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How to analyze Coverage Issues in DT

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

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Coverage

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‡ Downlink RxLevel and Coverage ‡ Coverage of single cell ‡ Coverage of whole network

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Coverage
Network Coverage is evaluated by: RxLev = EIRP(dBm) ± L(dB) Where: EIRP = Effective Isotropic Radiated Power L = Propagation Losses EIRP(dBm) L(dB) RxLev(dBm) Unexpected coverage (overshooting)

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Good coverage

In urban area, Lower Antenna Height (<=25m), Greater downtilt (>=6 degree), and Lower EIRP (<=41 dBm) are used to control overshooting & interference.
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Coverage(one cell)
‡ The following example shows the downlink RxLevel(Dedicated Mode) decreases when MS is driving away from BTS.
Downtilt: 0 drgree

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‡

The RxLevel decrease faster when Antenna Downtilt increase.

RxLevel

Variation s due to Rayleigh fading Global means Variation due to shadowing
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Downtilt: 8 drgree

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Coverage(Network)
‡ ‡ The picture shows the coverage of a city, which contains good and bad coverage areas. The distribution of downlink RxLev concentrates from -80 to -95 dBm.

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Good Coverage

Bad Coverage

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Coverage Issues

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What is «
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Coverage hole Sudden Decrease on Signal Level Line of Sight Lost Lack of Dominant Server Coverage Overlapping Overshooting

Coverage Hole
Legend
RxLevel

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Poor Coverage Areas

Bad RxQuality

Call Drop

RxQuality 

RxLevel(Serving Cell) is about (or less than) -95 dBm 

RxLevel(Neighbours) are about (or less than) -95 dBm
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Sudden Decrease on Signal Level 
RxLev(Serving Cell and Neighbors) decrease in a short time.  Check if there is big change of testing environment, e.g. check if the test was performed on a highway and that particular area was a tunnel or not.  Signal level on the chart will make a curve rather than unstable changes.  This usually results in Ping Pong Handovers

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Line of Sight Lost

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Signal Strength of Serving cell make fast up and down due to far away server being blocked by obstacles from the terrain. The other way, signal from the server lose line of sight(LOS) to the mobile because of a hill of something.
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RxQuality goes worse when the level drops down fast

Lack of Dominant Server 
Signal Level of more than one cell (Serving Cell and Neighbors) are not high enough.  This might happen because the MS is located on the cell borders and there is no any best server to keep the call.  Lack of Dominant Server Causes too many Handovers Between the same Cells

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Coverage Overlapping 
Signal Level of 3±4 cells are too closed to each other.  This might point overlapping cells.  This will cause quality problems because of frequency reuse  Immediate action to optimize cell coverage should be taken by by power reductions, downtilts or other configuration changes.
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Overshooting 
MS is covered by the serving cell, but is outside the cell  BSC thinks that it is neighbour cell A and makes a handover to cell A  The MS is not near cell A so the assigned TCH for the handover is not used  Cell A will have unused TCH (handover)  The call might be dropped because it cannot make the handover

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Serving cell

BTS

Other cell B BSIC 1 Freq. A

Neighbour cell A BSIC 1 Freq. A

Coverage spot (island effect)

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Proposal of Coverage Issue

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‡ Solution of low coverage ‡ Solution of overshooting and overlapping

Solutions of Low Coverage
Possible solution can be listed as below: 
   New Site Proposal Sector Addition Site Configuration Change (Antenna Type, height, azimuth, tilt changes) Loss or Attenuation Check ( Feeders, Connectors, Jumpers, etc..)

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Proposal
New Site Proposal

Remark
Most effective solution, but the cost is highest

How to do
Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the best locations to put new sites Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the recommended azimuth of new sectors Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the recommended height, type, azimuth or down tilt of sector.

Effective solution Sector Addition but only for Omni-Site Difficult, high cost Height Difficult, high cost Type Antenna Easy to operate Azimuth Downtilt Easy to operate Only for troubleshooting Feeders Hardware Connectors Only for troubleshooting Only for troubleshooting Jumpers

Referring to hardware checking guide

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Solutions of overshooting or overlapping
Possible solution can be listed as below: 
Site Configuration Change (Antenna Type, height, azimuth, tilt changes)  Cell Configuration Change (Carrier Power Type, Static TRX Power Class, Fine Tuning of Static TRX Power«)

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Proposal
Antenna Height Type Azimuth Downtilt

Remark
Difficult, high cost Difficult, high cost Easy to operate Easy to operate

How to do
Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the recommmended height, type, azimuth or downtilt of sector. Referring to Data Configuration Reference Help

Parameter

Easy to operate, but with Output Power related risk of coverage reduction

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Thank you
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