Associate Professor and Head, Department of Commerce and Financial Studies, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli -24
& Founder- Publisher & Chief Editor,

SMART Journal of Business Management Studies,


Dissertation means a long essay, especially one written for a university degree or diploma.

Thesis refers to a statement or theory that is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved.

Research Paper refers to assembling of data collected, analysis thereon and presenting them in the accepted form.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Argumentative papers, Analytical papers, Definition papers, Compare and contrast papers, Cause and effect papers, Reports, and Interpretive papers.

but the research and analysis must be supported by factual data for both sides of the argument . and will conclude with the author analyzing the pros and cons of each argument. The confusing element of an argumentative paper is that the author is expected to favor one side more than the other on an issue. ARGUMENTATIVE PAPERS ARGUMENTATIVE PAPERS present two sides of a controversial issue in the one paper.1. A good argumentative paper will include in-text citations from researchers that present logical facts from both sides of an issue.

The . methodology or conclusions of other researchers and will conclude with a summation of the findings and a suggested framework for further study on the issue. ANALYTICAL PAPERS It includes information from a range of sources but the focus on analyzing the different viewpoints represented from a factual rather than opinionated standpoint. author may focus on the findings.2.

the information (left unanalyzed) and actual facts found in another's research paper findings. research paper will include facts from a variety of sources. DEFINITION PAPERS DEFINITION PAPERS are relatively self- explanatory. The .3. It describes a topic from a factual standpoint that is usually devoid of emotion or the opinion of the author.

4. COMPARE AND CONTRAST PAPERS COMPARE AND CONTRAST PAPERS are often used in literature to compare two different authors. However The The main part of the paper will be the comparison and contrasting examples provided by the author to support a thesis. they can also be required in social sciences to compare two different theoretical viewpoints important part of paper is that while both elements in the paper need to be described succinctly. or stories from a particular genre. .

will not only outline the predicted results from the action / situation specified.5. . Used It in Business and Management Education. but show the range of results that could arise from this one situation through to its logical conclusion. CAUSE AND EFFECT PAPERS CAUSE AND EFFECT PAPERS trace the probable or expected results from a particular action or policy in a logical progression that is easily followed by the reader.

REPORTS follow a memorandum or similar business format and they are often written to outline a case study situation .6.

The key element is evidence that the student has written the paper based on an established theoretical framework with supporting data to back up the thesis statement and findings. Examples. or a psychological case profile in either sociology or psychology fields.a business situation in a management course. a piece of art or a poem in literary fields . . INTERPRETIVE PAPERS Often required by tutors in literature. humanities and social sciences and they require the student to use the theoretical knowledge gained in a course of study to a particular case study.7.

WHY WRITE RESEARCH PAPERS? Ideally ² to share research findings and discoveries with the hope of improving knowledge. Practically ² to get funding to get promoted to get a job to keep your job! .

WHAT MAKES A GOOD RESEARCH PAPER? Good content Good writing Publication in good journals .

A GOOD PAPER SHALL HAVE CERTAIN BASIC AND ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITIES Clarity Concepts Addressing the problem Language Presentation Use of data in the paper Size of the report Footnotes and citations .

THINGS TO CONSIDER BEFORE WRITING .FOR AUTHORS Time to write the paper Tables and figures Read references Choose journal Tentative title and summary Choose co-authors .

COMPONENTS OF THE RESEARCH ARTICLE The hardest part is getting started Title Abstract Introduction Review of Literature Statement of the Problem Need of the Study Methods Results and Discussion Acknowledgements References .

concise and meaningful title which creates interest Better? ´Insight into the internal service quality perception of bank employeesµ . but probably include: y y y A clear.TITLE Will determine whether paper gets read Avoid long title (see journal rules) Title format: y What is wrong with this one? ´Internal service quality insight and perception of bank employeesµ This is to some extent subjective.

ABSTRACT Critical part of paper State main objective Summarize most important results State major conclusions and significance Key words Avoid acronyms Write and rewrite until flawless .

INTRODUCTION Build theory for why study is important /necessary Provide brief theoretical background What is Statement of the Problem? State central question Identify the gap in knowledge addressed .

implications .RESULTS AND DISCUSSION First answer the question posed in introduction Relate your conclusion to existing knowledge Discuss weaknesses and discrepancies Explain what is new without exaggerating Do not repeat results Conclusion/summary. perspectives.

REFERENCES Relevant and recent Be highly selective Read the references Do not misquote Use correct style for journal .

they die in the hands of businessmen. -Bernard DeVoto .WHERE TO PUBLISH RESEARCH PAPER?     Publication Channels Journals Technical Reports Conference Proceedings House Magazines Great Journals are born in the hands of the editors.

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE RIGHT JOURNAL? What·s important to Author? y y y y y y y y y y y y y International VS National VS Local Journal reputation / Journal impact Circulation. colour work charges Publication benefits: preprints. visibility Acceptance/rejection rates Speed of handling Speed of publication Quality of printing ² graphics Publication costs: author pays. « Subscription or Open Access Professional Society Publication? SCI (Science Citation Index) Covered? Impact Factor Talk to colleagues. seek advice y For choosing journal and writing paper . issue of journal. page charges.

CITATION INDEX A citation index is an index of citations between publications. starting with the Science Citation Index (SCI). Eugene Garfield's Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals. allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. In 1960. . The first citation indices were legal citators such as Shepard's Citations (1873).

book. title. Citation is the process of acknowledging or citing the author. or other) of a source used in a published work. and locus of publication (journal. Such citations can be counted as measures of the usage and impact of the cited work . year.CITATION IMPACT Later expanding to produce the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI).

a journal (average citation count for the articles in the journal). or average citation count per article).CITATION USES an individual article (how often it was cited). an author (total citations. .

Other Measures of Citation Many measures have been proposed. beyond simple citation counts. The best-known measures include the H-index and the G-index. Each measure has advantages and disadvantages. to better quantify an individual scholar's citation impact. spanning from bias to disciplinedependence and limitations of the citation data source .

They are now generally accessed through the Web under the name Web of Science. which similarly combines subject searching with citation browsing and tracking in the sciences and social sciences.MAJOR CITATION INDEXING SERVICES ISI (now part of Thomson Scientific). which publishes Scopus. which is in turn part of the group of databases in the Web of Knowledge. Elsevier. . available online only. which publishes the ISI citation indexes in print and compact disc.

is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals Used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. often abbreviated IF.IMPACT FACTOR The impact factor. .

Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuter's Journal Citation Reports. . The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield. now part of Thomson Reuters. the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI).

For example. if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008.CALCULATION OF IMPACT FACTOR In a given year. the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years. . then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average.

("Citable items" are usually articles. proceedings. or notes.CALCULATION The y 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows: A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008 B = the total number of "citable items" published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. reviews. not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B y y Note that 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009 .

The IF is used to compare different journals within a certain field . it is possible to calculate it for any desired period and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The impact factor relates to a specific time period.

VALIDITY OF IMPACT FACTOR The The IF is highly discipline-dependent impact factor could not be reproduced in an independent audit impact factor refers to the average number of citations per paper. Being an arithmetic mean. but this is not a normal distribution. as predicted by theory. is rather a Bradford distribution. the impact factor therefore is not a valid representation of this distribution and unfit for citation evaluation The It .

VALIDITY In the short term .especially in the case of lowimpact-factor journals .many of the citations to a certain article are made in papers written by the author(s) of the original article .

MANIPULATION Publish a larger percentage of review articles which generally are cited more than research reports Change the fraction of "citable items" compared to front-matter in the denominator of the IF equation A journal to cite articles in the same journal which will increase the journal's impact factor .

H-INDEX The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other people's publications .

The index works properly only for comparing scientists working in the same field. . citation conventions differ widely among different fields The -index serves as an alternative to more traditional journal impact factor metrics in the evaluation of the impact of the work of a particular researcher. The index is based on the distribution of citations received by a given researcher's publications.

Each database is likely to produce a different for the same scholar . CALCULATING THE H.INDEX The -index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. The -index grows as citations accumulate and thus it depends on the 'academic age' of a researcher.

Google Scholar identified 53% more citations than Web of Knowledge and Scopus combined. but noted that most of the additional citations reported by Google Scholar were from low-impact journals or conference proceedings .

CRITICISM The -index does not account for the number of authors of a paper The -index does not account for the typical number of citations in different fields The -index is bounded by the total number of publications The -index does not consider the context of citations he -index does not account for confounding factors such as "gratuitous authorship" .

Applicability ² How do findings apply to the world of practice? Does it pinpoint the way forward for future research? Internationality ² Does it take an international.SOME KEY QUESTIONS FOR AUTHORS Readability ² Does it communicate? Is it clear? Is there a logical progression without unnecessary duplication? Originality ² Why was it written? What·s new? Credibility ² Are the conclusions valid? Is the methodology robust? Can it be replicated? Is it honest ² don·t hide any limitations of the research? You·ll be found out. global perspective? .

YOUR OWN PEER REVIEW Let someone else see it ² show a draft to one or more friends or colleagues and ask for their comments. advice and honest criticism Always proof-check thoroughly ² no incorrect spellings. no incomplete references. Spell checkers are not fool-proof .

Acquisitions editor (or commissioning editor in Britain). who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript through bound journals and usually assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities . Project editor or production editor. who contracts with the author to produce the copy 2.EDITORS OF SCHOLARLY JOURNALS Editors of scholarly journals are of three types 1.

who performs the tasks of readying the copy for conversion into printed form. . Copy editor or manuscript editor.EDITORS OF SCHOLARLY JOURNALS 3. The primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy.

OTHER CATEGORIES OF EDITORS AT JOURNALS Helpful to know because you might interact with each Main categories: y y y Editor-in-chief Managing editor Manuscript editor .

does this piece differ enough to printing again? . 1.WHAT DO EDITORS LOOK FOR IN ARTICLES? Editors approve or reject articles based on the publication·s publishing criteria. 2. Has a similar piece run in the recent past? If yes. Criteria such as: Did the writer submit the piece to the right editor? Has the editor already accepted a similar piece? Will the piece fit into the publication·s editorial calendar? 4. 3.

Does the piece fit for an online publication? Will this piece still have truth six months down the line? What about a year from now? 7.WHAT DO EDITORS LOOK FOR IN ARTICLES? (CONTD.) 5. will the piece still be news or valuable to the publication·s audience when it hits the stands? 6. Is the piece restricted by time? In other words. Does the piece deliver everything the author promised in the query letter? .

Is the piece the correct word count? 11. Is the piece well-written? In other words. is it free of grammatical and spelling errors? . What section would this piece fit into? 10.WHAT DO EDITORS LOOK FOR IN ARTICLES? (CONTD.) 8. Is the piece written in the publication·s voice? 9.

Does the piece have a natural flow or does it read as though it has a lot of missing information? . is the piece worth asking the writer for a rewrite? 13.) 12.WHAT DO EDITORS LOOK FOR IN ARTICLES? (CONTD. If there are grammatical errors. Is this an opinion piece or one based on expert quotes and facts? 14.


15. Does the piece offer something of value or does it leave the reader thinking? 16. If the general idea of the piece is good, but not quite on target with the publication·s theme, is it worth the time to ask the writer to refocus the piece? 17. Is the piece too controversial for the publication·s audience?

18. Does anything in the piece have the potential of a lawsuit?


Editors simply reject articles from writers who·ve been blacklisted.

Editors may look to see if a writer can follow simple directions.

A writer·s ability to follow directions is often a good indicator of his/her willingness to work with the editor as well as his/her reliability.


Originality ² what·s new about subject, treatment or results?

Relevance to and extension of existing knowledge Research methodology ² Innovative and accepted methodology conclusions valid

Clarity, structure and quality of writing ² does it communicate well?

EDITORS AND REVIEWERS LOOK FOR « Sound. logical progression of argument Theoretical and practical implications (the ¶so what?· factors!) Recency and relevance of references Adherence to the editorial scope and objectives of the journal .

Why? Scope ² any papers OBVIOUSLY not within the scope of the journal Length ² any papers not conforming to the length policy requirements Format ² the format of the paper should be according to the guidelines of the Journal English ² any papers that are deemed to be of VERY poor quality References ² any papers with either very few. or only very old references The Editorial Office assumes that if a paper passes initial quality checks. it is suitable for sending to reviewers Editor has small window of opportunity to decline a paper .INITIAL CHECKS AT JOURNALS· OFFICE The editorial office/Editor will immediately reject some papers.

give references to previous) y Are the references adequate? (If No. make suggestions) .WHAT THE REFEREES ARE ASKED? General: y Is the subject matter suitable for publication in this journal? (If NO. provide suggestions) y Should the paper be shorter? (If Yes. suggest other journals) y Does the paper describe original work? (If No.

WHAT THE REFEREES ARE ASKED? (CONTD) Evaluation of technical content: y y Theory Engineering application Presentation: y y Has the author demonstrated the value of the work? Is the manuscript organised to show clearly what has been done? y Is the use of English clear and unambiguous? .

OPTIONS GIVEN TO REFEREE Accept Accept subject to minor revisions Accept subject to major revisions Decline with encouragement to submit a substantially revised paper Decline .

PROCESS OF ACCEPTANCE FOR A JOURNAL ² JUST ONE EXAMPLE Submissions Editor·s Decision To first review Decision 100% OK (48%) Receive (28%) Reject (24%) Withdrawn (10%) Revise (37%) Reject (29%) Withdrawn (6%) Revise (3%) Reject (2%) 66% To second review Decision 31% OK (26%) Published 29% .

5 months .TIMETABLE FROM SUBMISSION TO INITIAL FEEDBACK TO AUTHORS The Editor(s) do an initial read to determine if the subject matter and research approach of the manuscript is appropriate for the journal (approximately 1 week) The Editor(s) identify and contact two reviewers for the manuscript (approximately 1 week) Reviewers are usually given 6-8 weeks to complete their reviews The Editor(s) assess the reviewers' comments and recommendations and make a decision on the manuscript (approximately 2 weeks) Expected time from submission to review feedback: 3 .3.

not YOU y You will need to revise the paper AND reply to each point describing what you have done in response Always be courteous and professional « We are indebted to the referees for their many helpful comments to improve our paperµ .REVISING PAPER If you can make changes ² move fast Paper is often re-reviewed by original referees and this can be quite quick Don·t get defensive Referees like to look useful y They may be right! y Remember it·s the paper they are criticizing.

they aren·t personal .REVISING A request for revision is good news! You are now in the publishing cycle. Nearly every published paper is revised at least once Don·t panic! Even if the comments are sharp or discouraging.

why not) .HOW TO REVISE YOUR PAPER? Acknowledge the editor and set a revision deadline Clarify understanding if in doubt ² ¶This is what I understand the comments to mean«· Consult with colleagues or co-authors and tend to the points as requested Meet the revision deadline Attach a covering letter which identifies. point by point. how revision requests have been met (or if not.

and re-submit elsewhere. Everybody has been rejected at least once Keep trying! . Do your homework and target your paper as closely as possible Don·t give up! At least 50% of papers in business and management don·t get published. and listen to what is being said Try again! Try to improve the paper.IF YOUR PAPER IS REJECTED « Ask why. Take a deep breath. and listen carefully! Most editors will give detailed comments about a rejected paper.

Entire sections.FEEDBACK EXAMPLES (ALL REAL!) ´This is outstanding work that should definitely be presentedµ ´ Please accept « this critique as a love of the paper.« Please rewrite the paper. Second. sections and paragraphs do not discuss what they are purported to set out to discuss. are presented out of order. Third. It has four high-level problems. as well as paragraphs within sections. This cannot be overstated. and a desire to see it improved so that it is equally loved and embraced by y the entire communityµ ´ The paper is poorly written.µ . « « Fourth. «. it is poorly organized. First.

We are pleased to accept your paper and look forward to publishing itµ THANK YOU .A SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME! ´Thank you for submitting your work to this journal.