DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS

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1.TENSION MEMBERS(INTRODUCTION,ILLUSTRATIONS AND USES). 2.GENERAL THEORIES OF IS 800:1984 AND IS 800:2007. 3.A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TENSION MEMBER DESIGN USING IS 800:1984 AND IS 800:2007.

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED .DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS BY ARNAB DUTTA.

IS A TENSION MEMBER.1(C)] (SUCH BUILDINGS ARE USED IN EARTHQUAKE PRONE ZONES AS A WAY OF MINIMISING INERTIA FORCES ON THE STRUCTURE).GENERAL INTRODUCTION ‡ TENSION MEMBERS ARE LINEAR MEMBERS IN WHICH AXIAL FORCES ACT SO AS TO ELONGATE (STRETCH) THE MEMBER. THEY DO NOT FAIL BY BUCKLING. AND SAG RODS OF ROOF PURLINS [FIG 1(D)] ARE OTHER EXAMPLES OF TENSION MEMBERS. ‡ TIES OF TRUSSES [FIG 1(A)]. SUSPENDERS OF BUILDINGS SYSTEMS HUNG FROM A CENTRAL CORE [FIG. SUSPENDERS OF CABLE STAYED AND SUSPENSION BRIDGES [FIG.1 (B)]. A ROPE. FOR EXAMPLE. . ‡ UNLIKE COMPRESSION MEMBERS. SINCE THE ENTIRE CROSS SECTION IS SUBJECTED TO UNIFORM STRESSES. TENSION MEMBERS CARRY LOADS MOST EFFICIENTLY.

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THEY BUCKLE AT VERY LOW COMPRESSION AND ARE NOT CONSIDERED EFFECTIVE.2 (E)] ARE USED AS SUSPENDERS IN THE CABLE SUSPENDED BRIDGES AND AS MAIN STAYS IN THE CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES. THE TENSION MEMBERS IN BRIDGE TRUSSES ARE MADE OF CHANNELS OR I SECTIONS.THE TENSION MEMBERS CAN HAVE A VARIETY OF CROSS SECTIONS. STEEL WIRE ROPES [FIG. ACTING INDIVIDUALLY OR BUILT-UP [FIGS.2 (D)] ARE USED IN BRACINGS DESIGNED TO RESIST LOADS IN TENSION ONLY. THE SINGLE ANGLE AND DOUBLE ANGLE SECTIONS [FIG 2(A)] ARE USED IN LIGHT ROOF TRUSSES AS IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS. THE CIRCULAR RODS [FIG. 2(C) AND 2(D)]. .

BEHAVIOUR OF TENSION MEMBERS .

WHERE.67 fall=250/1.THE DIRECT STRESS IN AXIAL TENSION OR THE EFFECTIVE NET AREA SHOULD NOT EXCEED GIVEN BY THE EQUATION.67=160 MPa . MOST OF THE CODES ASSUME A FACTOR OF SAFETY OF 1.DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS (IS 800:1984) ‡ PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN AXIAL TENSION IT IS RELATED TO THE GUARANTEED MINIMUM YIELD POINT OF STEEL WITH AN APPROPRIATE FACTOR OF SAFETY.67. fY= MINIMUM YIELD STRESS OF STEEL IN (MPA). fY=250 Mpa PARTIAL FACTOR OF SAFETY=1.

NET SECTIONAL AREA (DUE TO RIVET /BOLT HOLES) .

Net effective area = Where A1 is the area of the connected leg. connected by one leg only. A2= area of the outstanding leg. CASE 1 In the case of single angles in tension. and ‡ .NET SECTIONAL AREA(DEDUCTION DUE TO OUTSTANDING LEG) ‡ AN ANGLE IS USUALLY CONNECTED TO A GUSSET PLATE BY ONE LEG AND A TEE IS CONNECTED THROUGH ITS FLANGE ONLY.

.NET SECTIONAL AREA(DEDUCTION DUE TO OUTSTANDING LEG) ‡ IN THE CASE OF PAIR OF ANGLES BACK TO BACK (OR A SINGLE TEE) IN TENSION CONNECTED BY ONLY ONE LEG ON EACH ANGLE (OR BY THE FLANGE OF A TEE) TO THE SAME SIDE OF THE GUSSET PLATE.

10 . The corresponding design strength in member under axial tension is given by (C1. Hence. in the members T < Td Design Strength due to Yielding of Gross Section Although steel tension members can sustain loads up to the ultimate load without failure. fy is the yield strength of the material (in MPa).DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS (IS 800:2007) Tension Members The factored design tension T. A is the gross area of cross section in mm2 and yielding. the elongation of the members at this load would be nearly 10-15% of the original length and the structure supported by the member would become unserviceable. in the design of tension members. the yield load is usually taken as the limiting load. The value of mO is the partial safety factor for failure in tension by mO according to IS: 800 is 1.62) Td= (fy A)/ ¥mO Where.

the stress at that point remains constant at the yield stress and the section plastifies progressively away from the hole [fig.4. fu.4(c)]. [fig. Finally.9fU An / ¥mO Where.3) T dn=0.4 (d)]. An is the net area of the cross section after deductions for the hole [Fig.DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS (IS 800:2007) DESIGN STRENGTH DUE TO RUPTURE OF THE NET SECTION On further loading. . fu is the ultimate stress of the material. as long as the stresses in the gross section is below the yield stress.4(b)].4. Hence.6. fy.4 (b)] and m1 is the partial safety factor against ultimate tension failure by rupture ( m1 = 1.4.25 ). and the overall member elongation need not be large. the design strength as governed by net cross-section at the hole. tdn. is given by (c1.4. Since only a small length of the member adjacent to the smallest cross section at the holes would stretch a lot at the ultimate stress. the rupture (tension failure) of the member occurs when the entire net cross section reaches the ultimate stress. until the entire net section at the hole reaches the yield stress. [fig.

first. This factor is in the range of 2 to 3. . The tensile stress in a plate at the cross section of a hole is not uniformly distributed in the tension member: behaviour of tension members elastic range. The ratio of the maximum elastic stress adjacent to the hole to the average stress on the net cross section is referred to as the stress concentration factor.4(a)].DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS (IS 800:2007) DESIGN STRENGTH DUE TO YIELDING OF THE NET SECTION Frequently plates under tension have bolt holes. In statically loaded tension members with a hole. fy. the point adjacent to the hole reaches yield stress. depending upon the ratio of the diameter of the hole to the width of the plate normal to the direction of stress. but exhibits stress concentration adjacent to the hole [fig 4.

DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS (IS 800:2007) FAILURE DUE TO BLOCK SHEAR .

DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS (IS 800:2007) TENSION PLANE FAILURE S .

DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS (IS 800:2007) .