CIVIL ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE

Subject : Engineering Design & Skill Development

Reference book: James Garratt, (2004), Design and Technology, Second edition, Replika press (Pvt.) Ltd, India

The Engineering Design Process
The Engineering Design Process is a series of steps that engineers use to guide them as they solve problems. Many variations of the model exist. While having a guide is useful for novices who are learning about engineering, it is important to note that practicing engineers do not adhere to a rigid step-by-step interpretation of the process. Rather there are as many variations of the model as there are engineers. The engineering design process is cyclical and can begin at any step. In real life, engineers often work on just one or two steps and then pass along their work to another team.

Ask
What do I want to do? What is the problem? What have others done?

Imagine
What could be some solutions? Brainstorm ideas. Pick one to start with that you think will work the best.

Plan
Draw a diagram of your idea. Make lists of materials you will need to make it. Decide how it works. How will you test it?

Create
Build a prototype. Test it. Talk about what works, what doesn t, and what could work better.

Improve
Talk about how you could improve your product. Draw new designs. Make your product the best it can be!

Design process flow chart (in detail) Situation Analyse the situation Write a brief Carry out research Write a specification .

Design process flow chart (cont d) Work out possible solution Select preferred solution Prepare working drawings and plan ahead Construct a prototype Test and evaluate the design Write a report .

Group activity ‡ Discuss the design process involve in construction/design of :     Footbridge between Suranimala building and Basketball court.2.7) Water storage tank (8.10) . (group 1.3.) Office work station for Squadron commander of Intake 29 (4.9.5) Pop group s mobile stage(6.

systems and environments for their safe and efficient use by people is called ergonomics. operate or control them. three main factors will required investigating: 1. When designing for people. stand. The movements they will make 3. We may touch or hold them. sit or lie on (or in) them. look at them and so on.Ergonomics Most of the things we design and make are used by people. wear them. lift or carry them. 2. The study of the design of objects. manipulate. Our health and safety and comfort therefore depend on them being well designed and constructed. The size of the people who will use the designs. The reactions of the body to the design through the senses .

lifting. controlling : size and shape of the user : convenience and safety for user and for environment . Ex: Hand Body portion Design s overall dimension : pushing. The science of measuring people is called anthropometrics. holding. carrying. operating.Design for people Size When designing for people you must take into account all the measurements which are important for the safe and comfortable use of the design.

Design for people Movement Some of the factors addressed when design for movement: Natural body movement Restricted movement Body fatigue (weakness) Balance space Senses Some of the factors addressed when design for sense: Size shape and form Surface finish Supporting surface Heat and cold Noise and vibration Visual elements weight .

Design exercise ‡ Pick up your own pen and look at it carefully as you hold it in the normal writing position. it would appear that your pen has been well designed for its main functions . Now write something with it. ± Does it write well? ± Is it is easy to use? ± Does it feel comfortable? ± Could you use it for a long period without discomfort? ‡ If you can answer yes to these questions.

shovel car seat drawing table carrying bag rowing boat .bicycle . ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 Group 9 Group 10 Safety/combat helmet .ladder wheel chair lawn cutter . comfortable and efficient use of followings.Group work ‡ List and describe in detail all the ergonomic factors which you feel are important to safe.

entities. members. Structures have defined boundaries within which.) which gives form and stability. and resists stresses and strains. (1) each element is physically or functionally connected to the other elements. . parts. etc. and (2) the elements themselves and their interrelationships are taken to be either fixed (permanent) or changing only occasionally or slowly. steps.Structures Construction or framework of identifiable elements (components. factors.

Types of structures Made from bars joined together Most economical ways of building structures Frame structure Shell structure Assembled from shaped panels Not exactly made from bars .

vehicles. people etc . sea. Static /stationary Due to the its forces own weight or the load being carried Dynamic/ moving forces Produced by the wind.Structural failure Failures of structurs:  Poor design  Fatigue (structural damage from repeated loading)  Failure of materials  Failure of joints Failures occurs because of forces acting on the structures.

vehicles) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Forces induced by wind Forces induced by earthquakes Forces induced by rain/snow Fluid pressures Others .Forces in structures ‡ Forces induced by gravity ± Dead Loads (permanent): self-weight of structure and attachments ± Live Loads (transient): moving loads (e. occupants.g.

Earthquake .Forces in structures Vertical: Gravity Lateral: Wind.

Forces in structures Sliding Overturning .

Compression Forces which can cause a member to squashed or buckled. .Forces in structures Tension Forces which can cause a member to stretch .

Torsion Forces which can cause a member to twist . tend to make it bend. .Forces in structures 100 kg Bending Forces which act at an angle to a member.

Forces in structures Shear forces act across a material in such a way that one part of the structure can be forced to slide over another. .

This could only happen if the member was under tension. This must be true because if AB was to break the point xx would move apart.Analysing for tension and compression A tie B Member AB is being stretched by the load and therefore it feels a tension force. strut C A x x B C . A member under tension was called a tie.

is being squashed. points XX would cross over one another. This could only happen if the member was under compression.Analysing for tension and compression A B x x C Member CB however. . It therefore feels a compression force. A member under compression is called a strut . This must be because if AB was to break.

girder T .girder Steel channel .Types of members and their uses Structural sections Steel wires Flat strip Angle girder I .

.Beams  Any member which has to resist bending is called a beam.  The stiffness (its ability to resist bending) of a beam depends upon the material from which the beam is made. and the section of the beam.

state whether the structure indicated need to be strong in tension. compression or torsion.Question ‡ For each of the product shown here. B A D C E G F .

Engineering .

DESIGN & BUILD APPLYING ACQUIRING structures scientific discipline art Engineering skill profession machines mathematical devices economic systems social practical knowledge materials processes .

Main branches of engineering Chemical engineering Civil engineering Electrical engineering Mechanical engineering Interdisciplinary and specialized fields .

Civil Engineering A People Serving Profession .

Mass Transit. Railroads. Shipping Canals. etc. Bridges. Dams. Terminals. Tunnels. Sewers. Traffic Control. Transmission Towers/Lines. Airport Runways.Civil Engineering Civil engineering focuses infrastructure of the world: on the Water works. River Navigation. Skyscrapers. Power Plants. Highways. . Industrial Plant Buildings. Irrigation Canals.

mining Earthquake Wind Architectural oecan Geotechnical Engineering Structural Engineering Environmental Engineering Ecological Fire protection Sanitary Hydraulic municipal Transportation Engineering Traffic Highway Railway system .Civil engineering Civil engineering comprises the design. construction. and maintenance of the physical and natural built environments.

550 BC at Ephesus Statue of Zeus at Olympia Mausoleum of Halicarnassus 466 456 BC 351 BC Colossus of Rhodes Lighthouse of Alexandria 292 280 BC c. Izmir Province. Turkey Temple of Artemis c. Earthquake Modern location Giza Necropolis. Plundering Fire The original structure was destroyed by flood. 280 BC Greeks Rhodes. Greeks Cause of destruction Still in existence Earthquakes Arson by Herostratus. Greece Alexandria. Greeks Greeks Carians. Babil Province.Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Wonder Great Pyramid of Giza Hanging Gardens of Babylon Date of construction 2584 2561 BC Around 600 BC Builder Egyptians Babylonians Lydians. Egypt Al Hillah. Egypt Ptolemaic Earthquake Egypt Greeks . Turkey Olympia. Iraq near Selçuk. Greece Bodrum.

Great Pyramid of Giza Hanging Gardens of Babylon Temple of Artemis Colossus of Rhodes Statue of Zeus at Olympia Mausoleum of Halicarnassus Lighthouse of Alexandria .

Report 3 pages including cover the cover page . The Panama Canal 8. The Channel Tunnel 2.Assign 10 groups to research the followings 1. The Golden Gate Bridge 5. Itaipu Damn 6. The Empire State Building 4. Hambanthota harbor seven modern wonders Tasks: 1. Southern highway 9. Netherlands North Sea Protection Works 7. Presentation 10 15 mins 2. The CN Tower 3. BMICH 10.

9 km. United Kingdom Coquelles.435 mm (4 ft 8 rd gauge 25 kV AC OHLE 1 2 in) Opened Owner Operator Character Map of the Channel Tunnel Line length No. in the United Kingdom with Coquelles.35 mi) 2 single track tunnels 1 service tunnel 1.Channel Tunnel The Channel Tunnel also referred to as the Chunnel) is a 50. 16 E Status Start End Active Folkestone. Kent. At 37. it is 75 m deep. Vehicle shuttle. At its lowest point.45 km (31. France Operation 6 May 1994 (tunnel) 14 November 1994 (passenger service) Eurotunnel Eurotunnel Eurostar DB Schenker Rail (UK) Through-rail passenger and freight. near Calais in northern France beneath the English Channel. Pas-de-Calais. Kent.5 N 1°9 21 E Coquelles: 50°55 22 N1°46 50. the Channel Tunnel possesses the longest undersea portion of any Overview tunnel in the world. Location Coordinates English Channel (Strait of Dover) Folkestone: 51°5 49.5-km undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone. Technical 50. of tracks Gauge Electrified (standa . Pas-de-Calais.

CN Tower
The CN Tower is a communications and observation tower in Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Standing 553.33 m tall, it was completed in 1976, becoming the world's tallest free-standing structure and world's tallest tower at the time. It held both records for 34 years until the completion of Burj Khalifa and Canton Tower. It remains the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, a signature icon of Toronto's skyline, and a symbol of Canada, attracting more Canadian National Tower, than two million international visitors annually. Alternative names Canada's National Tower
General information Status Type Complete observation, telecommunications, attraction, restaurant Toronto, Ontario, Canada 43.6426°N 79.3871°W Coordinates: 43.6426°N 79.3871°W 1972 1976 Height Antenna spire Roof Top floor Floor count Elevator count 553.33 m (1,815.4 ft) 457.2 m (1,500.0 ft) 446.5 m (1,464.9 ft) Technical details 147 (equivalent) 6 Design and construction Architect John Andrews Architect WZMH Architects

Location Coordinates

Construction started Completed

CN Tower is the world's 5th tallest free-standing structure.

Empire State Building
The Empire State Building is a 102-story landmark skyscraper and American cultural icon in New York City at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. It has a roof height of 381m, and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of 443.2m high. Its name is derived from the nickname for New York, the Empire State. It stood as the world's tallest building for 40 years, from its completion in 1931 until construction of the World Trade Center's North Tower was completed in 1972. Following the destruction of the World Trade Center in 2001, the Empire State Building reclaimed the position of tallest building in New York (although it was no longer the tallest in the world). Once the new One World Trade Center is completed, it will once again be demoted to second tallest building in New York.
General information Type Location Office, observation 350 Fifth Avenue Manhattan, New York 10118 40°44 54.36 N73°59 08.36 WCoordinates: 40°44 54.36 N 73°59 08.36 W 1929 1931 $40,948,900 Height Antenna spire Roof Top floor 1,454 ft (443.2 m) 1,250 ft (381.0 m) 1,224 ft (373.2 m)

Coordinates

Construction started Completed Cost

Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. As part of both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1, the structure links the city of San Francisco, on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, to Marin County. It is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, California, and of the United States. It has been declared one of the modern Wonders of the World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommers travel guide considers the Golden Gate Bridge "possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed, bridge in the world".
Material Total length Width Height Longest span Vertical clearance Steel 1.7 mi (2.7 km) or 8,981 ft (2,737.4 m) 90 ft (27.4 m) 746 ft (227.4 m) 4,200 ft (1,280.2 m) 14 ft (4.3 m) at toll gates, higher truck loads possible 220 ft (67.1 m) January 5, 1933 April 19, 1937 May 27, 1937; 74 years ago

Clearance below Construction begin Construction end Opened

Itaipu Dam
The Itaipu Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay..
Type of dam Combination gravity, buttress and embankment sections 196 m (643 ft) 7,919 m (25,981 ft) 12,300,000 3 m (430,000,000 cu ft) Paraná River 62,200 m /s (2,196,572 cu ft/s)
3

Height Length Volume Impounds Spillway capacity

Netherlands North Sea Protection Works This singularly unique. only to watch brutal storm surges flood their efforts. The North Sea Protection Works consists of two monumental steps the Dutch took to win their struggle to hold back the sea. . storm surge barriers and other engineered works literally allows the Netherlands to exist. vast and complex system of dams. floodgates. For centuries. since the nation sits below sea level and its land mass is still sinking. the people of the Netherlands have repeatedly attempted to push back the sea.

Panama Canal The Panama Canal is a 82km ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) and the Pacific Ocean. . that the canal could be completed. was completed in 1914. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. In the interim. which began in 1880. yellow fever caused many deaths and delays and it wasn't until that threat and a better design for the canal was arrived at. Work on the canal.

Basic House Designs .

‡ Each style has strengths and weaknesses. 2. Two-story. 4. 3. One-and-one-half-story. (continued) . One-story ranch. Split-level.Introduction ‡ A residential home designer has four basic designs from which to choose: 1.

±Convenience and cost.Introduction ‡ Several factors should play a role in the final decision in choosing a basic design: ±Space available for the house. . ±Climate. ±Personal preference and needs. ±Site contour and surroundings.

01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ The one-story ranch style house has all the regular living space on one level.Type . crawl space. ‡ Patios (Porticos). or slab floor. and terraces can be added off most any room. ‡ It may have a basement. (continued) . ‡ One of the chief advantages is that it lends itself to indoor-outdoor living. porches (verandahs).

01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ One of the many style variations for a typical one-story ranch house.Type . (continued) .

‡ Usually has a low-pitched roof with wide overhangs.01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ Another advantage of this design is the absence of stairs where there is no basement.Type . (continued) . ‡ Short walls make outside maintenance easy. ‡ The ranch is popular with older and handicapped people.

(continued) .Type .01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ The quality of this outdoor space greatly enhances the living area of the home.

Type . (continued) .01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ This modern variation of the basic ranch design minimizes height problems in construction.

Type .01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ This computer-generated rendering shows a large ranch house that combines simplified construction and minimal maintenance. (continued) .

‡ A great number of variations are possible. ‡ The ranch easily lends itself to expansion and modification. ‡ A ranch house usually costs more to build than other designs of the same square footage. (continued) .01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ Low height simplifies construction. ‡ The low and long appearance of the ranch is pleasing to most people.Type .

Type . (continued) .01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ Ranch design with a full basement.

(continued) .Type .01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ Ranch design with a crawl space.

01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ Ranch design with slab construction. (continued) .Type .

‡ Careful planning should be done to keep hall space to a minimum. ‡ Considerable hall space may be required in a large ranch style house.01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ Maintenance costs may be more on a ranch because of the large roof and exterior wall surfaces. (continued) .Type .

Type .01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ This spacious ranch house has extensive roof and wall areas that may produce maintenance problems. (continued) 57 .

Type .01 One-Story Ranch Designs ‡ An excessive amount of hall space is required to make this ranch design serviceable. 58 .

02 One-and-One-Half-Story Designs ‡ The one-and-one-half-story design is sometimes called a Cape Cod. ‡ It usually has dormers for additional light and ventilation. ‡ Built-in expandability in the attic about 1/2 the floor space of the first floor. ‡ It has one-story with an expanded attic (top story). (continued) .Type . ‡ Economical to build.

Type . (continued) .02 One-and-One-Half-Story Designs ‡ Typical one-andone-half-story house.

02 One-and-One-Half-Story Designs .Type .

and a slightly steeper roof.02 One-and-One-Half-Story Designs ‡ Additional costs to build a one-and-one-halfstory house result from dormers. (continued) .Type . ‡ This design is quite versatile. stairs. one bath. ‡ A minimal house will have two bedrooms. and an unfinished attic.

02 One-and-One-Half-Story Designs ‡ Heating costs are minimized due to the small outside wall area.Type . ‡ The electrical and plumbing systems should be planned with expansion in mind. .

‡ Requires a smaller lot due to the smaller roof and foundation area. ‡ Heating is simple and comparatively economical heat rises naturally to the second floor.03 Two-Story Designs ‡ The two-story house is more economical to build than a one-story.Type . crawl space. or on a slab. ‡ May be built with a basement. (continued) .

(continued) .Type .03 Two-Story Designs ‡ A section view of a typical two-story house with a basement.

03 Two-Story Designs ‡ An attractive traditional two-story house that fits comfortably on a small lot. (continued) .Type .

(continued) . ‡ The popularity of two-story houses varies from location to location.Type . ‡ Exterior maintenance is usually more difficult and costly for a two-story house because of height.03 Two-Story Designs ‡ Ventilation is easy and effective with an ample number of windows. ‡ Stairs are a problem for some people.

03 Two-Story Designs ‡ Two-story houses like this one were once very common in the world.Type . (continued) .

(continued) .Type .03 Two-Story Designs ‡ This basic two-story house has a contemporary (modern) appearance.

. ‡ Architects have added a contemporary flair and. therefore.03 Two-Story Designs ‡ The two-story does not lend itself to variations in style as well as some other designs. improved the overall appearance and demand for two-story houses.Type .

04 Split-Level Designs ‡ The split-level design was developed for a sloping or hilly lot to take advantage of a troublesome difference in elevation. ‡ As a general rule. (continued) . living.Type . a split-level house should not be built on a flat lot. and recreation areas are separated on different levels. ‡ Sleeping. ‡ The split-level makes efficient use of space and has little hall space.

Type . (continued) .04 Split-Level Designs ‡ This split-level house illustrates the standard arrangement of living levels.

(continued) .Type .04 Split-Level Designs ‡ Arrangement of a four-level house.

± This level is generally about 40% to 60% of the house footprint. ‡ The next level up is the intermediate level garage and recreation area. and shop or laundry.Type .04 Split-Level Designs ‡ The lowest level of the house is usually the basement level. ± Contains the heating and cooling equipment. storage. (continued) .

04 Split-Level Designs ‡ The intermediate level is at ground level. (continued) . or family room. utility room. ‡ Patios and terraces may be attached to the recreation area. ‡ The intermediate level may also have a foyer.Type . the sloping grade makes this possible. ‡ This level is at ground level also. ‡ Slightly higher than the intermediate level is the living level.

‡ The foyer. ‡ At the highest level of the house is the sleeping level bedrooms and bath. if preferred. dining room. utility. and full or 1/2 bath are generally located on the living level. (continued) .Type . living room.04 Split-Level Designs ‡ The kitchen. and laundry may also be located on this level.

± Heating may be a problem if not handled properly. zoning will solve the problem.04 Split-Level Designs ‡ Split-level houses do have some negative aspects: ± Generally more expensive to build than a twostory house. ± Providing access to the different levels for an older or handicapped person is costly. .Type .

(continued) .Variations of the Split-Level ‡ There are three basic variations of the splitlevel design: ± Side-by-side. ± Back-to-front. ± Front-to-back. ‡ The choice of variation depends on the grade or slope of the lot.

‡ Traditional Split-Level Design ± Split entry between levels. ‡ Front-to-Back Design ± For lots high in front and low in back. . ‡ Back-to-Front Design ± For lots low in front and high in back.Variations of the Split-Level ‡ Side-by-Side Design ± For lots sloping to the right or left. ± Raised basement on flat site.

Split-Level Design Variation ‡ Side-by-side split-level house. (continued) .

Split-Level Design Variation ‡ Front-to-back split-level house. (continued) .

(continued) .Split-Level Design Variation ‡ Back-to-front split-level house.

.Split-Level Design Variation ‡ Traditional split-level design with split entry.

‡ Circulation should be planned for efficiency of movement. ± Foyer should be centrally located. (continued) .Traffic Circulation ‡ A primary consideration in designing a functional plan is traffic circulation. ± Distance from garage to kitchen should be short and direct. ± Bedrooms should be close to a bath. ± Travel should be short and not pass through other rooms.

.Traffic Circulation ‡ This arrangement provides for good traffic circulation.

‡ Intermediate Level. The lowest level of the house that is mostly below the grade level. 86 . A house design that is basically a one-story house with a steeper roof for expansion of the attic. ‡ Living Level.Glossary ‡ Basement. The next level up from the intermediate level in a splitlevel design. ‡ One-and-One-Half Story. The next level up from the basement in a split-level design.

‡ Traffic Circulation. ‡ Split-Level. ‡ Sleeping Level. The highest elevation in a split-level house design. The movement of people from one area or room to another. 87 . A house design that has all regular living space on one level.Glossary ‡ One-Story Ranch. A house design developed to solve the problem of a sloping site by shifting floor level areas to accommodate the site.

A house design that has living space on two full levels. 88 .Glossary ‡ Two-Story.