The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. Due to their power saving features, ARM CPUs are dominant in the mobile electronics market, where low power consumption is a critical design goal.

ARM Evolution 

Evolved from the BBCs Microcomputer Developed by Acorn Computers Ltd of Cambridge, England between 1983 and 1985. First RISC processor available for commercial use. Lot of initial ideas borrowed from Berkeley RISC I and II and Stanford MIPS processors. Initially known as Acorn RISC Machine ARM Limited formed in 1990 after which the name got changed to Advanced RISC Machine

Steve furber Father of ARM

Visible Registers.Computer Architecture   Describes Users view of the Computer Eg.     Instruction Set. Memory Management Table Structure. Exception Handling Models etc .

Transparent Cache.Computer Organization   Describes User Invisible Implementation of the Architecture Eg. Translation Look Aside Buffers etc .    Pipeline Structure.

What is a Processor?    Finite State Automation Executes Instructions held in Memory State depends on values hold by registers & memory .

Switching to privileged mode .Instructions Types     Data Processing Data Movement Control Flow Special Instructions  Eg.

How will u improve the Processor Performance? Instruction Type Data Movement Control Flow Arithmetic Comparisons Logical Other Dynamic Range 43% 23% 15% 13% 5% 1% .

Pipelines       Fetch Decode Register Access ALU Memory. if necessary Write Back Pipeline Hazards .

RISC Organization    Hard Wired Instruction Decode Logic Efficiently Pipelined Single Cycle Execution .

RISC Advantages    A Smaller Die Size A Shorter Development Time Higher Performance (Bit Tricky) .

RISC Disadvantages 

Generally poor code density (Fixed Length Instruction)

Architectural Inheritance The ARM Programmers Model The ARM Development Tools Examples and Exercises

ARM History 


Acorn RISC Machine(1983 1985)

Acorn Computers Limited, Cambridge, England 


Advanced RISC Machine 1990

ARM Limited, 1990 ARM has been licensed to many semiconductor manufacturers

Features Used from Berkeley RISC 

A Load/Store Architecture Fixed Length 32-bit Instructions 323- Address Instruction Formats

 Reason for Rejecting this feature:  Large Chip Area due to large no of regs.  In ARM Shadow Registers used to handle Exceptions are of similar concepts .Features Rejected from Berkeley RISC  Register Windows  Large no of registers out of which 32 Regs are Visible at a time. Procedure Entry & Exit move visible window to each procedure as new regs And thereby reduce Traffic between Processor & Memory.

Not suitable for superscalar architectures .Features Rejected from Berkeley RISC  Delayed Branches Branches cause problem in Pipelines  Most RISC Processor overcome this problem using delayed branches where the branch takes effect after the followin instrn is excuted    Not implemented in ARM to avoid the complexity involved during exception and interrupt handling.

Features Rejected from Berkeley RISC  Single Cycle Execution of ALL Instructions    Single Memory for Instruction & Data Even a simple load/store will require at least two cycles Separate Data & Instruction was the solution but was too costly those times .

The ARM Programmers Model  When writing user level programs only    1515-general purpose 32-bit registers(r0-r14) & 32.registers(r0the Program Counter (r15) & the CPSR need to be considered  The remaining registers are only for system level programming & for handling exceptions .

The Registers  ARM has 37 registers in total. Each mode can access  a particular set of r0-r12 registers r0 a particular r13 (the stack pointer) and r14 (link register)  r15 (the program counter)  cpsr (the current program status register) and privileged modes can also access  a particular spsr (saved program status register)  . with the accessible bank being governed by the processor mode. all of which are 32-bits long. 32 1 dedicated program counter  1 dedicated current program status register  5 dedicated saved program status registers  30 general purpose registers However these are arranged into several banks.

General registers and Program Counter User32 / System FIQ32 Supervisor32 Abort32 IRQ32 Undefined32 r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13 (sp) r14 (lr) r15 (pc) r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8_fiq r9_fiq r10_fiq r11_fiq r12_fiq r13_fiq r14_fiq r15 (pc) r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13_svc r14_svc r15 (pc) r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13_abt r14_abt r15 (pc) r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13_irq r14_irq r15 (pc) r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13_undef r14_undef r15 (pc) Program Status Registers cpsr cpsr sprsr_fiq spsr_fiq cpsr spsr_svc cpsr spsr_abt cpsr sprsr_fiq spsr_irq cpsr spsr_undef sprsr_fiq .

Register Banks   Registers are divided into sets Each operating mode can access a unique set of registers containing     R0 to R12 : general purpose registers R13 : stack pointer R14 : link register R15 : Program counter  Each operating mode can access a unique set of status registers   CPSR : Current Program Status Register SPSR : Saved Program Status Register (only privileged modes) .

Special purpose registers  R13= stack pointer(sp) and stores the head of the stack in the current processor mode. R14= link register(lr) and is where the core puts the return address whenever it calls the subroutine R15= program counter(pc) and contains the address of the next instruction to be fetched by the processor   .

V  The bottom bits are protected by the user level program  I. Z. C. F.CPSR  In user level programs uses CPSR to store the condition code bits as a result of comparision & Arithmatic and logic opns  N. T. mode[4:0] .


F = 1. Processor in Thumb state * * .Program Status Registers (CPSR and SPSRs) 31 28 8 4 0 N Z CV I F T Mode Copies of the ALU status flags (latched if the instruction has the "S" bit set). * Condition Code Flags N = Negative result from ALU flag. Processor in ARM state T = 1. disables the IRQ. disables the FIQ. Z = Zero result from ALU flag. I = 1. * Interrupt Disable bits. C = ALU operation Carried out V = ALU operation oVerflowed Mode Bits M[4:0] define the processor mode. T Bit (Architecture v4T only) T = 0.

ARM Modes of Operations ° ° ° ° ° ° ° 10000 10001 10010 10011 10111 11011 Non-Privileged User Normal user code Mode FIQ Processing fast interrupts IRQ Processing standard interrupts SVC Processing software interrupts (SWIs) Abort Processing memory faults Undef Handling undefined instruction traps 11111 System Running privileged operating system tasks Privileged Modes .

used to ± service interrupts ± exceptions ± access protected resources (via SWI Instruction) ‡ Privileged modes ‡ User mode User mode OK Privileged modes NOT OK ± Only possible through Controlled mechanisms: SWI. Exceptions. Interrupts .User Mode vs Privileged Modes ‡ User Applications run in User Mode ‡ Privileged modes.

816or 32-bit (W) 32Words are always aligned at 4-byte 4boundaries i.The Memory System     Memory may be viewed as linear array of bytes number from 0 to 2^32 1 Data Bytes may be 8-bit (B).e least two bits are zero Half Words are aligned on even boundaries . 16-bit (HW).

ARM Memory Organization bit 31 23 19 15 11 7 3 22 18 14 10 6 2 21 17 13 9 5 1 bit 0 20 16 12 8 4 0 word16 half-word14 half-word12 word8 byte6 half-word4 byte3 byte2 byte1 byte0 byte address .

LoadLoad-Store Architecture    Data Processing Instructions Data Transfer Instructions Control Flow Instruction .

ARM Instruction Set        LoadLoad-Store Architecture 3-Address Data Processing Instructions Conditional Execution of Instructions Powerful Load/Store Multiple Register General Shift Operation (Single Cycle) Extension of Instruction Set Co-processor Co1616-bit Compressed Instruction Set .

I/O System     Memory Mapped with Interrupt Support Internal Registers in devices will act as addressable locations in ARM s Memory Map Peripheral may use IRQ or FIQ May have DMA Support .

ARM Exceptions  ARM supports range of Interrupts. all grouped under general heading of Exceptions . Supervisor Calls. Traps.

ARM Development Tools  Software Development   ARM Ltd GNU Tools tools run on different architecture from one for which they produce code  CrossCross-development  .

ARM Development Tools C source C libraries asm source C compiler .axf debug object libraries system model ARMsd ARMulator development board .aof as sembler linker .


Agenda      Data Processing Instructions Data Transfer Instructions Control Flow Instructions Writing Simple Assembly Language Programs Examples and Exercises .

Data Processing Instructions   These are the only Instruction that modify the data values in ARM Typically require two operands & produce single results (though there are exceptions) .

is 32-bits wide and is 32placed in a register (Exception: Long Multiplications) Each of the operand registers & the results are independently specified in the instruction (ARM 3-Address Instruction format) .Rules for Data Processing Instructions    All operands are 32-bits wide & come from 32registers or are specified as literals in the instruction itself The result. if there is any.

Operands in Data Processing    Simple Register Operands Immediate Operands Shifted Register Operands .

Data Processing Operations     Arithmetic Operations BitBit-wise Operations Register Movement Operations Comparison Operations .

r1. r1. r1.Arithmetic Operations ADD r0. r1. r2 RSB r0. r1. r2 RSC r0. r2 SUB r0. r1. r2 SBC r0.r2 + C .1 r0 := r2 ² r1 r0 := r2 ² r1 + C . r2 r0 := r1 + r2 r0 := r1 + r2 + C r0 := r1 . r2 ADC r0.1 .r2 r0 := r1 .

r1. r2 ORR r0. r1. r2 BIC r0.BitBit-wise Logical Operations AND r0. r1. r2 EOR r0. r2 r0 := r1 and r2 r0 := r1 or r2 r0 := r1 xor r2 r0 := r1 and (not) r2 . r1.

r2 r0 := r2 r0 := not r2 .Register Movement Operations MOV r0. r2 MVN r0.

r2 TEQ r1.r2 set cc on r1 + r2 set cc on r1 and r2 set cc on r1 xor r2 .Comparison Operations CMP r1. r2 set cc on r1 . r2 TST r1. r2 CMN r1.

#1 .Immediate Operands  If we need to add constant   ADD r3. r8 := r7[7:0] Immediate Operands imm = (0->255) * 2^n (0<=n<=12) (0- . r3. r7. #&ff . r3 := r3 + 1 AND r8.

Shift Register Operands  Second register operand is subjected to shift before it is combined with first operand ADD r3. r1. LSL #3 . r3 := r2 + (r1*8) . r2.

Arithmetic Shift Right RORROR.Arithmetic Shift Left ASRASR.Rotate Right Extended .Rotate Right RRXRRX.Logical Shift Right ASLASL.ARM Shift Operations       LSLLSL.Logical Shift Left LSRLSR.

ASR.LSL. RRX 31 0 31 0 00000 00000 LSL #5 31 0 0 31 1 LSR #5 0 00000 0 1 1111 1 ASR #5 . ASL. positive operand 31 0 C ASR #5 . LSR. ROR. negative operand 31 0 C C ROR #5 RRX .

r3. LSL r2 r5: r5 + r3 * 2^r2 . r5.Shift Value in Register  It is also possible to use a register value to specify the number of bits the second operand should be shifted by: ADD r5.

r2 .Setting the Condition Codes     All DPI can affect the condition codes For all DPI except comparisons a special request needs to be made At assembly level the request is made by adding an S to opcode Eg: ADDS r0. r0. r3. r1 ADC r3.

Multiplies   MUL r4. r2 Some Rules    Immediate second operand not supported The result register must not be the same as the first source register If the S bit is set the V flag is preserved & the C flag is rendered meaningless . r3.

Data Transfer Instructions  Single Register Load & Store  transfer of a data item (byte. to save/restore workspace registers. half-word. word) halfbetween ARM registers and memory enable transfer of large quantities of data used for procedure entry and exit. to copy blocks of data around memory allow exchange between a register and memory in one instruction used to implement semaphores to ensure mutual exclusion on accesses to shared data in multis  Multiple Register Load & Store    Single Register Swap Instructions   .

RegisterRegister-Indirect Addressing LDR r0. [r1] STR r0. [r1] r0 := mem32[r1] mem32[r1] := r0 r1 =baase register containing address of memory location .

Pre Indexed Addressing LDR r0. [r1. #4] r0 := mem32[r1+4] .

[r1]. #4 r0 := mem32[r1] r1 := r1 + 4 .Post Indexed Addressing LDR r0.

Auto Indexing Addressing LDR r0. [r1. #4]! r0 := mem32[r1 + 4] r1 := r1 + 4 Where do I use this? .

Exercise   Copy Data from Table1 to Table2 Algorithm:       Pointer to Table1 Pointer to Table2 Load [Table1] Store [Table2] Add 4 to Table1 Add 4 to Table2 .

#4 ADD r2.. #4 ... r1.. r1 points to TABLE1 . TABLE2 LOOP: LDR r0.. TABLE1: ..Answer COPY: ADR r1. TABLE1 ADR r2. [r1] STR r0. . [r2] ADD r1. r2 points to TABLE2 . r2. TABLE2:.

#4 .Better Answer COPY: ADR r1. r2 points to TABLE2 .... r1 points to TABLE1 . [r1]. TABLE1: ... .. TABLE2:. TABLE1 ADR r2. [r2]. #4 STR r0. TABLE2 LOOP: LDR r0.

Multiple Register Transfer   When large quantity of data needs to be transferred But there is a trade off.e less addressing modes . i.

{r0. r2.Example Multiple Transfer LDMIA r1. r5} r0:=mem32[r1] r2 := mem32[r1 + 4] r5 := mem32[r1 + 8] Base Address should be Word Aligned Order of Registers do not matter Normal practice to specify in increasing order Including r15 is also possible .

Exercise  Write a code to add two numbers a & b which are at memory locations 0x80000x80002000 & 0x8000-2001? Check the question 0x8000if some thing is wrong. correct the problem & then write the code!! .

Exercise  Write a code to covert the following C Statements       X= X= X= X= X= X= A+B A B B A A + B*4 A + (B*5) A + (B*5) + (C*8) .

ARM Advanced RISC Machines The ARM Instruction Set .

ARM Instruction Set  LoadLoad-Store Architecture 3-Address Data Processing Instructions Conditional Execution of Instructions Powerful Load/Store Multiple Register General Shift Operation (Single Cycle) Extension of Instruction Set CoCoprocessor 1616-bit Compressed Instruction Set       .

Processor Modes  The ARM has six operating modes:       User (unprivileged mode under which most tasks run) (10000) FIQ (entered when a high priority (fast) interrupt is raised) (10001) IRQ (entered when a low priority (normal) interrupt is raised) (10010) Supervisor (entered on reset and when a Software Interrupt instruction is executed) (10011) Abort (used to handle memory access violations) (10111) Undef (used to handle undefined instructions) (11011) System (privileged mode using the same registers as user mode) (11111)  ARM Architecture Version 4 adds a seventh mode:  .

Each mode can access     a particular set of r0-r12 registers r0a particular r13 (the stack pointer) and r14 (link register) r15 (the program counter) cpsr (the current program status register) a particular spsr (saved program status register) and privileged modes can also access  . with the accessible bank being governed by the processor mode.     1 dedicated program counter 1 dedicated current program status register 5 dedicated saved program status registers 30 general purpose registers  However these are arranged into several banks. all of which are 3232bits long.The Registers  ARM has 37 registers in total.

Register Organisation General registers and Program Counter User32 / System r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13 (sp) r14 (lr) r15 (pc) FIQ32 r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8_fiq r9_fiq r10_fiq r11_fiq r12_fiq r13_fiq r14_fiq r15 (pc) Supervisor32 r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13_svc r14_svc r15 (pc) Abort32 r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13_abt r14_abt r15 (pc) IRQ32 r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13_irq r14_irq r15 (pc) Undefined32 r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13_undef r14_undef r15 (pc) Program Status Registers cpsr cpsr sprsr_fiq spsr_fiq cpsr spsr_svc cpsr spsr_abt cpsr sprsr_fiq spsr_irq cpsr spsr_undef sprsr_fiq .

 Specific instructions to allow access to CPSR and SPSR.  All instructions can access r0-r14 directly.Accessing Registers using ARM Instructions  No breakdown of currently accessible registers. . r0 Most instructions also allow use of the PC.

disables the IRQ.The Program Status Registers (CPSR and SPSRs) 31 28 8 4 0 N Z CV I F T Mode Copies of the ALU status flags (latched if the instruction has the "S" bit set). Processor in ARM state T = 1. T Bit (Architecture v4T only) T = 0. F = 1. * Interrupt Disable bits. C = ALU operation Carried out V = ALU operation oVerflowed Mode Bits M[4:0] define the processor mode. disables the FIQ. Z = Zero result from ALU flag. Processor in Thumb state * * . * Condition Code Flags N = Negative result from ALU flag. I = 1.

Condition Flags Logical Instruction Flag Negative been set (N=µ1¶) number in Zero zero (Z=µ1¶) Carry bits (C=µ1¶) oVerflow bits (V=µ1¶) corruption of No meaning Bit 31 of the result has Indicates a negative signed operations Result is all zeroes Result of operation was Arithmetic Instruction After Shift operation µ1¶ was left in carry flag No meaning Result was greater than 32 Result was greater than 31 Indicates a possible the sign bit in signed numbers .

r14 MOV pc.The Program Counter (R15)  When the processor is executing in ARM state:    All instructions are 32 bits in length All instructions must be word aligned Therefore the PC value is stored in bits [31:2] with bits [1:0] equal to zero (as instruction cannot be halfword or byte aligned). calculated from the PC.   R14 is used as the subroutine link register (LR) and stores the return address when Branch with Link operations are or  . Thus to return from a linked branch  MOV r15.

Register Example: User to FIQ Mode Registers in use Registers in use User Mode r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13 (sp) r14 (lr) r15 (pc) cpsr r8_fiq r9_fiq r10_fiq r11_fiq r12_fiq r13_fiq r14_fiq FIQ Mode r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8_fiq r9_fiq r10_fiq r11_fiq r12_fiq r13_fiq r14_fiq r15 (pc) EXCEPTION r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13 (sp) r14 (lr) Return address calculated from User mode PC value and stored in FIQ mode LR spsr_fiq cpsr spsr_fiq User mode CPSR copied to FIQ mode SPSR Disable FIQ .

IRQ.Exceptions  Exceptions generated as the direct effect of executing an instruction  Software Interrupts. FIQ . Undefined Instructions & Prefetch Aborts  Exceptions generated as a side effect of an Instruction  Data Aborts (Caused by Load/Store Instructions)  Exceptions generated externally. unrelated to Instruction flow  Reset.

does not recognize the currently executing instruction. ° Prefetch Abort: Occurs when the processor attempts to execute an instruction that was not fetched.° Reset: Occurs when the processor reset pin is asserted. ° Software Interrupt (SWI): This is a user-defined intentional synchronous interrupt instruction. (Signalling power-up) ° Undefined Instruction: Occurs if the processor. ° IRQ: Occurs when the processor external Interrupt ReQuest pin is asserted ° FIQ: Occurs when the processor external Fast Interrupt reQuest pin is asserted Exception Sources in ARM . because the address was illegal. ° Data Abort: Occurs when a data transfer instruction attempts to load or store data at an illegal address.

Exception Entry      Changes Operating Mode Save Address of next Instruction in r14 of the new mode Saves Old value of CPSR into SPSR of new mode Disables either IRQ or FIQ if the exception is IRQ or FIQ respectively Forces PC to vector to new address .

Exception Return    Any modified user registers should be restored from the Stack The CPSR should be restored from appropriate SPSR The PC must be changed to relevant User Instruction Stream Problem: Last two cannot be carried out independently.two technics are used to carry out these steps simultaneously .

r14 SUBS pc. r14. #4 SUBS pc. FIQ or Prefetch Abort   To return from Data Aborts  . #8 The S modifier signifies special form of Instruction when the destination is PC  To return from IRQ.Solution 1  To return from SWI  MOVS pc. r14.

Prefetch abort must return one instruction early to execute the instruction that had caused a memory fault when first requested. which was the instruction before the one usurped for exception entry  . Data abort must return two instructions early to retry the data transfer instruction.Note how the return instruction incorporates an adjustment to the return address where necessary:  IRQ and FIQ must return one instruction early in order to execute the instruction that was 'usurped' for the exception entry.

though note that in this case the SPSR must be saved as well as the PC) the restoration of the user registers and the return may be implemented with a single multiple register transfer instruction such as: LDMFD r13!. which will always be the last item transferred from memory since the registers are loaded in increasing order. to allow re-entrant rebehaviour. {r0-r3. for example.SOLUTION2    If the handler has copied the return address out onto a stack (in order. restore and return {r0The CPSR is restored at the same time that the PC is loaded from memory. .pc}" .

EXCEPTION PRIORITIES       Reset Data Abort FIQ IRQ Prefetch Abort SWI. Undefined Instruction .

  Mode field bits Interrupt disable flags if appropriate.Exception Handling and the Vector Table  When an exception occurs. then  ARM state is entered. the core:  Copies CPSR into SPSR_<mode>  Sets appropriate CPSR bits  0x00000000 0x00000004 0x00000008 0x0000000C 0x00000010 0x00000014 0x00000018 0x0000001C Reset Undefined Instruction Software Interrupt Prefetch Abort Data Abort Reserved IRQ FIQ If core implements ARM Architecture 4T and is currently in Thumb state.   Maps in appropriate banked registers  Stores the return address in LR_<mode>  Sets PC to vector address To return. exception handler needs to:   Restore CPSR from SPSR_<mode> Restore PC from LR_<mode> .

Quiz .Verbal       What register is used to store the program counter ? What is r13 often used to store? Which mode. or modes has the fewest available number of registers available? How many and why? Name the exceptions in the ARM? Mention their priorities. What happens on Exception Entry & Exception Exit? .

ARM Instruction Set Format 31 2827 1615 87 0 Instruction type Data processing / PSR Transfer Multiply Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond Cond 0 0 I Opcode S Rn Rd RdHi Rn Rn Rn Rn Rn Rd Rn RdLo Rd Rd Rs Rs Operand2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 Rm Rm Rm 0 0 0 0 0 0 A S 0 0 0 0 1 U A S 0 0 0 1 0 B 0 0 0 1 I P U B W L 1 0 0 P U S W L 0 0 0 P U 1 W L 0 0 0 P U 0 W L Long Multiply Swap (v3M / v4 only) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Offset Register List Load/Store Byte/Word Load/Store Multiple Halfword transfer : Immediate offset Halfword transfer: Register offset (v4 only) Branch Rd Rd Offset1 1 S H 1 Offset2 0 0 0 0 1 S H 1 Rm 1 0 1 L 0 0 0 1 Offset 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Rn CRn L CRn CRd CRd Rd 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 CPNum CPNum CPNum Op2 Op2 Offset 0 1 CRm CRm Rn Branch Exchange (v4T only) 1 1 0 P U N W L 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 Op1 Op1 Coprocessor data transfer Coprocessor data operation Coprocessor register transfer SWI Number Software interrupt .

 This removes the need for many branches. ARM effectively increases number of instructions. However by reusing the condition evaluation hardware. which stall the pipeline (3 cycles to refill). .  Still have to complete cycle so as to allow fetching and decoding of following instructions.Conditional Execution   Most instruction sets only allow branches to be executed conditionally.   All instructions contain a condition field which determines whether the CPU will execute them. NonNon-executed instructions soak up 1 cycle.

V set (overflow) 0111 = VC .Z clear.or N clear and V set (<.C clear or Z (set unsigned lower or same) 1010 = GE . or N clear and V set (>) 1100 = GT . or N clear and V set (>) 1101 = LE .N clear (positive or zero) 0110 = VS . or N clear and V clear (>or =) 1011 = LT .Z set. and either N set and V set.Z clear (not equal) 0010 = HS / CS .The Condition Field 31 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 Cond 0000 = EQ .reserved.N set and V set.N set and V clear.V clear (no overflow) 1000 = HI .always 1111 = NV . or N set and V clear.C set and Z clear (unsigned higher) 1001 = LS .C set (unsigned higher or same) 0011 = LO / CC .C clear (unsigned lower) 0100 = MI -N set (negative) 0101 = PL .Z set (equal) 0001 = NE . or =) 1110 = AL . .

..r1.  For example to add two numbers and set the condition flags:  ADDS r0.Using and updating the Condition Field   To execute an instruction conditionally.r1. If zero flag set then« .. and set flags . r0 = r1 + r2 (ADDAL)  To execute this only if the zero flag is set:  ADDEQ r0.r2 . To cause the condition flags to be updated.r2 .r2 . .. the S bit of the instruction needs to be set by postfixing the instruction (and any condition code) with an S . simply postfix it with the appropriate condition:  For example an add instruction takes the form:  ADD r0. r0 = r1 + r2 . data processing operations do not affect the condition flags (apart from the comparisons where this is the only effect). .r1. r0 = r1 + r2 By default.

 This gives a 26 bit offset which is right shifted 2 bits (as the bottom two bits are always zero as instructions are word aligned) and stored into the instruction encoding. .Branch instructions (1)   Branch : B{<cond>} label Branch with Link : BL{<cond>} sub_routine_label 31 28 27 25 24 23 0 Cond 1 0 1 L Offset Link bit 0 = Branch 1 = Branch with link Condition field  The offset for branch instructions is calculated by the assembler:  By taking the difference between the branch instruction and the target address minus 8 (to allow for the pipeline).  This gives a range of ± 32 Mbytes.

To return from subroutine. once the pipeline has been refilled. pipeline has to refill before execution continues. The "Branch" instruction does not affect LR.Branch instructions (2)       When executing the instruction. . lr  Again. BX  See Thumb Instruction Set Module for details. the processor:  shifts the offset left two bits. the address of the next instruction following the branch with link (allowing for the pipeline). Note: Architecture 4T offers a further ARM branch instruction.e.  i. simply need to restore the PC from the LR:  MOV pc. and adds it to PC. Execution then continues from the new PC. sign extends it to 32 bits. The "Branch with link" instruction implements a subroutine call by writing PCPC-4 into the LR of the current bank.

We will examine the barrel shifter shortly.Data processing Instructions      Largest family of ARM instructions.  First operand always a register .Rn  Second operand sent to the ALU via barrel shifter. Contains:  Arithmetic operations  Comparisons (no results . this is a load / store architecture  These instruction only work on registers. They each perform a specific operation on one or two operands. . all sharing the same instruction format. NOT memory.just set condition codes)  Logical operations  Data movement between registers Remember.


Arithmetic Operations  Operations are:  ADD  ADC  SUB  SBC  RSB  RSC operand1 operand1 operand1 operand1 operand2 operand2 + operand2 + operand2 + carry . r1. r5.operand2 .operand1 + carry .operand1 . #1  RSBLES r4. Operand2  Examples ADD r0.1  Syntax:  <Operation>{<cond>}{S} Rd.operand2 + carry -1 . r2  SUBGT r3. Rn. r3. #5  .

Thus no need to set S bit. Operations are:  CMP operand1 . but result not written Syntax:  <Operation>{<cond>} Rn.Comparisons     The only effect of the comparisons is to  UPDATE THE CONDITION FLAGS. r1  TSTEQ r2. but result not written  CMN operand1 + operand2. Operand2 Examples:  CMP r0. FLAGS. #5 . but result not written  TEQ operand1 EOR operand2. but result not written  TST operand1 AND operand2.operand2.

Rn. r1.r0  Examples:   . r2 r1.r3. Operand2 AND EORS r0.Logical Operations  Operations are:     AND EOR ORR BIC operand1 operand1 operand1 operand1 AND operand2 EOR operand2 OR operand2 AND NOT operand2 [ie bit clear]  Syntax:  <Operation>{<cond>}{S} Rd.

Syntax:  <Operation>{<cond>}{S} Rd.Data Movement  Operations are:   MOV MVN operand2 NOT operand2  Note that these make no use of operand1. r1 MOVS r2. #10 MVNEQ r1.#0  Examples:    . Operand2 MOV r0.

The Barrel Shifter  The ARM doesn t have actual shift instructions. Instead it has a barrel shifter which provides a mechanism to carry out shifts as part of other instructions. So what operations does the barrel shifter support?   .

LSL #5 = multiply by 32 Logical Shift Left (LSL) CF Destination 0 .Left Shift  Shifts left by the specified amount (multiplies by powers of two) e.Barrel Shifter .g.

ASR #5 = divide by 32 Logical Shift Right . e.Right Shifts Logical Shift Right ‡ Shifts right by the specified amount (divides by powers of two) e.. LSR #5 = divide by 32 Arithmetic Shift Right ‡ Shifts right (divides by powers of two) and preserves the sign bit.. for 2's complement operations.Barrel Shifter .0 Destination CF Arithmetic Shift Right Destination Sign bit shifted in CF .g.g.

g.Barrel Shifter .Rotations Rotate Right (ROR) Similar to an ASR but the bits wrap around as they leave the LSB and appear as the MSB. ROR #5 Note the last bit rotated is also used as the Carry Out. Rotates right by 1 bit. Rotate Right Destination CF Rotate Right through Carry Destination CF . e. Rotate Right Extended (RRX) This operation uses the CPSR C flag as a 33rd bit. Encoded as ROR #0.

Using the Barrel Shifter: The Second Operand Operand 1 Operand 2 Barrel Shifter   Register. ‡ Assembler will calculate rotate for you from constant. Result . optionally with shift operation applied. ALU * Immediate value ‡ 8 bit number ‡ Can be rotated right through an even number of positions. Shift value can be either be:  5 bit unsigned integer  Specified in bottom byte of another register.

 the bottom byte of a register (not PC)   Then takes extra cycle to execute  ARM doesn t have enough read ports to read 3 registers at once.e.  Then same as on other processors where shift is separate instruction.Second Operand : Shifted Register  The amount by which the register is to be shifted is contained in either:  the immediate 5-bit field in the instruction 5  NO OVERHEAD Shift is done for free . .executes in single cycle. barrel shifter has no effect on value in register. If no shift is specified then a default shift is applied: LSL #0  i.

r2 = r2 * 7 .1) * (8 . SUBs and RSBs with shifts. r1. r3.  Multiplications by a constant equal to a ((power of 2) ± 1) can be done in one cycle. LSL #3 . A more optimum solution can often be found by using some combination of MOVs. LSL #4 . r2 = r3 * 15 RSB RSB r2. ADDs. r2. LSL #2 Example: r2 = r3 * 105 Example: r2 = r3 * 15 * 7 Example: r2 = r3 * (16 .Second Operand : Using a Shifted Register     Using a multiplication instruction to multiply by a constant means first loading the constant into a register and then waiting a number of internal cycles for the instruction to complete.1) RSB RSB r2. r2. Example: r0 = r1 * 5 Example: r0 = r1 + (r1 * 4) ADD ADD r0. r3. r1.

 This gives a much larger range of constants that can be directly loaded. Instead it is used to store 8 bit constants. .Second Operand : Immediate Value (1)     There is no single instruction which will load a 32 bit immediate constant into a register without performing a data load from memory.. The data processing instruction format has 12 bits available for operand2  If used directly this would only give a range of 4096.. though some constants will still need to be loaded from memory.255.30). 4. 2. giving a range of 0 .  All ARM instructions are 32 bits long  ARM instructions do not use the instruction stream as data. These 8 bits can then be rotated right through an even number of positions (ie RORs by 0.

. #0x1000 (ie 4096) To make this easier.. 26 .260.Second Operand : Immediate Value (2)      This gives us:  0 . => MOV r0..0xff]  256.16320 [0x1000-0x3fc0.4160.. #0x40.1020 [0x100-0x3fc. #0x1000 (ie 0x40 ror 26) The bitwise complements can also be formed using MVN:  MOV r0. 0x40-0xff ror 28] [0x4000x40 4096.255 [0 .1040. => MOV r0. step 64. .. 4224. #0 If the required constant cannot be generated. step 16. 0x40-0xff ror 30] [0x1000x40 1024.264. 0x40-0xff ror [0x10000x4026] These can be loaded using. an error will be reported.. the assembler will convert to this form for us if simply given the required constant:  MOV r0.. step 4. for example:  MOV r0. assembles to MVN r0.4080 [0x400-0xff0.. #0xFFFFFFFF . #4096 ..1056.

it is the recommended way of loading constants.=numeric constant If the constant can be constructed using either a MOV or MVN then this will be the instruction actually generated. generates MOV r0.#0x42  LDR r0. generate LDR r0. sometimes this mechansim will not generate the required constant. .[pc.Loading full 32 bit constants      Although the MOV/MVN mechansim will load a large range of constants into a register. offset to lit pool] As this mechanism will always generate the best instruction for a given case.=0x55555555 .  LDR r0. Otherwise. the assembler also provides a method which will load ANY 32 bit constant:  LDR rd. the assembler will produce an LDR instruction with a PCPCrelative address to read the constant from a literal pool. Therefore.=0x42 .

Multiply  MUL{<cond>}{S} Rd.does addition for free  MLA{<cond>}{S} Rd. Rm. Rm. Rs. These will be picked up by the assembler if overlooked. Rd = (Rm * Rs) + Rn Restrictions on use:  Rd and Rm cannot be the same register  Can be avoid by swapping Rm and Rs around. Rs .  Cannot use PC. .Multiplication Instructions      The Basic ARM provides two multiplication instructions. This works because multiplication is commutative. Rd = Rm * Rs Multiply Accumulate .Rn . Operands can be considered signed or unsigned  Up to user to interpret correctly.

Rs  UMLAL{<cond>}{S} RdLo. Rs Not generated by the compiler. Rm. Rs  SMLAL{<cond>}{S} RdLo. RdHi. non- .RdHi. Rm.RdLo:=Rm*Rs  MLAL which gives RdHi.RdHi. RdHi.MultiplyMultiply-Long and MultiplyMultiply-Accumulate Long     Instructions are  MULL which gives RdHi. Warning : Unpredictable on non-M ARMs.RdLo:=(Rm*Rs)+RdHi.Rm.RdLo However the full 64 bit of the result now matter (lower precision multiply instructions simply throws top 32bits away)  Need to specify whether operands are signed or unsigned Therefore syntax of new instructions are:  UMULL{<cond>}{S} RdLo.Rm.Rs  SMULL{<cond>}{S} RdLo.

r1. LSL #7 . LSL #1 SUB r0. r1. r0. LSL #2 b) RSB r2. LSL #4 ADD r0. #0 3.) d) r1 = r2 * 7 2.Example 1. r1. What does the following instruction sequence do? ADD r0. What will the following instructions do? a) ADDS r0. r1. Specify instructions which will implement the following: a) r0 = 16 b) r1 = r0 * 4 c) r0 = r1 / 16 ( r1 signed 2's comp. r1. r1. r1. r0.

but in practice isn t:  Load data values from memory into registers.  Block data transfer (LDM/STM).  Must move data values into registers before using them.  Process data in registers using a number of data processing instructions which are not slowed down by memory access.  Store results from registers out to memory.  Single Data Swap (SWP).Load / Store Instructions    The ARM is a Load / Store Architecture:  Does not support memory to memory data processing operations. . The ARM has three sets of instructions which interact with main memory. These are:  Single register data transfer (LDR / STR). This might sound inefficient.

Single register data transfer    

The basic load and store instructions are:  Load and Store Word or Byte  LDR / STR / LDRB / STRB ARM Architecture Version 4 also adds support for halfwords and signed data.  Load and Store Halfword  LDRH / STRH  Load Signed Byte or Halfword - load value and sign extend it to 32 bits.  LDRSB / LDRSH All of these instructions can be conditionally executed by inserting the appropriate condition code after STR / LDR.  e.g. LDREQB Syntax:  <LDR|STR>{<cond>}{<size>} Rd, <address>

Load and Store Word or Byte: Base Register 

The memory location to be accessed is held in a base register  STR r0, [r1] ; Store contents of r0 to location pointed to ; by contents of r1.  LDR r2, [r1] ; Load r2 with contents of memory location ; pointed to by contents of r1.
r0 Source Register for STR 0x5 Memory

r1 Base Register 0x200

r2 0x5 0x5

Destination Register for LDR

Load and Store Word or Byte: Offsets from the Base Register 

As well as accessing the actual location contained in the base register, these instructions can access a location offset from the base register pointer. This offset can be  An unsigned 12bit immediate value (ie 0 - 4095 bytes).  A register, optionally shifted by an immediate value This can be either added or subtracted from the base register:  Prefix the offset value or register with + (default) or - . This offset can be applied:  before the transfer is made: Pre-indexed addressing Pre optionally auto-incrementing the base register, by postfixing the autoinstruction with an ! .  after the transfer is made: Post-indexed addressing Post causing the base register to be auto-incremented. auto-incremented.

Load and Store Word or Byte: PrePre-indexed Addressing 

Example: STR r0, [r1,#12]
Offset 12 r1


r0 0x5

Source Register for STR


Base Register




To store to location 0x1f4 instead use: STR r0, [r1,#-12] [r1,#To auto-increment base pointer to 0x20c use: STR r0, [r1, #12]! autoIf r2 contains 3, access 0x20c by multiplying this by 4:  STR r0, [r1, r2, LSL #2]

Load and Store Word or Byte: PostPost-indexed Addressing  Example: STR r0. [r1]. r2. auto-incremenet base register to 0x20c by automultiplying this by 4:  STR r0. #12 r1 0x20c Offset 12 0x20c Memory r0 0x5 Updated Base Register Source Register for STR Original Base Register  r1 0x200 0x200 0x5  To auto-increment the base register to location 0x1f4 instead use: auto STR r0. LSL #2 . [r1]. #-12 #If r2 contains 3. [r1].

 LDR r2. [r1]. Pointer to start of array 2 8 4 0  .  LDR r2. #4 Use a further register to store the address of final element. then we can use post-indexed addressing within a loop: post r1 is address of current element (initially equal to r0). for instance 0 r0 to produce sum of elements in the array. Memory If we want to access a particular element. LSL #2] 12 3 If we want to step through every 1 element of the array.Example Usage of Addressing Modes   Imagine an array. the first element of which is pointed to by the contents of r0. element Offset then we can use pre-indexed addressing: pre r1 is element we want. r1. [r0. so that the loop can be correctly terminated.

.and post-indexed addressing in much the postsame way as the basic load and store instructions.Offsets for Halfword and Signed Halfword / Byte Access   The Load and Store Halfword and Load Signed Byte or Halfword instructions can make use of prepre. However the actual offset formats are more constrained:   The immediate value is limited to 8 bits (rather than 12 bits) giving an offset of 0-255 bytes. 0The register form cannot have a shift applied to it.

 Big endian:   This has no real relevance unless data is stored as words and then accessed in smaller sized quantities (halfwords or bytes). Little endian:  Least significant byte of a word is stored in bits 0-7 of an addressed word. Least significant byte of a word is stored in bits 2424-31 of an addressed word. .  Which byte / halfword is accessed will depend on the endianess of the system involved.Effect of endianess   The ARM can be set up to access its data in either little or big endian format.

Endianess Example r0 = 0x11223344 31 24 23 16 15 87 0 11 22 33 44 STR r0. [r1] 44 33 22 11 r1 = 0x100 Little-endian 31 24 23 16 15 87 0 Big-endian 31 24 23 16 15 87 0 00 00 00 44 00 00 00 11 r2 = 0x44 r2 = 0x11 . [r1] 31 24 23 16 15 87 0 31 24 23 16 15 87 0 r1 = 0x100 11 22 33 44 Memory LDRB r2.

you should assume that:  r0 points to the start of the array.1) x+1 x r0 0 . postAt the start of your segments. where the element x=0 is the first element of the array.Example     Write a segment of code that add together elements x to x+(n-1) of x+(nan array. The segment should use post-indexed addressing. Elements  r1 = x  r2 = n n elements { x + (n . Each element of the array is word sized (ie. 32 bits).

#4 next ADD r1. Access element and move to . r2 BLT loop .repeat for . If not . r1. LSL#2 ADD r2. r0. r1. Add contents to counter . on exit sum contained in r1 . Have we reached element x+n? . [r0]. Set r0 to address of element x . Initialise counter . LSL#2 n+1 MOV r1. r0. #0 loop LDR r3. r3 CMP r0.Sample Solution ADD r0. Set r2 to address of element . r2. next element .

back bit 0 = no write-back 1 = write address into base At least one register must be transferred as the list cannot be empty. For example: ‡ Bit 0 set causes r0 to be transferred. The transferred registers can be either:  Any subset of the current bank of registers (default). Pre/Post indexing bit 0 = Post. subtract offset from base 1 = Up . ‡ Bit 0 unset causes r0 not to be transferred. PSR and force user bit 0 = don¶t load PSR or force user mode 1 = load PSR or force user mode . 1 = Pre . add offset before transfer Write. add offset to base Base register Load/Store bit 0 = Store to memory 1 = Load from memory Each bit corresponds to a particular register.Block Data Transfer (1)   The Load and Store Multiple instructions (LDM / STM) allow betweeen 1 and 16 registers to be transferred to or from memory. add offset after transfer.  Any subset of the user mode bank of registers when in a priviledged mode (postfix instruction with a ^ ). 31 28 27 24 23 22 21 20 19 16 15 0 Cond 1 0 0 P U S W L Rn Register list Condition field Up/Down bit 0 = Down.

 These instructions are very efficient for  Saving and restoring context  For this useful to view memory as a stack.  Moving large blocks of data around memory  For this useful to directly represent functionality of the instructions. Lowest register number is always transferred to/from lowest memory location accessed.    4 different addressing modes allow increment and decrement inclusive or exclusive of the base register location.Block Data Transfer (2)  Base register used to determine where memory access should occur. Base register can be optionally updated following the transfer (by appending it with an ! . .

2.3} SP 3 2 SP BASE 2 1 1 BASE POP Result of pop = 3 SP BASE .Stacks   A stack is an area of memory which grows as new data is pushed onto the top of it. Two pointers define the current limits of the stack. and shrinks as data is popped off the top. PUSH {1.  A base pointer  used to point to the bottom of the stack (the first location).  A stack pointer  used to point the current top of the stack.

.  STMED / LDMED : Empty Descending stack  STMEA / LDMEA : Empty Ascending stack Note: ARM Compiler will always use a Full descending stack. The value of the stack pointer can either:  Point to the last occupied address (Full stack)  and so needs pre-decrementing (ie before the push) pre Point to the next occupied address (Empty stack)  and so needs post-decrementing (ie after the push) postThe stack type to be used is given by the postfix to the instruction:  STMFD / LDMFD : Full Descending stack  STMFA / LDMFA : Full Ascending stack. The ARM also supports ascending stacks. with the last pushed value at the lowest address.Stack Operation     Traditionally. a stack grows down in memory. where the stack structure grows up through memory.

{r0. {r0. {r0.r1.r1.r1.r3-r5} STMFA sp!.r1. {r0.r3-r5} STMEA sp!.Stack Examples STMFD sp!.r3-r5} 0x418 SP r5 r4 r3 r1 r0 SP r5 r4 r3 r1 r0 Old SP Old SP SP r5 r4 r3 r1 r0 r5 r4 r3 r1 r0 Old SP Old SP 0x400 SP 0x3e8 .r3-r5} STMED sp!.

. stack all registers . lr} sp!.. and the return address . pc} sp!. ..{r0-r12. LDMFD sp!....{r0.. Any registers that are needed can be pushed onto the stack at the start of the subroutine and popped off again at the end so as to restore them before return to the caller : STMFD sp!...{r0-r12.. load all the registers ..{r0.Stacks and Subroutines  One use of stacks is to create temporary register workspace for subroutines. and return automatically ....

 In order to do this. LDM / STM support a further syntax in addition to the stack one:     STMIA / LDMIA : Increment After STMIB / LDMIB : Increment Before STMDA / LDMDA : Decrement After STMDB / LDMDB : Decrement Before .e. before or after the memory access. it is clearer to specify exactly what functionality of the instruction is:  i.Direct functionality of Block Data Transfer  When LDM / STM are not being used to implement stacks. specify whether to increment / decrement the base pointer.

r14 points to the end of block to be copied. . r14 points to the end of the source data . r14 . and store them CMP r12.Example: Block Copy  Copy a block of memory. r12 points to the start of the source data . check for the end BNE loop . {r0-r11} {r0. load 48 bytes STMIA r13!. and loop until done   r13 r14 Inc M This loop transfers 48 bytes in 31 cycles Over 50 Mbytes/sec at 33 MHz r12 . r13 points to the start of the destination data loop LDMIA r12!. which is an exact multiple of 12 words long from the location pointed to by r12 to the location pointed to by r13. {r0-r11} {r0.

. and hence requires no use of any other registers for temporary storage.Quiz  The contents of registers r0 to r6 need to be swapped around thus:        r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 moved moved moved moved moved moved moved into into into into into into into r3 r4 r6 r5 r0 r1 r2  Write a segment of code that uses full descending stack operations to carry this out.

{r0-r6} Old SP LDMFD sp!. {r0-r2} S P r6 r5 r4 r3 r2 r1 r0 S P r6 r5 r4 r3 S P r6 r5 r4 r3 = r0 r4 = r1 r6 = r2 r5 = r3 r0 = r4 r1 = r5 r2 = r6 . {r5} SP LDMFD sp!.Quiz .Sample Solution STMFD sp!. {r3.r4.r6} LDMFD sp!.

The compiler cannot produce this instruction. Syntax:  SWP{<cond>}{B} Rd. .Swap and Swap Byte Instructions   quantities between registers and memory. Atomic operation of a memory read followed by a memory write which moves byte or word Rm. [Rn] 1 temp 2 Memory Rm Rd 3 Rn   Thus to implement an actual swap of contents make Rd = Rm.

Software Interrupt (SWI) 31 28 27 24 23 0 Cond 1 1 1 1 Comment field (ignored by Processor) Condition Field      In effect. a SWI is a user-defined instruction. By making use of the SWI mechansim. . userIt causes an exception trap to the SWI hardware vector (thus causing a change to supervisor mode. an operating system can implement a set of privileged operations which applications running in user mode can request. plus the associated state saving). thus causing the SWI exception handler to be called. See Exception Handling Module for further details. The handler can then examine the comment field of the instruction to decide what operation has been requested.

Every instruction can be conditionally executed. A load/store architecture  Data processing instructions act only on registers   Three operand format Combined ALU and shifter for high speed bit manipulation  Specific memory access instructions with powerful autoauto-indexing addressing modes.Main features of the ARM Instruction Set     All instructions are 32 bits long.  Flexible multiple register load and store instructions  Instruction set extension via coprocessors .  32 bit and 8 bit data types  and also 16 bit data types on ARM Architecture v4. Most instructions execute in a single cycle.

Operating States  Supports 2 instruction sets  ARM Thumb 32 bit instruction set 16 bit instruction set  .

ARM State   

Able to access more large memories efficiently 32 bit integer arithmetic in a single cycle More number of instructions Better performance

Thumb Mode: What is Thumb? 

Thumb ISA: 16-bit instruction, dynamically 16decompressed into ARM Instruction before execution Fewer directly accessible GPRs (Only R0-R8) R0The CPU can be switched between ARM ISA mode and Thumb ISA mode dynamically

Switching State 

ARM to Thumb 

Execute the BX instruction with state bit=1 

Thumb to ARM
Execute the BX instruction with state bit=0  An interrupt or exception occurs 

Which state to use 

Low memory system : use thumb 16 bit memory : use thumb Performance is critical : use ARM 

Example : in execution of interrupt routines 

Performance is critical AND Memory is low : use both ARM and thumb example : in interrupt routines

Thumb Decode Stage .

‡ Extension is made to instruction decoder at the processor pipeline ‡ Registers are preserved as 32-bit but only half of them are available .ARM Thumb T (Thumb)-extension shrinks the ARM instruction set to 16-bit word length > 35-40% saving in amount of memory compared to 32-bit instruction set ‡ Extension enables simpler and significantly cheaper realization of processor system. Instructions take only half of memory than with 32-bit instruction set without significant decrease in performance or increase in code size.

Thumb-instruction decoder is placed in pipeline ‡ Change to Thumb-mode happens by turning the state of multiplexers feeding the instruction decoders and data bus ‡ A1 selects the 16-bit half word from the 32-bit bus ‡ Example ADD Rd.# 8 bit connstsnt .

Thumb State Registers .


THUMB ENTRY    ARM cores start up. This instruction sets the T bit if the bottom bit of the specified register was set. either using a special form of data processing instruction or a special form of load multiple register instruction. and switches the program counter to the address given in the remainder of the register. The normal way they switch to execute Thumb instructions is by executing a Branch and Exchange instruction BX . Other instructions which change from ARM to Thumb code include exception returns. after reset. executing ARM instructions. .

 .THUMB EXIT An explicit switch back to an ARM instruction stream can be caused by executing a Thumb BX instruction  An implicit return to an ARM instruction stream takes place whenever an exception is taken. since exception entry is always handled in ARM code.

.THUMB SYSTEMS    All Thumb systems include some ARM code. if only to handle initialization and exception entry. The bulk of the code will not be speed critical and may execute from a 16-bit off-chip ROM. Most of the Thumb applications will make more than this minimal use of ARM code. A typical embedded system will include a small amount of fast 32-bit memory on the same chip as the ARM core and will execute speed-critical routines (such as digital signal processing algorithms) in ARM code from this memory.

16-bit half-word and 32-bit word data types where half-words are aligned on 2-byte boundaries and words are aligned on 4-byte boundaries. . They map onto ARM instructions so they inherit many properties of the ARM instruction set The load-store architecture with data processing. Support for 8-bit byte. data transfer and control flow instructions.Thumb-ARM Similarities     All Thumb instructions are 16 bits long.

Thumb ± Arm Differences     

To achieve a 16-bit instruction length a number of characteristic features of the ARM instruction set have been abandoned: Most Thumb instructions are executed unconditionally. (All ARM instructions are executed conditionally.) Many Thumb data processing instructions use a 2address format (the destination register is the same as one of the source registers). (ARM data processing instructions, with the exception of the 64-bit multiplies, use a 3-address format.) Thumb instruction formats are less regular than ARM instruction formats, as a result of the dense encoding.

Thumb Exceptions  

All exceptions cause the processor to switch into ARM state and are handled within the ARM programmer's model. Since the T bit resides in the CPSR, it is saved on exception entry in the appropriate SPSR, and the same return from exception instruction will restore the state of the processor and leave it executing ARM orThumb instructions according to the state when the exception arose.

The Instruction Pipeline 

The ARM uses a pipeline in order to increase the speed of the flow of instructions to the processor.  Allows several operations to be undertaken simultaneously, rather than serially.
ARM PC FETCH Instruction fetched from memory

PC - 4


Decoding of registers used in instruction

PC - 8


Register(s) read from Register Bank Shift and ALU operation Write register(s) back to Register Bank 

Rather than pointing to the instruction being executed, the PC points to the instruction being fetched.

Thumb branch instructions  control flow instructions include the various forms of PC-relative branch and branch-and-link instruction and the branch-and-exchange instruction for switching between the ARM and Thumb instruction sets. .

Thumb Branch Instruction Binary Coding .

3. medium-range unconditional branches to 'goto' sections of code. ARM handles all these with the same instructions but 24-bit offset in the first two cases . short conditional branches to control (for example) loop exit. 2.     Typical uses of branch instructions include: 1. long-range subroutine calls.

1. LR := oldPC + 3. which is difficult within a 16-bit instruction format. offset is shifted left one bit (to give half-word alignment) and sign-extended to 32 bits.  Third Format-The branch and link subroutine mechanism often needs to have a long range. (H=l) PC := LR + (offset shifted left 1 place). Therefore Thumb uses two instructions.  Here oldPC' is the address of the second instruction. 2. the return address has two bytes added to point to the next instruction and the bottom bit set to indicate that the caller is a Thumb routine.In the first two formats . both with this format. to give a combined 22-bit half-word offset (which is sign-extended to 32 bits).  . (H=0) LR := PC + (sign-extended offset shifted left 12 places).

format 1 . 3aAssembler Format of Branch Instrns B<cond> <label> . format 3a .is available only in architecture v5T.ARM target B{L}X Rm .Thumb target B <label> . format 4 .ARM or Thumb targ . format 2 .Thumb target BL <label> .Thumb target BLX <label> . format 3 .  Format 3a.

Thumb data processing instructions .

Description of Data processing Instn .

Rm CMP Rn. CMP Rn.5 bit shift amount . Rn. #<#imm8> . #<#imm8> MVNS Rd. Rn.P. Rm #imm3. Rm ADDS Rd. Rm . Rm TST Rn.Examples of Eq.I. MOV Rd. #<#imm3> ADDS Rd. Rm . CMP Rn. #<#imm8> . #<#imm8> .#imm8 . #<#imm3> . ADD Rd. Rm . Rn. ADD Rd. MVN Rd. CMN Rn. Rm CMN Rn. #<#imm8> ADDS Rd. #<#imm8> CMP Rn.3 & 8 bit immediate field #sh .Arm D.             ARM instruction Thumb instruction MOVS Rd. Rd. Rm . ADD Rd. Rm . TST Rn. Rn.

Thumb single register data transfer instructions .


= LDR/STR   . Rm] . #<#off5>] . #<#off8> <op> Rd. [Rn. #<#off8>] ..Description & Assembler Format   In all cases the offset is scaled to the size of the data type. range of the 5-bit offset is 32 bytes in a load or store byte instruction. #<#off5>] . [Rn. = LDRILDRB|STRISTRB <Op> Rd. [SP. 64 bytes in a load or store half-word instruction and 128 bytes in a load or store word instruction     <Op> Rd. = LDRHISTRH <op> Rd. = . [PC. [Rn. LDR/LDRH/LDRSH/LDRB/LDRSB/STR/STRH/STRB LDR Rd.

Thumb multiple register data transfer instructions  Thumb multiple register transfer instructions are useful both for procedure entry and return and for memory block copy .

      Assembler format <reg list> is a list of registers and register ranges from r0 to r7. LDMIA Rn!. lr}} . {<reg list>} POP {<reg list>{. {<reg list>) STMIA Rn!. pc}} PUSH {<reg list>{.

lr}} . pc}} Push: STMFD SP!. {<reg list>{. and replace POP and PUSH with the appropriate addressing mode in the second two cases. {<reg list>} Pop: LDMFD SP!. {<reg list>} STMIA Rn!.Equivalent ARM Instruction    The equivalent ARM instructions have the same assembler format in the first two cases. {<reg list>{. Block copy: LDMIA Rn!.

Thumb implementation .

The Thumb code uses 40% more instructions than the ARM code. the ARM code is 40% faster than the Thumb code. Thumb code uses 30% less external memory power than ARM code. With 16-bit memory.Thumb properties      The Thumb code requires 70% of the space of the ARM code. With 32-bit memory. . the Thumb code is 45% faster than the ARM code.

.Thumb applications   A high-end 32-bit ARM system may use Thumb code for certain non-critical routines to save power or memory requirements. but use offchip Thumb code for all non-critical routines. A low-end 16-bit system may have a small amount of on-chip 32-bit RAM for critical routines running ARM code.

but these are tightly coded routines that can fit in a small amount of on-chip memory. . is less time-critical.or 16-bit bus. battery management system. saving cost and improving battery life. and the use of Thumb code will enable off-chip ROMs to give good performance on an 8. and so on. The more complex and much larger code that controls the user interface. Mobile telephone and pager applications incorporate real-time digital signal processing (DSP) functions that may require the full power of the ARM.

ARM architecture  Architecture version  Version 1 (obsolete)      Basic data processing Byte. word and multi-word load/store multiSoftware interrupt 26 bit address bus No Multiply & Coprocessor Support Multiply Coprocessor support 26 bit address bus First ARM with on-chip Cache (Coprocessor CP15) onSWAP Instruction Introduced  Version 2 (obsolete)      .

MSR.ARM architecture  Architecture version (cont¶d) (cont¶  Version 3   32 bit address bus Separate CPSR. Modify exception handler    Add µAbort Mode¶ and µUndef Mode¶ Mode¶ Mode¶ Was Backward Compatible with 26-bit 26MUL & MLA Half word transfer Introduce THUMB processor state Add µPrivileged mode¶ for operating system mode¶ 2 word distance of PC from current instruction   Version 4     µPC+8¶ behavior (at ARM state) PC+8¶  First fully formalized architecture . SPSR  Add MRS.

ARM architecture  Architecture version (cont¶d) (cont¶  Version 5 Improve ARM/THUMB inter-working inter Add CLZ instruction for efficient integer divide  Add software breakpoint  Add more coprocessor support  More tight definition of arithmetic flags  .

ARM architecture  Architecture Variants  THUMB ( symbol as a µT¶)  THUMB instruction set: 16 bit re-encoded subset of 32 rebit ARM instruction set  Small code size ( up to 40 % compression)  Simplified design .

ARM Roadmap .

ARM architecture  Architecture Variants (cont¶d) (cont¶  Long Multiply Instruction (µM¶ variant) (µ  32x32 = 64 bit. Provide full 64 bit result Carefully chosen addition to native ARM instruction for DSP application Saturation 64 bit transfer First introduced in v5  Enhanced DSP instructions (µE¶ variant) (µ      Variants in Processor core   D: On-chip debug. On-chip breakpoint On- . Halt in response OnI: Embedded ICE.

bus AB One write port from ALU.Processor Cores  ARM7  Two main blocks: datapath and decoder  Register bank (r0 to r15)  Two read ports to A.bus ALU Additional read/ write ports for program counter r15  Barrel shifter / ALU  Address registers/ incrementer  Single Memory Port  holds either PC address (with increment) or operand address A[31:0] address register P C control incrementer PC register bank instruction decode A L U b u s A b u s multiply register B b u s & control barrel shifter ALU data out register D[31:0] data in register .bus/ B.

back writefetch decode execute 1 PC 2 PC+4 fetch R15 decode execute PC+4 3 instruction PC+8 fetch decode execute time . owns´ ALU results generated and write.register read. shifting.Processor Cores  ARM7 (cont¶d) (cont¶  Pipeline: 3 Stage pipeline    Fetch : fetch instruction code from memory into the instruction pipeline Decode : instruction decoded to obtain control signals for the datapath ready for the next stage Execute : instruction ³owns´ the datapath .

Processor Cores  ARM7(cont¶ ARM7(cont¶d)  MultiMulti-cycle operation Single cycle throughput for almost simple data processing instruction  Multi-cycle for mul. data xfer 3 fetch ADD decode execute 4 fetch ADD decode execute ADD STR ADD ADD ADD execute 5 instruction fetch ADD decode time . addr. load/store Multi 1 fetch ADD decode execute 2 fetch STR decode calc.


cheap ARM9TDMI ± moderate performance ARM10TDMI ± high performance .ARM Processor Cores ‡ The main ARM cores used today are: ARM7TDMI ± small.

ARM 7TDMI   Version 4 Supports     Thumb : 16 bit compressed instruction set Debug : On chip debug support Enhanced Multiply : higher performance. long multiply Embedded ICE hardware 32 bit data bus Data size can be byte . or word Words : 4 byte aligned Half word : 2 byte aligned  Von neumann Architecture     . half word.

Fetch Decode Execute ARM9 1. 4. 3. Fetch Decode Execute Data/Buffer Write Back . 5. 2. 3. 2.ARM7TDMI Pipeline ARM7 1.



thus still 32-bit 32-  In an typical application. less performance impact . performanceperformancesensitive code can be in ARM ISA.The Thumb Mode: Why Thumb?  Addresses higher code density by packing common instructions into 16-bit 16  Reduces bus width and activities Datapath remain unchanged. while other code in Thumb  Denser code.

ARM/THUMB Mode switch   Switch to ARM ISA mode automatically on exception Can also be switch by BX (Branch and Exchange) Instruction BX Instruction ARM ISA Mode Exception/Interrupt/ Software Interrupt THUMB ISA Mode  Note: gcc-3.X now have support for gcc³ARM/Thumb inter-working´ (Unsupported inter-working´ in 2.9x) .

Thumb/ARM differences  Most Thumb instructions are unconditional  ALL ARM instructions are conditional  Many Thumb data processing instructions use a 2-address format  ARM data processing instructions use a 3-address 3format  Thumb Instructions are less regular than ARM Instructions  For higher code density .

non-predicated ISA 16non- .Summary     Thumb: Try to make higher code density Thumb use a ³decompressor´ to decode decompressor´ 1616-bit Thumb instruction into 32-bit ARM 32instruction in the decode stage Adding Thumb support does not change original ARM datapath (except for the Thumb decompressor) Thumb: 16-bit.

710 20 ARM6.90 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 ARM7TDMI 40 .60.3 0 1985 .610 ARM2.920 80 ARM8.The History of ARM MIPS 100 StrongARM ARM9.810 60 ARM7D.7DM ARM7.






Branch Instruction .

Data Processing Instruction .

Change processor mode and/or state. Initialize the memory system.Operations Done by Reset Handlers  For example        Set up exception vectors. Initialize any critical I/O devices. Initialize stacks and registers. Initialize variables required by C and call the main application. if using MMU. . Enable interrupts.

Undefined Instruction Handlers  It often used to emulate a coprocessor. . Otherwise the emulator must pass the exception onto the original handler using the vector stored when the emulator was installed. Such an emulator must:    Attach itself to the Undefined Instruction vector. Examine the undefined instruction to see if it should be emulated.

the related handler is executed to deal with the virtual memory fault. Otherwise. Depending on whether the instruction that causes abort is re-executed or not.  Prefetch abort    INSTINST-aborted INSTINST-1 INSTINST-2 executed decoded fetched PCPC-8 PCPC-4 PC . the return readdress should be properly set.Prefetch Abort Handler or Data Abort   If no MMU. report error.

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