Absence in his-story

Putting women in the picture
‡ In 1971, the American art historian Linda Nochlin famously asked why there were no great women artists. ‡ One of many academics then scouring museums and archives for evidence of women¶s creativity

Putting women in the picture
Anna Atkins: first to use photograms (illustrations of flora and fauna) Lady Eastlake: prominent critics debating the nature of photography Lady Hawarden : victorian women renowned for family album Julia M.Cameron : among the first to stage mythological scenes

Berlin Lette: number of women were trained in Germany at the
Verein¶s photographic school, one of the best establishments in Europe

Alice Austen, Frances B. Johnson, Jessie T. Beal:
used the camera to explore their local communities

Gertude Kasebier and Agnes Warburg : belonged
to pictorialist groups

Putting women in picture
‡ Sophia Goudstikker (Munich) and Madame Yolande (London) : operated their own successful businesses ‡ Christina Broom (Mrs Albert): british photojournalist styled
as a press photographer

‡ Mary Schaeffer: american ethnographer documenting First Nation
peoples in the Canadian Rockies

‡ Claude Cahun, Hannah Hoech, Lotte Jacobi and Lucia Moholy : involved in the aesthetic and political
experimentation of the 1920s, and the expansion of magazine journalism amd advertising in the Weimar Republic created many openings for women

‡ Gisèle Freund and Germain Krull : worked in portraiture
and documentary

Putting women in the picture
‡ Gerda Taro: war photographer (the first of many women)
‡ Margaret Bourke White : created the first cover picture for Life

‡ By the turn of the 21st century, the market value of works by celebrities like Nan Goldin and Cindy Sherman was fully comparable to that of men.

Putting women in the picture
‡ Naomi Rosenblum A History of Women Photographers (2nd
ed. 2000)

‡ Val Williams Women Photographers: The Other Observers
1900 to the Present

‡ Constance Sullivan Women Photographers(1900) ‡ Sarah Graham-Brown Images Of Women: The Portrayal Of
Women In Photography Of The Middle East, 1860-1950

‡ Jo Spence and Joan Solomon What Can a Woman Do
with a Camera? (1995)

‡ Liz Heron and Val Williams Illuminations: Women Writing
on Photography (1996)

Putting women in the picture
‡ Victor Burgin Looking at Photographs in Thinking Photography

‡ Marita Sturken and Lisa Cartwright Practices of Looking:
An Introduction to Visual Culture (2001)

‡ Liz Wells Photography: A Critical Introduction (3rd ed, 2004)

Putting women in the picture
‡ Woman photographer in 1970s and 1980s: ‡ Donna Ferrato
± Study of domestic violence

‡ Jo Spence
± Interrogating the family album

Gender and Representation
‡ Feminist movement
± Brought questions of gender and culture into focus

Three concerns:
1) 2) 3) Given the numbers of women photogrpahers, questions were asked about their relative absence To give equal access to training work Questions of gender and representation were addressed

Gender and Representation
‡ French Feminist Luce Irigaray
± Creativity is not neutral in terms of gender and cultural experience
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Parameters less fixed (advertising and galleries) New subject matter Experimentation of materials Differents methods of putting content into the picture

‡ Women¶s contribution to photography
± Gender influences form, style and subject matter ± Methods and working including approaches to research

Keeping Others Alive
‡ As Nan Goldin realized that details of her sister were beginning to fade from her memory, she started photographing the people in her life as a way to preserve her friends

The "Goldin Look"
‡ color film ‡ illumination of her subjects with flash allow her to capture vibrant colors. ‡ Using process called Cibachrome, she creates her prints from slides, rather than negatives. Not only does the Cibachrome processing lend her photos garish, bright colors, but it also enhances the texture of colors and lines.

Keeping Others Alive
‡ Important works:
Ballad of Sexual Dependency (1986)
50-minute slideshow of her work put to music (Bjork) 700 slides that have been updated since its first showing in 1980, contains photographs from 1973 through 1989.

The Cookie Portfolio (1976±1989)
Goldin's friendship with Cookie Mueller through 15 photographs from 1976 to Cookie's funeral in 1989. She died of Aids.

Kimiko Yoshida

Rinko Kawauchi

‡ www.wipnyc.org