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West Coast and Cool Jazz
Cool is a style of modern jazz music that arose following the Second World War. It is characterized by its relaxed tempos and lighter tone, in contrast to the bebop style that preceded it. Cool jazz often employs formal arrangements and incorporates elements of classical music.
Mark C. Gridley, writing for All Music Guide to Jazz, identifies four subcategories, with considerable overlap, that encompass cool jazz: "Soft variants of bebop", including the Miles Davis recordings that constitute Birth of the Cool; the complete works of the Modern Jazz Quartet; the output of Gerry Mulligan, especially his work with Chet Baker and Bob Brookmeyer; the music of Stan Kenton's sidemen during the late 1940s through the 1950s; and the works of George Shearing and Stan Getz. The output of modern players who eschewed bebop in favor of advanced swing era developments, including musicians such as Lennie Tristano, Lee Konitz, and Warne Marsh; Dave Brubeck and Paul Desmond; and performers such as Jimmy Giuffre and Dave Pell who furthered Count Basie and Lester Young's small group music. Musicians from either of the previous categories who were active in California from the 1940s through the 1960s, developing what came to be known as "West Coast jazz". "Exploratory music with a subdued effect by Teddy Charles, Chico Hamilton, John LaPorta, and their colleagues during the 1950s."
Ted Gioia identifies cornetist Bix Beiderbecke and saxophonist Frankie Trumbauer as early progenitors of the cool aesthetic in jazz. Gioia cites Beiderbecke's softening of jazz's strong rhythmic impact in favor of maintaining melodic flow, while also employing complex techniques such as unusual harmonies and whole tone scales. Trumbauer, through "his smooth and seemingly effortless saxophone work,"greatly affected tenor saxophonist Lester Young, who prefigured and influenced cool jazz more than any other musician.
George s top 10 Cool/West Coast Cats
1. Lester Young(August 27, 1909 March 15, 1959) 2. Miles Davis(May 26, 1926 September 28, 1991) 3. Lee Konitz(born October 13, 1927) 4. Lennie Tristano(19 March 1919 18 Nov 1978) 5. Warne Marsh(26 October 1927 18 Dec 1987) 6. Chet Baker(December 23, 1929 May 13, 1988) 7. Gerry Mulligan(April 6, 1927 January 20, 1996) 8. Dave Brubeck(born December 6, 1920) 9. Leroy Vinegar(July 13, 1928 August 3, 1999) 10. Modern Jazz Quartet(established in 1952)
Young's saxophone playing employed a light sound, in contrast to the "full-bodied" approach of players such as Coleman Hawkins. Young also had a tendency to play behind the beat, instead of driving it. He more strongly emphasized melodic development in his improvisation, rather than "hot" phrases or chord changes. While Young's style initially alienated some observers, the cool school embraced it. (Young would also influence bebop through Charlie Parker's emulation of Young's playing style.)
Orie Frank ("Frankie" or "Tram") Trumbauer (May 30, 1901 June 11, 1956) was one of the leading jazz saxophonists of the 1920s and 1930s. He played the C-melody saxophone which, in size, is between an alto and tenor saxophone. He also played alto saxophone, bassoon, clarinet and several other instruments.
Frankie Trumbauer -The Devil And The Deep Blue Sea From 1932, featuring C melody saxophone
Let s compare:
Lester Young-Lester Leaps In 1939 Do you hear similarities or differences in the way Young plays, compared to Trumbauer?
In 1948, Miles Davis formed a nonet including Mulligan, Konitz, and Evans from Thornhill's orchestra. Capitol Records recorded the group (at arranger Pete Rugolo's suggestion) in 1949 and 1950.These recordings, originally issued as 78 rpm records, were later compiled as Birth of the Cool (1957). Gerry Mulligan explained that the idea behind Davis's Nonet was not to get away from bebop, but "just to try to get a good little rehearsal band together. Something to write for . As far as the 'Cool Jazz' part of it, all of that comes after the fact of what it was designed to be."As for Davis, his concern at the time was simply to play with a lighter sound, which he believed to be more expressive. The Miles Davis Nonet's existence was brief, consisting only of a two-week September 1948 engagement at the Manhattan's Royal Roost and the three recording dates that make up Birth of the Cool. These recordings were not widely appreciated until some years later.However, they prefigured the work of nonet members John Lewis and Gerry Mulligan.
Keep in mind that most of the time, these various styles or eras in jazz are given their names by writers, or promoters, or record company executives. Usually, musicians are too busy practicing or playing to worry about what their music is called. (I guess the whole BAM controversy could be a huge exception )
From Birth of The Cool
Boplicity-from Birth Of the Cool Israel-from Birth Of The Cool Jeru-from Birth Of The Cool
Musicians involved with The Birth of The Cool included:
Kai Windig-trombone Gunther Shuller-French Horn Bill Barber-tuba Lee Konitz-alto sax Gerry Mulligan-Baritone sax Al Haig-piano John Lewis piano Max Roach-drums Kenny Clarke-drums
Lee Konitz (born October 13, 1927) is an American jazz composer and alto saxophonist born in Chicago, Illinois. Generally considered one of the driving forces of Cool Jazz, Konitz has also performed successfully in bebop and avant-garde settings. Konitz was one of the few altoists to retain a distinctive sound in the 40s, when Charlie Parker exercised a tremendous influence on other players. Konitz, like other students of pianist and theoretician Lennie Tristano, was noted for improvising long, melodic lines with the rhythmic interest coming from odd accents, or odd note groupings suggestive of the imposition of one time signature over another. Paul Desmond and, especially, Art Pepper were strongly influenced by Konitz.
Lee Konitz-"You'd Be So Nice To Come Home To" from Motion with Sonny Dallas And Elvin Jones Round Midnight, from "Alone Together" with Brad Mehldau and Charlie Haden
Leonard Joseph Tristano (19 March 1919 18 November 1978) was a jazz pianist, composer and teacher of jazz improvisation. He performed in the cool jazz, bebop, post bop and avant-garde jazz genres. He remains a somewhat overlooked figure in jazz history, but his enormous originality and dazzling work as an improviser have long been appreciated by knowledgeable jazz fans. In addition, his work as a jazz educator meant that he has exerted a substantial influence on jazz through figures such as Lee Konitz and Bill Evans.
Line Up, from Lennie Tristano 1954-55 This is a contrefact, but what is the original tune?
Lennie Tristano-Expressions-cool video from 1965
Warne Marion Marsh (26 October 1927 18 December 1987) was an American tenor saxophonist. Born in Los Angeles, his restrained, cerebral playing first came to prominence in the 1950s as a protege of pianist Lennie Tristano, and earned attention in the 1970s as a member of Supersax.
Warne Marsh Quartet 1957-It's Alright With Me Mark Turner with Fly -Lennie's Groove
Chesney Henry "Chet" Baker, Jr. (December 23, 1929 May 13, 1988) was an American jazz trumpeter, flugelhornist and singer. Though his music earned him a large following (particularly albums featuring his vocals, such as Chet Baker Sings), Baker's popularity was due in part to his "matinee idol-beauty" and "well-publicized drug habit." He died in 1988 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Let's Get Lost-song
Let s Get Lost-film
Let's Get Lost
Gerald Joseph "Gerry" Mulligan (April 6, 1927 January 20, 1996) was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist, composer and arranger. Though Mulligan is primarily known as one of the leading baritone saxophonists in jazz history playing the instrument with a light and airy tone in the era of cool jazz he was also a notable arranger, working with Claude Thornhill, Miles Davis, Stan Kenton, and others. Mulligan's pianoless quartet of the early 1950s with trumpeter Chet Baker is still regarded as one of the more important cool jazz groups. Mulligan was also a skilled pianist and played several other reed instruments.
Bernie s Tune
Gerry Mulligan Quartet with Chico Hamilton on Drums
Episode 08 1:32:36-1:40:00
David Warren "Dave" Brubeck (born December 6, 1920) is an American jazz pianist. He has written a number of jazz standards, including "In Your Own Sweet Way" and "The Duke". Brubeck's style ranges from refined to bombastic, reflecting his mother's attempts at classical training and his improvisational skills. His music is known for employing unusual time signatures, and superimposing contrasting rhythms, meters, and tonalities.
His long-time musical partner, alto saxophonist Paul Desmond, wrote the Dave Brubeck Quartet's best remembered piece, "Take Five", which is in 5/4 time and has endured as a jazz classic on the top-selling jazz album, Time Out. Brubeck experimented with time signatures throughout his career, recording "Pick Up Sticks" in 6/4, "Unsquare Dance" in 7/4, and "Blue Rondo à la Turk" in 9/8.
The Hits Of Dave Brubeck
Take Five Blue Rondo A La Turk Strange Meadowlark Three To Get Ready
1958 Sept. 21: Dave Brubeck turned down $17,000 in round-trip transportation and performance fees for his quartet for a proposed South African tour in January. "They told us we couldn't take our bass player, so the deal was off," Brubeck said. Bassist Gene Wright, who is rejoining the group in time for the Monterey Jazz Festival in October, is black. A letter received from the Johannesburg promoter said: "It is absolutely impossible for (Wright) to come to South Africa. Not only is there an ordinance prohibiting the appearance onstage of a mixed group, but also he would not be allowed in the country, and therefore the tour would have to be without him."
Leroy Vinnegar (July 13, 1928 August 3, 1999) was an American jazz bassist. Born in Indianapolis, the self-taught Vinnegar established his reputation in Los Angeles during the 1950s and 1960s. His trademark was the rhythmic "walking" bass line, a steady series of ascending or descending notes, and it brought him the nickname "The Walker". Besides his jazz work, he also appeared on a number of soundtracks and pop albums, notably Van Morrison's 1972 album, Saint Dominic's Preview.
He recorded extensively as both a leader and sideman. He came to public attention in the 1950s as a result of recording with Lee Konitz, André Previn, Stan Getz, Shorty Rogers, Chet Baker, Shelly Manne, Joe Castro and Serge Chaloff. He played bass on Previn and Manne's My Fair Lady album, one of the most successful jazz records ever produced. He also performed on another of jazz's biggest hit albums, Eddie Harris and Les McCann's Swiss Movement, released in 1969.
He moved to Portland, Oregon in 1986. In 1995, the Oregon State Legislature honored him by proclaiming May 1 Leroy Vinnegar Day. Vinnegar died from a heart attack, at the age of 71, on August 3, 1999, in a hospital in Portland.
Walkin My Baby Back Home Walking The Dog Damn! Somebody Stole My Pants
Modern Jazz Quartet
The Modern Jazz Quartet was an influential music group established in 1952 by Milt Jackson (vibraphone), John Lewis (piano, musical director), Percy Heath (double bass), and Kenny Clarke (drums). Connie Kay replaced Clarke in 1955. The quartet performed in several jazz styles, including bebop, cool jazz, and third stream.
Django Skating In Central Park
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