-3) 1+ 729/(n-3) 1 729 730 3 243 244 9 81 82 27 27 28 81 9 10 243 3 4 729 1 2 ok 48 .

Factors of a Number For how many values of n. will (n+40)/(n-8) be a perfect square ? (n+40) / = 1+48/(n-8) (n-8) (n-8) should be factors of 48. 1 48/ (n-8) 1+ 48/(n-8) 2 4 8 16 3 6 12 24 48 48 49 24 25 12 3 6 7 3 4 Ok 16 17 8 9 Ok 4 5 2 3 1 2 Ok Ok 49 .

.Factors If N= ap * bq * cr………. of Factors of 24 is 8 N = f1* f2 in 4 (=8/2) ways. Number of ways of writing N as a product of 2 factors = ½{(p+1)(q+1)(r+1)….. No. of Factors of 36 is 9 N = f1* f2 in 4 ways where factors are distinct N = f1* f2 in 5 ways where factors are not necessarily distinct 50 .} N 24 24 = = = f1 1 2 * * * f2 24 12 N 36 = = f1 1 * * F2 36 36 36 36 36 = = = = 2 3 4 6 * * * * 18 12 9 6 24 24 = = 3 4 * * 8 6 No.

36 = 0 X2+ 35x . 3 & 12 – 4 eqns. X2–12x+36 = 0 X2+12x+36 = 0 X2. 4 & 9 – 4 eqns. the product of roots is ± 28.Factors In a Quadratic Equations where roots are integers. how many quadratic equations in its simplest form can be set up ? 20 30 31 32 1 3 9 21 2 6 22 4 12 18 36 X2– 37x + 36 = 0 X2+ 37x + 36 = 0 X2– 35x .28 = 0 Twelve (12) Quadratic Equations can be set up In a Quadratic Equations where roots are integers.36 = 0 Similarly for 2 & 18 – 4 eqns. the product of roots is ± 36.28 = 0 X2– 16x + 28 = 0 X2+ 16x + 28 = 0 X2– 12x .28 = 0 X2+ 3x .28 = 0 .28 = 0 X2+ 12x – 28 = 0 X2– 11x + 28 = 0 X2+ 11x + 28 = 0 X2– 3x .36 = 0 Totally 19 Eqns 51 . how many quadratic equations in its simplest form can be set up ? 20 70 1 71 7 21 22 2 14 4 28 X2 –29x X2 + 29x X2 –27x X2 + 27x + 28 = 0 + 28 = 0 .

will a + 12√3 be a perfect square of a surd? (√m+ √n)2 = m + n + 2√m√n a+12√3 = a+2√36√3 = a+2√108 mn 108 108 108 108 108 108 m 108 54 27 18 12 36 n 1 2 4 6 9 3 m+n=a 109 56 31 24 21 39 For how many values of “a”.Factors For how many values of “a”. will a + 14√2 be a perfect square of a surd? (√m+ √n)2 = m + n + 2√m√n a+14√2 = a+2√49√2 = a+2√98 mn m n m+n=a 98 98 98 98 49 14 1 2 7 99 51 21 “a” can take 3 values “a” can take 6 values 52 .

The sum of factors of 12 is (1+2+4+3+6+12).24.Factors If N = a p * b q * c r * ………. The answer is 2 * 28 = 56 – – 53 . Sum of factors = ap+1 –1 bq+1 –1 cr+1 –1 (a -1) (b-1) (c-1) Find the sum of factors 0f 9216.2. The answer is 56. Another way of calculating the sum of even factors is to write 24 = 2 * 12 .12.6. Find the sum of factors of 12 and multiply the same by 2. The factors are 1.4. 9216 = 2 10 * 3 2 Sum of factors – [211 –1]/ ={ [2-1]} [33 –1]/ { [3-1]} = 2047* 13 = 26611 Find the sum of even factors 0f 24 24 = 23 * 3 .3.8.

18000 = 200 * 90.54. The factors are 1. 18000 = 8 * 2250.Factors Find the sum of odd factors of 24 54 = 2 * 33 . 54 . The sum of factors of 27 is (1+3+9+27) = 40.3.6. 18000 = 25 * 720. The answer is 40.9. Another way of calculating the sum of even factors is to write 54 = 2 * 27 . which are multiples of 8 or 25. find the sum of factors of 720 and multiply by 25. find the sum of factors of 90 and multiply by 200.27. Add the first two and subtract the third. Find the sum of factors of 27.18. – Find the sum of factors of 18000. find the sum of factors of 2250 and multiply by 8.2.

“3” satisfies the condition. 48*1 24*2 16*3 12*4 8*6 Sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles = 2(1+2+3+4+6+8+12+16+24+48) = 248 = 2 * sum of factors 55 . Factors are 1 & 2. All distinct rectangles with sides integers are drawn. “2” satisfies the condition. Sum of factors is 3. Sum of factors is 4. There are 25 prime numbers between 1 & 100. Find the sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles.This number does not satisfy this condition. Let us take the number “3”. Area of a rectangle is 48 Sq units. The sum of factors is 7. Prime numbers satisfy this condition. Factors are 1 & 3. Let us take the number “4”.Factors How many natural numbers less than 100 are such that these numbers are one less than the sum of factors? Let us take the number “2”.

Find the sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles. Find the sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles. All distinct rectangles with sides integers are drawn.Factors Area of a rectangle is 36 Sq units. Sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles = 2 * sum of factors + 2√A 56 . 18*2 36*1 6*6 12*3 9*4 Sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles = 2(1+2+3+4+6+6+9+12+18+36) = 194 = 2 * sum of factors + 2√36 Area of a rectangle is “A” Sq units. All distinct rectangles with sides integers are drawn.

How many distinct rectangles can be drawn if sides are integers? 2(l + b) < 100 :: (l + b) < 50 :: 2≤(l + b) ≤ 49 l+b 2 3 4 5 6 l+b l+b l+b 13 13 1 1 2 2 3 14 15 16 17 18 7 7 8 8 9 26 27 28 29 30 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 14 14 15 7 8 9 10 3 4 4 5 19 20 21 22 9 10 10 11 31 32 33 34 15 16 16 17 11 12 13 5 6 6 23 24 25 11 12 12 35 36 37 17 18 18 47 48 49 23 24 24 2≤(l + b) ≤ [2k+1] No.Factors Perimeter of a rectangle is less than 100 units. of rectangles is k(k+1) 57 Totally 600 rectangles can be drawn .

of rectangles is n2 58 .Factors Perimeter of a rectangle is less than or equal to 80 units. How many distinct rectangles can be drawn if sides are integers? 2(l + b) ≤ 80 :: (l + b) ≤ 40 :: 2≤(l + b) ≤ 40 l+b 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 l+b l+b l+b 10 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 11 5 21 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 6 6 7 7 8 22 23 24 25 26 11 11 12 12 13 17 18 19 20 8 9 9 10 27 28 29 30 13 14 14 15 Totally 400 rectangles can be drawn 2≤(l + b) ≤ 2n No.

½ .Co primes Co primes: Two numbers are said to be co primes if their HCF is unity Numbers by themselves need not be prime 2 consecutive numbers are always co primes. How many numbers from 1 to 48 are co prime to 48? 48 = 24*3 Any multiple of 2 will not be co prime to 48 Any multiple of 3 will not be co prime to 48 No of co primes to 48 = 48 – 48/2 – 48/3 + 48/6 = 48( 1.⅓ + 1/6 ) = 48 ( 1 – ½) ( 1 .⅓) = 16 1 47 5 43 7 41 11 37 13 35 17 31 19 29 23 25 59 .

1/5 .1/7 + 1/35) = 35 ( 1 – 1/5) ( 1 .Co primes How many numbers from 1 to 35 are co primes to 35? 35 = 5*7 Any multiple of 5 or 7 will not be co prime to 35 No of co primes to 35 = 35 – 35/5 – 35/7 + 35/35 = 35 ( 1 .1/7 ) = 24 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 11 12 13 16 17 34 33 32 31 29 27 26 24 23 22 19 18 60 .

Co primes If N = a p xb q xc r No of co primes to N = N ( 1 – ⅟a) ( 1.⅟c) No of co primes to N (N>2) will be even Half the no of co primes will be less than N/2 & the other half will be greater than N/2 If x is co prime to N .⅟b) ( 1. then (N-x) will be definitely be co prime to N. Sum of co primes to N = N/2 {No of Co primes} 61 .

Co primes How many numbers less 9216 are co primes to 9216 and find the sum of the co primes ? 9216 = 210 * 32 No of co primes =9216* 1/3 = 3072. of Co primes to 120 = 32 No of co primes to 120 from 61 to 120 = 16 How many natural numbers less than 7225 are co primes to 221? 221 = 13*17. Sum of co primes = 3072 *4608 How many numbers from 61 to 120 are co primes to 120? 120 = 23 * 3 * 5 No. Multiples of 13 = 7224/13 = 555 Multiples of 17 = 7224/17 = 424 Multiples of 221 = 7224/221 = 32 7224 – 555 – 424 + 32 = 6277 62 . Any multiple of 13 will not be co prime to 221 and similarly any multiple of 17 will not be co prime to 221.

there were exactly 24 participants. 11 (112) . and there were four events.Co primes In a college sports meet. The following is the list of the participants who took part in each event: E1 :101.….2. 120.E1.. 19 (120) . 7 (108) .114.. 0f Students = 125 – 101 = 24 Rewrite Students Nos subtracting from 101.103.105. participate in Event 1.24 No. How many students participated only in E1? (1) 8 (2) 10 (3) 7 (4) 5 (5) 6 E1 101 X E2 X X X X X X X X X X X E3 X E4 X 113 E1 X E2 X X X X X E3 X E4 X 125 E1 X E2 X E3 X E4 X 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 X X X X X X X X X X X 114 115 116 117 118 X X X X X 102. E3. E3 :101.104. 106. No . 124. Eight students. 5 (106) . numbered from 101 to 125.3. 17 (118). E2.. 108.102. E4 :101. 118.105.…. of Students who participate in Event E1 only are co primes to 24 1(102) .107. 23 (124) Eight students participate in Event 1 63 119 120 121 122 123 124 X X X X X X X X X X X X .…. E2 :101.1.109.…. 13 (114) .4.103. 0. E4. 112. the new Nos.

109.……………………………… E5 :101.105. there were exactly 24 participants.1. How many students participated only in E1? (1) 8 (2) 10 (3) 7 (4) 5 (5) 6 No .107.Co primes In a college sports meet. and there were four events.108. 0f Students = 941 – 101 = 840 Rewrite Students Nos subtracting from 101.1/5) ( 1.3. 0. E2.111.103.……………………………….104.E1. numbered from 101 to 941. E5.840 No.102.105.107.113. E7 :101. E4. of Students who participate in Event E1 only are co primes to 840 No of Co primes to 840 = 840 (1 – ½) ( 1.103.. E6 :101.………………………………..……………………………… E4 :101. the new Nos.……………………………… E3 :101.2.1/7) = = 192 64 . E3.……………………………… E2 :101.1/3) ( 1. E6 & E7..……………………………….106..4…………. The following is the list of the participants who took part in each event: E1 :101.115.

E7 :101.102.115. E3.……………………………….1/7) = = 192 65 . E5. How many students participated only in E1? (1) 8 (2) 10 (3) 7 (4) 5 (5) 6 No .113..1/3) ( 1.103. E6 & E7. there were exactly 24 participants. 0.107.104.……………………………….4………….Co primes In a college sports meet. the new Nos. and there were four events. 0f Students = 941 – 101 = 840 Rewrite Students Nos subtracting from 101.1.840 No.1/5) ( 1.107. The following is the list of the participants who took part in each event: E1 :101.106. numbered from 101 to 941.……………………………… E4 :101. E4. of Students who participate in Event E1 only are co primes to 840 No of Co primes to 840 = 840 (1 – ½) ( 1.E1. E6 :101.111.……………………………….105..……………………………… E3 :101..103.3.108.. E2.……………………………… E2 :101.109.2.105.……………………………… E5 :101.

B Adding A & B . of co primes= N(1.⅟q)(1. N = p* q*r p2 + q2 + r2 = 579 Sum of Factors is = (p2–1) (q2–1) (r2–1) (p–1) (q –1) (r–1) = (p+1) (q+1) (r+1) = 3024 (pqr+pq+qr+rp+p+q+r+1)= 3024 …...Co primes N is a product of 3 Prime Numbers. Sum of squares of Prime Numbers is 579. of co primes is 1920. Sum of factors is 3024.A N = p* q*r No. Find N.⅟r) =(p-1) (q-1) (r-1) = 1920 (pqr-pq-qr-rp+p+q+r-1)=1920 …. 2(p q + q r + r p + 1 ) = 1104 p q + q r + r p = 551 [p +q + r]2 = p2 + q2 + r2 + 2 [p q + q r + r p ] p +q + r =√(579+1102) = 41 p q r + p + q + r = 2472 p q r = 2431 66 .⅟p)(1. 2[p q r +p +q + r] = 4944 [p q r +p +q + r] = 2472 Subtracting B from A. No.

It can be perfectly cut into identical squares of maximum length 15 units. ::: a+ b = 20 19 1 285 15 A = 19 B=1 18 2 3 4 270 255 240 30 45 60 X X A = 18 B=2 17 16 15 14 13 5 6 7 8 9 225 210 195 180 165 150 75 90 105 X X 4 rectangles can be drawn 12 11 120 X 135 150 X 67 10 10 . How many distinct rectangles can be drawn if sides are integers? a b L B Let L = 15a and B = 15b .Co primes Perimeter of a rectangle is 600 units.