General concept of Frequency hopping

1

Background
During a call, a number of physical effects influence the perceived radio environment between a mobile station and a base station. One such effect is multipath fading, which means that transmitted signals reach the receiver via multiple paths. Depending on the difference in path length. Another effect is various types of interference. The dominating type is normally co-channel interference, but other types, such as adjacent channel interference, intermodulation products, military sources etc. must be considered as well.

2

Multipath fading
The destructive interference produced by multipath fading is called “fading-dips”. Fading dips may cause speech quality degradation. For different frequencies, the fading dips will occur at slightly different positions in space.

3

Impact on Network Quality
Multipath Fading

A result of scattering environments  Leads to reduced transmission quality  A challenge to mobile communication systems

4

Co-channel interference
The interference situation for a mobile is strongly dependent on which frequency and time-slot that the mobile happens to use. Normally co-channel interference is caused by frequency re-use

5

What can be achieved
 

Frequency diversity Interference averaging

6

Frequency diversity
Frequency hopping can reduce the influence of signal strength variations caused by multipath fading. Multipath fading is frequency dependent. This implies that the fading dips appear at different locations for different frequencies.
7

Interference averaging
Frequency hopping can also break up persistent interference into periodic occasions of single burst interference. Changing frequency at each burst offers a way to improve the interference situation described above. The co-channel interference will change at every burst. The more frequencies that are used in the hopping, the more rare such frequency collisions will be.
8

FREQUENCY DIVERSITY
Protection Against Deep Fading for Slow Mobiles.  Frequency Selective Nature of the Fading: All Frequencies Not Faded at the Same Time and at the Same Position.  Corrupted Bursts are Reduced and Temporally Spread: More Effectiveness of Decoding and Deinterleaving Processes.

9

FREQUENCY DIVERSITY (2)
Non Hopping
Freq. f1

Freq. f1

Hopping

Corrupted Bursts

Freq. f2
10

FREQUENCY DIVERSITY (3)
More Concentration of the Received Level Values Around the Mean (Smaller Deviation).  Frame Erasure Rate (FER) is the Right Measure of the Voice Quality (Higher RxQual Values are Tolerated With Frequency Hopping)

11

Interference in Fixed Networks
(Non-hopping)
   

Permanent interference between interfering cells The call quality is fixed at either Good or Bad Large separation required to overcome the interference At the expense of frequency reuse

f1
6325000 ///
1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 9

*

0

#

f1
6325000 ///
1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 9

Interference

*

0

#

12

INTERFERENCE AVERAGING
FIXED SYSTEM: Permanent Interference Between Interfering Cells When There is a Call.  HOPPING SYSTEM: Variable Interference Depending on the Frequencies Used to Transmit each Burst.  The Calls Experience an Average Quality Instead of Extreme Situations of Either Good or Bad Quality.

13

INTERFERENCE AVERAGING (2)
f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1

Wanted Call (f1 fixed)
f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1

Interfering Call (f1 fixed) Corrupted Bursts because of Interference

Non Hopping

f1 f3 f1 f2 f3 f1 f2 f1 f3 f1 f2 f3 f2 f1 f2 f1 f3 f2 f3 f1 f2 f1 f3 f1 f3 f2 f1

Wanted Call (Hopping over f1, f2, f3)
f3 f2 f1 f3 f1 f3 f2 f3 f1 f2 f1 f3 f1 f2 f3 f1 f2 f1 f3 f2 f1 f3 f1 f2 f1 f2 f3

Hopping

Interfering Call (Hopping over f1, f2, f3)

Corrupted Bursts because of Interference
14

INTERFERENCE AVERAGING (3)
Decoding and Deinterleaving Processes are Able to Cope with a Higher BER => Higher RxQual is Tolerated With F. H. Without Impacting the Quality (Lower FER).  Hopping: Bad Perceived Quality => RxQual = 6 or 7  Non Hopping: Bad Perceived Quality => RxQual = 5, 6 or 7

15

INTERFERENCE AVERAGING (4)
Q U Q U A C A P A C A P
HOPPING SYSTEM

C

OR

A Q U A
HOPPING SYSTEM

P

OR

Q U A

C A P

NON HOPPING SYSTEM

HOPPING SYSTEM

QUALITY-CAPACITY TRADE-OFF: "For the same capacity FH improves the quality, and for a given average quality FH makes possible increase the capacity".
16

Interference in Hopping Networks

Discontinuous Interference
 Effectiveness

enhanced

of channel coding and interleaving

Spreading interference - interference diversity
 Call

experiences better average quality

f1 f 2 f3 f4
1 4 7

63250 00 ///
2 5 8 3 6 9

*

0

#

f1 f2 f3 f4
1 4 7

63250 00 ///
2 5 8 3 6 9

*

0

#

f1 f2 f3 f4

63250 00 ///
1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 9

*

0

#

f1 f2 f3 f4

63250 00 ///
1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 9

*

0

#

17

Short technical description
 

Baseband frequency hopping Synthesizer frequency hopping

18

Baseband frequency hopping
At baseband hopping each transmitter operates on a fixed frequency.  The disadvantage is that it is not possible to use a larger number of frequencies than there are transmitters.

19

Baseband frequency hopping
Controller TRX1 Controller TRX2 Controller TRX3 Controller TRX4 X X X X Transmitter f1 Transmitter f2 Transmitter f3 Transmitter f4

Combiner

Bus for routing of burst

20

BASE BAND H0PPING (BBH)
  

The TCUs Always Transmit a Fixed Frequency. The Call "Hops" over the TCUs, Always in the Same Timeslot, on a per Burst Basis. In Reception the Call is Always Processed by the Same TCU (The one where the Call Started). The Number of Frequencies to Hop Over is Limited by the Number of TCUs Equipped in the Cell. The BCCH Carrier Can Hop in Timeslots 1 to 7 (Without Power Control/DTX).

21

Synthesizer frequency hopping
The transmitter tunes to correct frequency at transmission of each burst.  The advantage is that the number of frequencies that can be used for hopping is not dependent on the number of transmitters .  The disadvantage is that wide-band hybrid combiners have to be used .

22

Synthesizer frequency hopping
Controller TRX1 Controller TRX2 Controller TRX3 Controller TRX4 Transmitter f1,f2,…,fn Transmitter f1,f2,…,fn Transmitter f1,f2,…,fn Transmitter f1,f2,…,fn Hybrid Combiner

23

SYNTHESISER FREQUENCY HOPPING (SFH) The TCUs are Able to Retune to a New

 

Frequency Each Burst. The Call Always Stays in the Same TCU. One TCU Can Hop up to Over 64 Different Frequencies. Wide-Band Combining Devices (Hybrids) are Required in the Base Station (Cavity Combiners Can Not be used with SFH).

24

Algorithm
Hopping sequence  Cyclic hopping  Random hopping

25

Implementation with SFH
    

Separate frequency band for BCCH Re-use pattern MAIO HSN Fraction load

26

Coverage overlapping constrain

Due to SFH with 1x1 or 1x3 are tight re-use patterns then coverage control is major constrain. Homogeneous network is recommended.

27

Frequency constrain

Performance of SFH depends on one factor which called “Fractional load” Maximum fractional load is 50% means number of frequency required is at least 2 time number of TCH Trxs used.

28

Separate frequency band for BCCH
BCCH cannot cope with high interference as TCH due to :  BCCH is not hop with SFH.  Power control and DTX are not support on BCCH.

29

Re-use pattern for SFH
 1. 2. 3.

Standard re-use pattern Re-use 1x1. Re-use 1x3. Mixed.

30

Re-use 1x1
  

Define every frequencies to every BTS. Avoid co-channel by MAIO and HSN Consider all frequencies assigned as frequency group A re-use pattern will be as follow:
GroupA GroupA

GroupA

GroupA GroupA

GroupA

GroupA

GroupA

GroupA

31

Re-use 1x3
   

Separate all frequencies into 3 groups. Define 3 frequency groups to every sites. Avoid co-channel by MAIO and HSN Consider all frequencies assigned as frequency group A,B and C re-use pattern will be as follow:
GroupA GroupA

GroupB

GroupC GroupA

GroupB

GroupC

GroupB

GroupC

32

Mobile allocation index offset

Define the first frequency of group for the first burst.
0 f1 1 f2 2 f3 3 f4 4 f5 … .. N-1 fn

Index Frequency group

33

Example of MAIO setting
The random sequence of synthesizer hopping will appear as follows for eight frequencies:6,(HSN = 0) Index : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7

Controller TRX1 Controller TRX2 Controller TRX3 Controller TRX4

Transmitter f1, f2, .., f8 Transmitter f1, f2, .., f8 Transmitter f1, f2, .., f8 Transmitter f1, f2, .., f8

f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7, f8
f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7, f8 f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7, f8 f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7, f8

(MAIO = 0) (MAIO = 2) (MAIO = 4) (MAIO = 6)

Combiner

fn : frequency of the first burst fn : frequency of the second burst
34

Fraction load

Ratio to determine how tight of frequency re-use for SFH. Define by :
Number of frequencies used at a time (per re-use cluster) * 100 Number of frequencies per group

 

Recommended fraction load = 35-40% GSM defines maximum fraction load = 50%
35

Example of fraction load calculation
1x3 Number of frequencies : 46 Number of frequencies for BCCH and GB : 16 Number of TCH frequencies per group : 10 Site configuration : 6+6+6 (Tch : 5+5+5)

Fractional load = 5/10 = 50%

36

Example of fraction load calculation
1x1 Number of frequencies : 46 Number of frequencies for BCCH and GB : 16 Number of TCH frequencies per group : 30 Site configuration : 6+6+6 (Tch : 5+5+5)

Fractional load = 15/30 = 50%

37

REUSE PATTERNS WITH FH

3x3 Reuse Pattern 1 Freq./Carrier Base Band Hopping

1x3 Reuse Pattern

1x1 Reuse Pattern

More Than 1 Freq./Carrier Synthesiser Frequency Hopping
38

Use Separate Bands for BCCHs & TCHs.
n channels m channels

PRACTICAL RULES FOR F.H. IMPLEMENTATION
TCH BCCH

• The Larger the Separation of the Frequencies in the Hopping Sequence, the Higher the Benefits of Frequency Hopping. (Frequency Diversity) • Quality Handovers Need to Be Optimised (Higher RxQual Threshold).
39

FREQUENCY HOPPING PERFORMANCE

Different Scenario Types:
NETW ORK TYPE A B C D SITE DISTRIBUTION Regular Irregular Regular Irregular SECTOR ORIENTATION Regular Regular Irregular Irregular OROGRAPHY OF THE AREA Flat Flat Hilly Hilly

40

CASE STUDY
 

1x3 SFH System. 1x1 SFH System.

41

1x3 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK

Scenario
 High

Concentration of Sites in the Busiest Area.  Irregular Sector Orientation.  Extremely Difficult Planning (Presence of Hills, River, Sea, ...).

System Description
 16

Sites (47 Cells)  2/2/2 Configuration in Most of the Sites and 3/3/3 in the Centre  40 Frequencies Available

42

1x3 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK (2)

SFH System
21 Frequencies for BCCHs  18 Frequencies for TCHs With SFH  1x3 Reuse Pattern Using Sequences of 6 Frequencies  Expansion to 3/3/3 Configuration in Some Cells

Exceptions to the Regular Pattern due to the Scenario
43

1x3 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK (3)

Regular 1x3 Reuse Pattern Hopping Over 6 Frequencies

HOPPING SYSTEM
f1, f4, f7, f10, f13,,f16 f2, f5, f8, f11, f14, f17 f3, f6, f9, f12, f15, f18

44

1x3 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK (4)
TCH RF_Loss
1 0,9 0,8

0,902 0,71

Percentage

0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0

OMC STATS

FIXED SYSTEM

1x3x6

20% Reduction in RFloss on Traffic Channels

45

1x3 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK (5)
HO Suc. Rate
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1,14

HO Fail Rate
94,65
1,12

94,23

1,14

Percentage

Percentage

1,1 1,08 1,06 1,04 1,02 1 0,98 0,96

1,03

FIXED SYSTEM

1x3x6

FIXED SYSTEM

1x3x6

OMC STATS
 

More Successful Handovers 10% Reduction in Drop Calls due to Failures in HO

46

FIXED SYSTEM: 2 Carriers per Cell SFH SYSTEM: 3 Carriers per Cell

1x3 SFH ON TYPE D NETWORK (6) CAPACITY SOLUTION

82% CAPACITY INCREASE IN A REAL NETWORK
47

1x1 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK CAPACITY AND QUALITY 40 FrequenciesSOLUTION
15 Frequencies for BCCHs  7 Frequencies for Micros  18 Frequencies for TCHs With SFH

1x1 Reuse Pattern Using Sequences of 6 Frequencies  4/4/4 Configuration in Most of the Cells  More than 70 Sites

48

Same MA for All Cells  Different HSN per Site (Same for Cells on the Same Site)  Non-Adjacent MAIOs on the Carriers  Interference Avoidance between Carriers of the Same Site

49

1x1 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK (2) IMPLEMENTATION

1x1 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK (3) 0 6 12 IMPLEMENTATION (2)  1x1 SFH: 18

4 10 16

2 8 14

Frequencies  Up to 9 Hopping Carriers per Site Without Interference  4/4/4 Configuration
BCCH TCH Hopping (MAIO)
50

1x1 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK (3)
DROPPED CALLS (RFLOSSES)
2,20 2,17 2,00 1,80 1,76 2,04

(%)

1,72

1,60 1,40 1,20 1,00 SFH 1x3x6 (*) SFH 1x1x18 1,46

TOTAL_RF_LOSS SDCCH_RF_LOSS TCH_RF_LOSS 1,39

Configuration

51

1x1 SFH ON A TYPE D NETWORK (4)
DROPPED CALLS AND FAILS ON HANDOVERS
2,50 2,41 2,00 1,68 1,45 1,00 1,46 HO_FAIL DROPPED CALLS

1,50

(%)
0,50 0,00

SFH 1x3x6 (*)

SFH 1x1x18

Configuration

52

ADVANTAGES QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
Reduction in FER  Improve Subjective Voice Quality  Reduction in Drop Calls  Increase Call Success Rate

53

Quality Improvement

Summary

Frequency diversity
 Enhanced

immunity to multipath fading  Reduced spread of signal strength

Quality improvement: FER, voice quality, dropped call rate and handover failure rate - all improved

54

ADVANTAGES (2) CAPACITY INCREASE
The Same Quality is Achieved With Lower C/I Values.

Reuse the Frequencies in a Tighter Way

ADD MORE CARRIERS & MORE SITES
55

ADVANTAGES (3) CAPACITY INCREASE (2)
NUMBER OF DRCUs NUMBER OF TCHs TRAFFIC OFFERED (E)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 14 22 30 38 45 53 61 69 2.94 8.20 14.9 21.9 29.2 35.6 43.1 50.6 58.2

Cell Placed in a NonLocation Area Border

TRAFFIC OFFERED
56

ADVANTAGES (4) CAPACITY INCREASE (3)
FREQ UENCIES CO NFIG URATIO NS TRAFFIC O FFERED (E/Km CAPACITY INCREASES ) AVAILABLE FIXED BBH SFH FIXED BBH SFH BBH / FIXED 47% 33% 22% SFH / FIXED 82% 96% 97% 99% SFH / BBH 82% 33% 48% 63%
2

24 36 48 60

2/2/2 2/2/2 * 3/3/3 3/3/3 4/4/4** 5/5/5 4/4/4 5/5/5 7/7/7

31.32 56.91 83.64 111.54

31.32 83.64 111.54 135.99

56.91 111.54 164.64 222.30

5/5/5 6/6/6 * 9/9/9

(*) 3 Frequencies Left (**) One of the Frequencies Reused in a 2x3 Pattern
57

Quality-Capacity Trade-off
Capacity Quality Capacity Capacity Quality
OR OR

Quality

Fixed

Hopping

Hopping

Quality

Hopping

For a given capacity FH improves the quality  For a given average quality FH increases capacity by implementing AGR

Capacity

58

Conclusions
Frequency hopping is a powerful technique to improve transmission quality and enhance capacity  Synthesiser frequency hopping is a cost effective and flexible means to maximising capacity using AGR  Motorola’s wide scale deployment of frequency hopping networks validated the effectiveness of the frequency hopping

59

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