ENERGY INFRATECH PVT. LTD.

SELECTION OF HYDRO TURBINES

by Amit Kumar Jha Devendra Singh (E&M)

Classification of Hydraulic Turbine
Hydraulic Turbine

Reaction Turbine

Impulse Turbine

‡ Francis Turbine ‡ Kaplan Turbine ‡ Bulb Turbine 

Pelton Turbine Turgo Turbine Cross flow Turbine

BASIC INPUTS FOR TURBINE SELECTION AND RATING

1.HEAD (H) 2.DISCHARGE(Q)

HEAD

as per IS 12800(Part 1):1993

Gross Head (Hg) ± It is the difference in elevation between the water levels of the forebay and tail race (for Reaction Turbine) or Centre Line of Runner( For Impulse Turbine). Net Head(Hn) ± It is the gross head less all hydraulic losses except those chargeable to the turbine. Net head is the head available for doing work on the turbine.

HEAD

as per IS 12800(Part 1):1993

Maximum Net Head (Hmax) - It is the gross head resulting from the difference in elevation between the maximum forebay level and the tail race level (Reaction Turbine) or Centre Line of Runner for Impulse Turbine without spillway discharge and with one unit operating at no load speed. Under this condition , Hydraulic losses are negligible and may be neglected. Minimum Net Head (Hmin) ± It is the net head resulting from the difference in elevation between the minimum forbay level and the tail race level with all turbine operating at full gate

HEAD

as per IS 12800(Part 1):1993

Rated Head (Hr) - It is the head of which the specifications require that the turbine operating at full gate shall produce sufficient power to deliver the name plate power output. It is the 2/3rd of the difference between FRL and MDDL above the MDDL. Basically it is assumed that the volume of water above this level is same as below this level as the shape of pondage goes on decreasing. So the probability of this head to available is more .

Design Head (Hd) ± It is the net head under which the turbine reaches its peak efficiency at synchronous speed; Usually it is specified as =Hd=Min. Net Head+(2/3)*(Max. Net Head-Min. Net Head). This is the head which determines the basic dimensions of the turbine and therefore of the power plant. For optimum operation benefits the Design Head &Rated Head are kept same. Discharge (Q)-It is the rate of volume of water coming to turbine. It depends on catchments

As per USBR

Specific Speed
Specific Speed: Specific Speed is a typical characteristic where all runners of a given specific speed are similar in form and vary only in size. This Speed form the basis of Classification of Turbines. It can be defined as the speed of a homologous turbine of such a size that it would develop unit power at unit head. Ns =(N x (P)^0.5) / Hd^(5/4) Where Ns= Specific Speed in rpm N = Unit Speed in rpm Hd= Design Head in Meters P = Rated Power .