You are on page 1of 37

Class-3 Topics : 1. Practical experiences and concerns : 2.Radiated EMI/Conducted EMI/Transient EMI : 3.

EMI/EMC standards

Practical experiences and concerns:


y 1.Transimission lines(100Kv,>100A) y 2.Mains power supply y 3.Switches and relays y 4.Telephone equipment y 5.Radio astronomy y 6.Biological effects y 7.Aircraft navigation y 8.Military equipment y 9.IC s

1) Transmission lines :
y High voltage electric power Txn lines >100KV,>100A
System voltage 123 245 420 800 1200 E KV/m 1-2 2-3 5-6 10-12 15-17

525 kv LINE 10M ABOVE GRND

Contd..
y 1)Radiation hazards to human beings y 2)unintentional activation y 3) Activation of electro explosive devices. y Mainly effects for ground to submarine ELF comm &Radio &TV transmitters.

2) Mains power supply :


y 1) Open wire electric power txn lines picks EM noises

from lightning & Thunderstroms y 2)Easily pick noise from Switches,CKT breakers,Heavy load switching. y 3) Impair the operation of computer systems & information technology products. y 4)care must be taken .

3)Switches and relays :


y Electrical discharge associated with the make /break

contact operation of an electrical switch/relay y In telephone eqnt,control instrumentation can cause EMI y = ultra low level s/g handle -->>pb y EX: telephone,Radio telescope,High sensitivity control,telecommand ckts.

4)Telephone equipment :
y Telephone ckts in telephone central office picks

noises from telivision stations so threshold level increases >1V/m (120dBUV/m) y So telephone line filters had to be designed.
y Along woth radio s/g + EMI from digital clk pulses,power

supplies (or) noise bursts from the operation of relays, y Switches and other electrical contact gaps y +Radio TV and other high power Tx n.

6) Biological effects :
y 2 types of concerns y 1)steady state current produced by human when subjected by high E/H field for long time. y 2)surging of shock current through the body when person is in high intensity field and when he touches mettaic material which is also in same field. y Human =>natural generated E/M fileds.It uses Electro chemical signals to control the movement of muscles and to transmit information from one part to other. y ECG =>heart 1mv 45 to 150 beats/minute. y EEG=> brain 30-50microvolt alpha rhythm of around 10Hz

7)Aircraft navigation :
y Position information goes in wrong way due to EMI.

y y y y y y

Careful frequency planning & assignment , Grounding, Bonding, Shielding, Filtering, Cable harnessing

y Digital IC s : bit error rate increase,malfunctioning of ckt. y Analog IC s :increase noise elvels,degraded operation of circuits &systems

Radiated EMI :
Source victim

Contd..
y Radiation from wires (current carrieng wires) electric y y y

dipole For small lengths of thin wire type antenna =>far field corresponds to distance of r>lamda/2pi For others => r> 2L2/Lamda where L=Largets dimension of the radiation In near field Zone or reactive near filed zone : field components consiste of a combination of reactive fields and rdaiative fields. ? High speed digital Ckts & densely packed PCB s

Conducted EMI :
y Current produced on metalic paths which are

connected to common power networks Produce EMI to interconnected to systems. y Through power cabels/common ground/power sources

Key points on conducted EMI :


y 1.Increased use of inter connected devices y 2.Increased use of complex electronic sysms. y Increased use of power electr.aplliances.
In addition to these factors : i) Low level of appreciation of EMI/EMC issues and standards among engineers and elec/electronic sym designer ii) Poor availability of EMI testing facilities iii) Lack of well demonstrated / documneted data on conducted EMI.

Transient EMI

Systems

Imp points reg transient EMI :


y Result of natural EM phenomena and from op of a y y y y y

variety of equipment. Transient EMI Sources : Machine operations such as local load switching, Switching off or switching on of heavy ele equipment, Motor control activation ,arc welders, And inductrial cranes etc..

Transient EMI :
y Induced voltage /currents : y Surges on mains power supply

i)Transient over voltages(lightng) y ii)Radiations from radar/radio/communication transmissions with in the vicinity which are picked up by the power transmission lines. y iii)sudden increase r decrease in the mains voltage(switching btn low Z loads) y iv) burst of high frequency noise(swtchng of reactive load)

Mechanism that are responsible for the generation of surge voltages by natural lightning are :

y Near by lightning strike to objects on the ground or within the cloud layer

produces electromagnetic fields that can induce voltages on the conductors of the primary and secondary circuits. y Lightning ground-current flow resulting from nearby cloud to ground discharge couples onto the common ground impedance paths of the grounding network, causing voltage differences across its length and breadth. y The rapid drop of voltage that may occur when a primary gap-type arrester operates to limit the primary voltage is coupled through the capacitance of a transformer. y Direct lightning strike to high voltage primary circuits

ANSI/IEEE standard origins of switching transients :


y 1.Minor switching near the point of interest, such as

y y y

appliance turned off in a household or the turn-off of the other loads in the individual system. 2.Periodic transients (voltage notching) that occur each cycle during the communication in the electronic power converters. 3.Multiple reignitions or restrikes during a switch op : Air contractors or mercury switches. 4.Various system faults, major power system switching disturbances

Main effects :
y Semiconductor spoil y Arcing with in receptor equipment

EMI/EMC standards
y A standard is generally published in the form of a

y y y y

document is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer,the user,and the other who are likely to be affected. Military and civilian standards. ANSI(American national standard institution)(FCC) ZZF( zentralamt fur zulassungen in Fernmeldewesen)in Germany European standards.

EMC STANDARDS These are of two types a) Military Standards These include emission and susceptibility standards. Emission standards specify emission limits in voltage or current, power or field strengths in specified frequency ranges. Susceptibility standards specify conducted spike or radiated field parameters. b) Civilian Standards The civilian EMC standards are applicable for equipments used for commercial, industrial and domestic applications. The emission standards are specified to protect the broadcast services from interference. These also take into account the physiological interference effects experienced by human beings.

Standards for EMI/EMC


y Test and evaluation for electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility involve measurements and compliance relating to : y Conducted emissions (CE) y Radiated emissions (RE) y Susceptibility/immunity to conducted emissions(CS) y Susceptibility/immunity to radiated emissions(CS) y These involve both narrowband and broadband emissions.(NB:Continuous wave mode emissions and interferences,BB:Transients such as ESD or electrical surges etc.

MIL-STD-461/462 (1967-68)
y 461-Performance specifications of electrical ,electronic

and electromechanical equipment and subsystems

y D-version :appendix providing the rationale and

background for each specification given in the document.

Conducted interfernce controls


y Conducted emission controls :Lower fz: to ensure that connection of an

equipment under test to the mains power supply does not corrupt the power quality (or to introduce distortions in the voltage waveforms)on the power mains beyond allowable limits. y Higher fz: is to protect the receivers (which are connected to antenna terminals ) against degradation caused by radiated interference from power cables associated with the EUT. y Susceptibility and immunity specifications is to ensure that equipment performance is not degraded because of distortions present in the voltage waveforms of the mains power supply.

Radiated interfernce controls :


y Intended to control the magnetic field and electric

field emissions from the EUT


Other military standards IEEE/ANSI standards CISPR/IEC standards FCC regulations British standards VDE standards Euro norms.

MILITARY STANDARDS
MIL - STD - 461A TEST CE01 Power Leads DESCRIPTION 30 Hz-20 kHz FREQ

CE02

Control / Signal Leads

30 Hz-20 kHz

CE03

Power Leads

20 kHz-50 MHz

CE04

Control / Signal Leads

20 kHz-50 MHz

CE05

Inverse Filter Method

30 Hz-50 MHz

CE06

Antenna Terminal

10 kHz-10 GHz

CE07

N/A

MIL - STD - 461B/C


TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

CE01

Power / Signal Leads

30 Hz-15 kHz

CE02

N/A

CE03

Power/Signal Leads

15 kHz-50MHz

CE04

N/A

CE05

N/A

CE06

Antenna Terminal

10 kHz-26 GHz

CE07

Power Leads

Spikes / Time Domain

MIL - STD - 461D


TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

CE101

Power Leads

30 Hz-10 kHz

CE102

Power Leads

10 kHz-10 MHz

CE106

Antenna Terminal

10 kHz-40GHz

MIL - STD - 461E


TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

CE101

Power Leads

30 Hz-10 kHz

CE102

Power Leads

10 kHz-10 MHz

CE106

Antenna Terminal

10 kHz-40GHz

MIL - STD - 461A


TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

CS01 CS02 CS03 CS04

Power Leads Power Leads Intermodulation Undesired Sig. Rejection

20 Hz-50 kHz 50 kHz-400MHz 15 kHz-10 GHz 15 kHz-10 GHz

CS05 CS06 CS07 CS08 CS09

Cross Modulation Spikes, Power Leads Squelch Ckts Undesired Sig. Rejection N/A

15 kHz - 10 GHz

30 Hz-10 GHz

CS10

N/A

MIL - STD - 461B/C


TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

CS01 CS02 CS03 CS04

Power Leads Power Leads Intermodulation Undesired Sig. Rejection

30 Hz-50 kHz 50 kHz-400 MHz 15 kHz-10 GHz 30 kHz-20 GHz

CS05 CS06 CS07 CS08 CS09

Cross Modulation Spikes, Power Leads Squelch Ckts N/A Structure Common Mode Current

30 kHz - 20 GHz

60 Hz-100 kHz

CS10

Damped Sinusoidal Transients (terminals)

10 kHz-100 MHz

MIL - STD - 461D


TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

CS101

Power Leads

30 Hz-50 kHz

CS103 CS104

Antenna Port-Intermod Antenna Port-Rej. of Undesired Sig.

15 kHz-10 GHz 30 Hz -20 GHz

CS105

Antenna Port-Cross Mod.

30 Hz-20 GHz

MIL - STD - 461E


TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

CS101

Power Leads

30 Hz-150 kHz

CS103 CS104

Antenna Port-Intermod Antenna Port-Rej. of Undesired Sig.

15 kHz-10 GHz 30 Hz -20 GHz

CS105

Antenna Port-Cross Mod.

30 Hz-20 GHz

MIL - STD - 461A


TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

RE01 RE02 RE03

Magnetic Field Electric Field Spurious & Harmonic

30 Hz-50 kHz 14 kHz-10 GHz 10 kHz-40 GHz

RE04 RE05 RE06 RS01

Magnetic Field Vehicle & Eng. Equipment Overhead Powerlines Magnetic Field

20 Hz-15 kHz 150 kHz-1 GHz 14 kHz-1 GHz 30 Hz-30 kHz

RS02

Magnetic Induction

Powerline & Spike

RS03 RS04 RS05

Electric Field Parallel Line Fields N/A

14 kHz-10 GHz 14 kHz-30 MHz

MIL - STD - 461B/C

TEST RE01 RE02 RE03 Magnetic Field Electric Field

DESCRIPTION

FREQ 30 Hz-50 kHz 14 kHz-10 GHz 10 kHz-40 GHz

Spurious & Harmonic

RE04 RE05 RE06 RS01

N/A N/A N/A Magnetic Field, Equipment and Cables 30 Hz-50 kHz

RS02

Magnetic Induction, Equipment and Cables

Powerline & Spike

RS03

Electric Field, Equipment and Cables

14 kHz-40 GHz

RS04 RS05

N/A Electromag Pulse Field Transients

MIL - STD - 461D TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

RE101 RE102 RE103

Magnetic Field Electric Field Antenna Spurious & Harmonics

30 Hz-100 kHz 10 kHz-18 GHz 10 kHz-40 GHz

RS101

Magnetic Field, Equipment and Cables

30 Hz-100 kHz

RS103

Electric Field, Equipment and Cables

10 kHz-40 GHz

RS105 CS109 CS114 CS115 CS116

Transient Electromag Field Structure Current Bulk Cable Injection Bulk Cable Injection

Transients 60 Hz-100 kHz 10 kHz-400 MHz Impulse

Sine Transients - Cables, and Power Leads 10 kHz-100 MHz

MIL - STD - 461E TEST DESCRIPTION FREQ

RE101 RE102 RE103

Magnetic Field Electric Field Antenna Spurious & Harmonics

30 Hz-100 kHz 10 kHz-18 GHz 10 kHz-40 GHz

RS101

Magnetic Field, Equipment and Cables

30 Hz-100 kHz

RS103

Electric Field, Equipment and Cables

2 MHz-40 GHz

RS105 CS109 CS114 CS115 CS116

Transient Electromag Field Structure Current Bulk Cable Injection Bulk Cable Injection Sine Transients - Cables, and Power Leads

Transients 60 Hz-100 kHz 10 kHz-200 MHz Impulse 10 kHz-100 MHz

ADVANTAGES OF EMC STANDARDS The advantages are: 1. Compatibility, reliability and maintainability are increased. 2. Design safety margin is provided. 3. The equipment operates in EMI scenario satisfactorily. 4. Product life is increased. 5. Higher profits are possible.

http://www.cclab.com/mil-std-461.htm