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Lecture Outline Ch. 46: Endocrine System I.

Hormone overview

II. Hypothalamus & Pituitary III. Thyroid IV. Parathyroid V. Pancreas VI. Ovaries & VII. Adrenals Testes

Hormones in Animals

Hormones influence growth, development, mood

Hormones in Animals
Types of Glands: 1) Exocrine Glands: Release substances outside the body via ducts
Sweat glands Salivary glands Mammary glands

2) Endocrine Glands: Release substances within the body via bloodstream Ductless

Hormones in Animals
Hypothalamus Pineal gland

Pituitary gland

Parathyroid glands (on posterior surface of thyroid gland)

Heart Thyroid gland Kidneys Thymus gland Digestive tract

Adrenal glands (one at each kidney)


Pancreas islet cells



Hormones in Animals
Hormones released in response to stimuli Travel through the circulatory system to reach target cells A cell is affected only if it has receptors specific to that hormone

Most hormones are controlled by negative feedback, which inhibits further release In a few cases, positive feedback is used to amplify hormone levels

Hormones in Animals
General Classes of Hormones:

Hypothalamus & Pituitary

Hypothalamus: Region of brain Collection of neurosecretory cells Make and store peptide hormones

Secretes to anterior pituitary via portal system

Hypothalamus & Pituitary

Pituitary Gland: Pea-sized gland; hangs from hypothalamus Master regulation/ coordination center Controlled by hypothalamus: Release hormones Inhibit hormones
pituitary (anterior lobe) pituitary (posterior lobe) hypothalamus

Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis): True gland Releases hormones that affect other glands
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) - egg / sperm production Luteinizing Hormone (LH) - sex hormone secretion Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) - hormones from thyroid Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) - hormones from adrenal cortex Indirect (stimulate other glands) Direct (stimulate tissues) Prolactin - mammary gland development Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH) - synthesis of melanin (skin pigment) Growth Hormone (GH) - growth of body cells


Goiters are caused by a lack of iodine in the diet

Tom Thumb (Charles Stratton)

Robert Wadlow 811

Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis): Extension of cells in hypothalamus Releases two hormones
Contains neurosecretory cells with bodies in hypothalamus Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) water conservation (kidneys) Oxytocin Contraction of uterus muscles Milk letdown reflex Maternal behaviors

pituitary (posterior lobe)

Thyroid Gland
Thyroid: Wraps around the front of the larynx in the neck Regulates metabolism & growth Controlled by TSH from ant. pit. (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone)

Secretes Thyroxine (T4 - Amino Acid Hormone): Iodine required for T4 production larynx thyroid gland esophagus parathyroid glands trachea

Parathyroid Gland
Parathyroid: Imbedded in thyroid gland Regulates blood calcium levels Secretes Parathyroid hormone (PTH) larynx
low blood calcium normal blood calcium release PTH calcium release from bone

thyroid gland esophagus parathyroid glands trachea

Both exocrine and endocrine:
Exocrine = Digestive enzymes (small intestine) Endocrine = Hormones regulating blood sugar

Insulin Reduces blood sugar (cells uptake glucose) Glucagon Increases blood sugar (cells release glucose)
Type I Diabetes: lack cells

Type II Diabetes: low #s insulin receptors

Ovaries & Testes

Sex Organs: 1) Ovaries (Female): Estrogen / Progesterone
(steroid hormones)

2) Testes (Male): Testosterone (steroid hormone) Controlled by FSH and LH from ant. pit.
Follicle-stimulating Hormone Luteinizing Hormone

Functions: Early development (brain development) Puberty Menstrual cycle; pregnancy

Adrenal Glands
1) Adrenal Medulla (center of gland) Epinephrine (Adrenaline)/Norepinephrine (Amino acid hormones): Prepare for fight or flight Controlled by nervous system adrenal gland
Adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.


Adrenal Glands
2) Adrenal Cortex (outside of gland) Glucocorticoids (Steroid hormones) Released in stressful situations Controlled by ACTH (ant. pit.) Testosterone adrenal gland
Adrenal cortex glucocorticoids, aldosterone, and testosterone.


Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

Other Sources of Hormones

1) Most Cells in Body Prostaglandins (Fatty Acid Hormones): Ibuprofen Target = Nearby cells Function is varied (Inflammation; Uterine contractors) 2) Pineal Gland Melatonin (Amino Acid Hormone): Regulate sleep/wake cycle; reproductive cycle (non-humans) 3) Thymus Thymosin: Stimulates white blood cell production

4) Kidneys Erythropoietin: Regulates red blood cell production

Other Sources of Hormones

5) Adipose Cells: Leptin: Regulates body fat Leptin tells body how much fat is stored and decreases appetite Link between obesity and leptin sensitivity leptin-deficient mouse normal mouse

Hypothalamus produces ADH and oxytocin, regulatory hormones for anterior pituitary

A Good Slide to Know

Pineal gland melatonin Parathyroid glands (on posterior surface of thyroid gland) parathyroid hormone

Pituitary gland anterior pituitary: ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH posterior pituitary: releases oxytocin and ADH

Thyroid gland thyroxine, calcitonin Kidneys erythropoietin Thymus gland (atrophies during adulthood)

Adrenal glands (one at each kidney) medulla: epinephrine, norepinephrine cortex: glucocorticoids (cortisol), aldosterone, testosterone

Gonads testes (male): androgens, especially testosterone ovaries (female): estrogens, progesterone testis

Pancreas islet cells insulin, glucagon


Anterior Posterior



Adrenal Medulla

Adrenal Cortex

Thyroid Gonads

Thought Questions:

What allows animal movement in response to stimuli?

Lecture Outline Ch.47: Muscular & Skeletal I. Skeletal Muscles

A. Structure B. Contraction C. Nerve Input

II. Skeletal Systems III. Vertebrate Skeletons

A. B. C. D. Support Protection Movement Joints

Muscular and skeletal systems

Muscles power movement by contracting

Bones provide framework for muscles

Muscles Muscle Tissue (Muscle = little mouse): Exerts force by contracting Movement due to actin microfilaments and myosin strands Slide past one another, change cell shape Chemical energy (ATP)

Mechanical Energy

Muscles Types of Muscle Tissue:

Skeletal Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

Smooth Muscle

Appearance Function Control

Striated Skeletal Movement Voluntary

Striated Pump Blood Involuntary

Not Striated
Move Substances Through Hollow Tubes


Skeletal Muscles
tendon (to bone) connective tissue nerve and blood vessels bundle of muscle cells

Skeletal muscle Muscle fiber (muscle cell)

Myofibril (contains thin sand thick filaments)

Humans > 700 unique skeletal muscles Muscle connected to bones by tendons

Skeletal Muscles Cross section of fiber

T tubules muscle fiber sarcoplasmic reticulum myofibril

- Each muscle cell runs length of muscle plasma membrane - Multinucleate - Made up of myofibrils - Each myofibril surrounded by Contractile cylinders of actin sarcoplasmic reticulum and myosin - Fluid with high calcium levels - T-tubules in plasma membrane relay signals

Skeletal Muscles Myofibril sarcomere

myofibril Z lines

Myofibrils of thick and thin filaments. Each filament is made of protein strands.

thin filament

thick filament

Filaments arranged in sarcomeres Separated by Z-lines of fibrous protein

Skeletal Muscles
Thick and thin filaments
thin filament myosin heads thick filament (myosin) troponin accessory proteins tropomyosin actin

Thick filaments: made mostly of myosin, have small moveable heads Thin filaments: primarily actin, have points to which the myosin heads temporarily attach

Skeletal Muscles
thin filament

binding sites myosin head

Each actin subunit has binding site for myosin head

thick filament

Contraction exposes binding sites, allowing filaments to bind to one another


Myosin heads then repeatedly bend, pull, release, and reattach (using ATP-energy)

Skeletal Muscles Sliding filaments shorten each sarcomere

Skeletal Muscles
Neuromuscular junctions between axons and fibers All or nothing response: Skeletal muscle excited All sarcomeres respond
axon of motor neuron synaptic terminal synaptic vesicles

postsynaptic membrane

Skeletal Muscles Strength of Muscle Contraction p # of Fibers Stimulated

Motor Unit: A single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers innervated by it

Skeletal Muscles
Action potential travels through T-channels and opens Ca++ channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum These ions allow binding of thin and thick fibers Ca++ is pumped back out after action potential ends

Unless youre dead

Skeletal Muscles You cannot add muscle fibers You can add more myofibrils
bundle of muscle cells

muscle Muscle fiber Myofibril (muscle cell)

Skeletal Muscles
Slow-twitch fibers: Lots of myoglobin (provides O2) and mitochondria. Fast-twitch fibers: Less myoglobin and mitochondria More able to use glycolysis to quickly produce ATP Different people (& muscles) different ratios of two fibers.

80% slow twitch 50% slow 50% fast 80% fast twitch

Skeletal System A supporting framework for the body

Skeletal System
Hydrostatic skeleton Fluid provides support Muscles contract and move fluid

Skeletal System
Exoskeleton Hard shells cover outside of body Muscles contract and move frame at joints

Skeletal System
Endoskeleton Internal framework - least common skeleton type Muscles contract and move frame at joints

Vertebrate Skeletons
Support body Protect fragile organs Allow movement Produce blood cells Store minerals Transmit vibrations (hearing)

Vertebrate Skeletons
Bodily Support Axial skeleton- main body axis Appendicular skeleton- appendages and supporting structures

Vertebrate Skeletons
Protection Skull- brain Vertebral column- nerve cord Ribcage soft internal organs

Vertebrate Skeletons
Movement Three skeletal connective tissues Cartilage- tough, but flexible
Skeletal development Cushioning joints

Ligaments- tough
Connect bones at joints

Bone- tough and rigid

bone cartilage

Vertebrate Skeletons
Bone = hardened by deposits of calcium phosphate Compact bone (exterior) is dense and strong Spongy bone (interior) is lightweight and porous

chondrocytes spongy bone (contains marrow) collagen matrix compact bone


osteocytes capillary central canal

Vertebrate Skeletons
Blood cell production Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets Produced by bone marrow Leukemia: cancer of the bone marrow, leads to decreased blood cells Mineral storage Bones store and release calcium and phosphorous to maintain constant concentrations

Vertebrate Skeletons
Bone cells work together Osteoclasts- bone dissolving cells
Dissolve cartilage

Osteoblasts- bone forming cells

Replace cartilage with bone

Osteocytes- mature bone cells

Cannot produce more bone, but can remodel it

Vertebrate Skeletons
Bone remodeling Can alter skeletal shape in response to use Osteoclasts create channels invaded by capillaries and osteoblasts to form new bone Osteoporosis is when activity of osteoclasts outstrips osteoblasts

Normal bone section


Vertebrate Skeletons
Movement of bones Joints are where two bones meet
Lubricated by cartilage Attached by ligaments

Muscles are attached to bone on either side of the joint

Attached by tendons

Origin - attachment to still bone Insertion - attachment to moving bone

Vertebrate Skeletons
Movement Antagonistic muscle pairs pull the bone in opposite directs when they contract Flexor muscle bends the joint Extensor muscle straightens it

Vertebrate Skeletons
Immovable- joints do not move (skull) Ball & Socket rotational movement in all directions (hip, shoulder)

Hinge extend or retract an appendage in one direction (knee) Gliding permit sliding of two surfaces (spine) Combination utilize more than one of above (jaw)

Lecture 11 Summary
1. Overview (Ch. 46) Gland types Classes of hormones 2. Hormones (Ch. 46) Hypothalamus & Pituitary (anterior and posterior) Thyroid & Parathyroid Pancreas Gonads Adrenals 3. Muscles (Ch. 47) Muscle cell types Structure of muscles Contraction/relaxation 4. Skeleton (Ch. 47) Skeleton types Cell types and building bone - Joints and attachments