JKA319/E DAN JKA430/E KAEDAH KUANTITATIF

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DR. SURESH KUMAR N VELLYMALAY Pusat Pengajian Pendidikan Jarak Jauh Universiti Sains Malaysia

Penyelidikan
¶The objective of a research is to capture its frame.· Satu kaedah sistematik untuk mencari jawapan bagi soalan-soalan tertentu dalam menghasilkan ilmu. Menyumbang kepada pemahaman yang lebih baik tentang satu-satu fenomena

Penyelidikan kuantitatif
‡ Mengukur fakta yang bersifat objektif ‡ Memfokuskan pada pembolehubah ‡ Menggunakan analisis statistik

Kerangka Penyelidikan Kuantitatif
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Pemilihan tajuk Pernyataan masalah (supaya masalah dapat dikaji) Tujuan Persoalan kajian dan objektif kajian Tinjauan literatur Konsep, teori dan hipotesis Sumber data (natural/semi natural), jenis (primer/sekunder) dan bentuk (kualitatif/kuantitatif) ukuran perlu dinyatakan bagi setiap pembolehubah Pemilihan sumber data (Persampelan) Pengumpulan data Analisis data Masalah dan limitasi kajian

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Pendekatan Kuantitatif
‡ Pemilihan tajuk ‡ Persoalan kajian ‡ Rekabentuk kajian - pemilihan sampel - pengukuran (perkara yang ingin diukur) - teknik (soal selidik) ‡ Mengutip/kumpul data ‡ Analisis data ‡ Interpretasi data

Cth: 1
‡ Tajuk- Penglibatan ibu bapa dalam pendidikan anak di SK. ‡ Persoalan kajian: Apakah latar belakang sosioekonomi bagi ibu bapa yang dikaji? Apakah strategi-strategi penglibatan ibu bapa dalam pendidikan anak? Adakah latar belakang sosioekonomi ibu bapa memberi kesan kepada strategi-strategi penglibatan ibu bapa dalam pendidikan anak?

‡ Rekabentuk Sampel: 150 ibu bapa pelajar dipilih dari SK Kaedah: persampelan rawak berlapis Instrumen kajian: Soal selidik digunakan untuk mengumpul data (kandungan soal selidik) ‡ Pengumpulan data prosedur : soalan diajukan kepada ibu bapa dan pengkaji tandakan pada soal selidik (temubual berstruktur) ‡ Analisis data SPSS ‡ Intepretasi data

Pemilihan sampel
Pemilihan sampel harus representatif iaitu yang dapat mewakili populasi. Persampelan Kebarangkalian: setiap subjek mempunyai ciri yang sama dalam populasi Persampelan rawak mudah Persampelan sistematik Persampelan rawak berlapis Persampelan kelompok/cluster (13 uni pilih 5; setiap satu pilih 100 pljr)

Persampelan bukan kebarangkalian: setiap subjek mempunyai peluang yang tidak sama untuk dipilih. Pemilihan subjek adalh mengikut ciri tertentu. Persampelan secara kebetulan (mana-mana yang ditemui) Persampelan bertujuan (merokok/x merokok) Persampelan kuota (pendapat pelajar yang guna komputer/ x guna komputer) subjek dipilih secara kebetulan; yang ditemui dahulu. Persampelan bola salji

Penentuan Saiz sampel
Table 1. Sample size for ±5%, ±7% and ±10% Precision Levels Where Confidence Level is 95% and P=.5. Size of Sample Size (n) for Precision (e) of: Population ±5% ±7% ±10% 100 81 67 51 125 96 78 56 150 110 86 61 175 122 94 64 200 134 101 67 225 144 107 70 250 154 112 72 275 163 117 74 300 172 121 76 325 180 125 77 350 187 129 78 375 194 132 80 400 201 135 81 425 207 138 82 450 212 140 82

(Israel, 2009)

Konsep dan Pembolehubah (a) konsep
Taraf sosioekonomi ‡ Taraf Pendidikan - Pendidikan tertinggi yang dicapai oleh ibu/bapa ‡ Pekerjaan - Pekerjaan terakhir yang dilakukan oleh ibu/bapa ‡ Pendapatan - Pendapatan terakhir ibu/bapa ‡ Pendapatan Isi Rumah - Pendapatan ibu, bapa dan ahli keluarga lain yang bekerja

Konsep dan Pembolehubah (a) pembolehubah
‡ Taraf Pendidikan Lapan kategori ordinal iaitu: ‡ Tiada pendidikan, memasuki sekolah rendah tetapi tidak tamat pendidikan sekolah rendah, tamat pendidikan sekolah rendah, tidak tamat pendidikan sekolah menengah, tamat sekolah menengah, sijil/diploma, ijazah pertama dan ijazah lanjutan.

Soalan dalam soal selidik
Taraf pendidikan ibu/bapa
1 = Tiada pendidikan formal 2 = Memasuki sekolah rendah tetapi tidak tamat pendidikan sekolah rendah 3 = Tamat pendidikan sekolah rendah 4 = Tidak tamat pendidikan sekolah menengah 5 = Tamat sekolah menengah 6 = Sijil dan diploma 7 = Ijazah pertama 8 = Ijazah lanjutan seperti Sarjana dan Ph. D.

SPSS
Table 2: Parents¶ Education Level

Education Level No formal education Completed primary Did not complete secondary Completed secondary Cert/Diploma First Degree Masters/PhD Total
n=150

Frequency 7 21 39 68 8 6 1 150

Percentage 4.7 14.0 26.0 45.3 5.3 4.0 0.7 100.0

Table 2 presents the education level of the parents¶ in this study. The analysis shows that 90.0% of the parents had only attained secondary education and below. Almost half of the parents (45.3%) had completed secondary education, 26.0% of the parents managed to go to secondary school but did not complete their secondary education. Meanwhile, about 14.0% of the parents had only completed primary education and 4.7% of the parents had never been to school. Only 10.0% of the parents in this study had completed their tertiary education. As can be seen from Table 2, 90.0% of the parents have no professional qualifications. It is apparent from this table that 4.7% of the parents had no formal education. Moreover, even though 45.3% parents had completed their secondary education, there was no evidence that they had passed their examinations.

SPSS
Table 1: Background of the respondents
Gender Background of the respondents Male Female 30 years and below 31 - 40 years 41 ± 50 years 51 ± 60 years Urban Rural No formal education Completed primary education Did not complete secondary education Completed secondary education Certificate/Diploma holders First Degree holders Professional and technical Administration and clerical Service Business Labour Not working (Housewives) Percentage (%) 20.7 79.3 11.3 57.3 27.3 4.0 54.0 46.0 12.0 27.3 26.7 32.0 1.3 0.7 2.0 2.0 0.7 5.3 45.3 44.7

Age

Home

Level of education

Occupation

n=150

Konsep dan Pembolehubah (a) konsep
Strategi penglibatan ibu bapa ‡ Tingkah laku Membantu Kerja Rumah Tingkah laku ibu/bapa membantu kerja rumah anaknya yang diberikan oleh pihak sekolah ‡ Tingkah laku Mengenal pasti Kerja Rumah - Tingkah laku ibu/bapa mengenal pasti semua kerja rumah yang diberikan oleh pihak sekolah. ‡ Tingkah laku Membimbing Peperiksaan - Tingkah laku ibu/bapa membimbing anak sebagai persediaan menhadapi peperiksaan.

Konsep dan Pembolehubah (a) pembolehubah
Membantu Kerja Rumah - Penggunaan skala Likert bagi mendapatkan jawapan kepada soalan tentang tingkah laku ibu/bapa membantu kerja rumah anaknya yang diberikan oleh pihak sekolah.

Soalan dalam soal selidik
Untuk setiap pernyataan, sila nyatakan sama ada: 1 = Tidak bersetuju 2 = Kurang bersetuju 3 = Kurang bersetuju / bersetuju 4 = Bersetuju 5 = Sangat bersetuju

Saya membantu kerja rumah diberikan oleh pihak sekolah? 1 2 3 4

anak 5

saya

SPSS
Table 3: Strategies of Parental Involvement in Child s Education at Home Strategies
Strongly Disagree (%)
1.3 0.7 1.3 3.3 0.7 4.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.7 1.3 3.3 8.7 2.0

Disagree Disagree / (%) Agree (%)
7.3 7.3 10.0 10.0 6.7 15.3 6.7 10.0 8.0 6.0 9.3 8.0 15.3 10.7 5.3 5.3 16.0 9.3 10.0 9.3 15.3 18.7 15.3 9.3 12.0 16.0 9.3 6.7

Agree (%)
36.0 46.0 42.0 40.7 35.3 34.0 38.0 36.7 36.7 32.7 46.0 32.0 26.0 38.7

Strongly Agree (%)
50.0 40.7 30.7 36.7 47.3 37.3 38.7 33.3 38.7 51.3 31.3 40.7 40.7 42.0

Mean

SD

Discussion on future planning Discussion on school activities Identifying learning pattern Identifying academic problems at school Identifying academic problems at home Assisting with homework Identifying homework Guidance for examination Monitoring academic performance at school Motivation Time Limits Getting reading materials Tuition Monitoring activities

4.26 4.19 3.91 3.97 4.22 3.85 4.06 3.91 4.03 4.28 3.97 3.99 3.75 4.08

0.95 0.89 0.99 1.08 0.93 1.19 0.96 1.02 0.99 0.91 0.97 1.09 1.36 1.05

n=150 One of the major goals of this study is to determine the strategies used by the parents to be involved in their child¶s education. Table 3 presents the results obtained from the preliminary analysis on the strategies used by the parents to be involved in their child¶s education. The data indicated that parents were highly involved and used many strategies of involvement in their child¶s education. As shown in Table 3, there were seven strategies used by the parents which had mean values above 4.0. The strategy of motivation recorded the highest mean value of 4.28 indicating that parents show high involvement in motivating their child. The results also indicated that parents showed high involvement in discussing their child¶s future plans with them (4.26), identifying academic problems faced by their child at home (4.22) and in discussing their child¶s activities at school (4.19). In addition, the results also indicated that parents showed high involvement in monitoring their children¶s activities besides the regular activities at home and at school (4.08), identifying their children¶s homework given by the school (4.06) and monitoring their children¶s academic performance at school from time to time (4.03).

Skala ukuran pembolehubah
‡ Nominal - 1. lelaki 2. perempuan (bangsa, parti politik, warna) ‡ Ordinal - disusun dari kecil (nilai kecil) ke besar (nilai besar). ‡ Selang dan nisbah 1-10, 11-20, 21-30 ‡ Jarak selang adalah sama * Nisbah ada nilai sifar benar Lain: Likert, Thurstone (S/TS)

Hipotesis
‡ Hipotesis (ramalan pengkaji tentang hubungan antara pembolehubah) Katakan anda ingin mengkaji hubungan taraf pendidikan ibu bapa dan penglibatan ibu bapa dalam membantu kerja rumah anak. Hipotesis nul pernyataan yang neutral bagi hipotesis penyelidikan.

H : Tiada hubungan yang signifikan antara taraf pendidikan ibu bapa dan penglibatan ibu bapa dalam membantu kerja rumah anak. SPSS: Membantu kerja rumah anak = 0.27** Hipotesis Nul ditolak. Terdapat hubungan signifikan dan positif antara taraf pendidikan ibu bapa dan penglibatan ibu bapa dalam membantu kerja rumah anak. Bermakna, lebih tinggi taraf pendidikan ibu bapa, lebih tinggi penglibatan ibu bapa dalam membantu kerja rumah anak.

SPSS
Table 4: Correlation between Parents¶ Education Level and Strategies of Parental Involvement Strategies Parents¶ education Discussion on future planning Discussion on school activities Identifying learning patterns Identifying academic problems at school Identifying academic problems at home Assisting with homework Identifying homework Guidance for examination Monitoring academic performance at school Motivation Time limits Getting reading materials Tuition Monitoring activities
n = 150 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)

Correlation Coefficient (r) 1.00 0.33** 0.27** 0.35** 0.33** 0.35** 0.27** 0.27** 0.25** 0.19* 0.38** 0.20* 0.30** 0.18* 0.37**

As shown in Table 4, the bivariate relationship between parents¶ education and the strategies showed that the relationship was moderate for seven of the fourteen strategies implemented. All seven strategies implemented are significant at the p = 0.01 level. Hence, there is evidence that parents with more education are more involved in their child¶s education. As can be seen from Table 4, parents with more education are more involved in motivating their child (r = 0.38, p < 0.01), monitored their child¶s activities off-home and off-school besides the regular activities at home and at school (r = 0.37, p < 0.01).

RESEARCH REPORT
Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Literature review Chapter 3 Research Method Chapter 4 Findings/Results Chapter 5 Discussion References Appendices

Chapter 1 Introduction
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduction Background of the study Statement of the problem Research goals Research questions and Objectives Hypothesis Importance of the study Limitation

Chapter 2 Literature Review
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Intro Definition of Concept Literature review Theoretical Framework (Theory) Theoretical Model (if any) Conclusion

Chapter 3 Research Method
Intro Research strategy Source of data Research method Sample Procedure Instrument Formal definitions Operational definitions ‡ Pilot study ‡ Reliability test/analysis item to total/Cronbach s alpha ‡ Conclusion ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Chapter 4 Findings/Results
‡ Intro ‡ Analysis/Findings ‡ Conclusion

Chapter 5 Discussion
‡ Discussion ‡ Implications ‡ Recommendations for future research

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