Systems Theory and Design MAN 5835 Dr.

Suarez-Brown

Chapter 1
The Systems Development Environment

1.1

Learning Objectives 
Define information systems analysis
and design Discuss the modern approach to systems analysis and design Describe the organizational roles involved in information systems development
1.2

Learning Objectives 
Describe four types of information systems: 
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Expert Systems (ES) 

Describe the information systems development life cycle (SDLC)
1.3

Learning Objectives 
Discuss alternatives to the systems
development life cycle Discuss the role of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools in systems development

1.4

and supporting the organization¶s products and services  Based on:     Understanding of organization¶s objectives. producing. Processes. Structure. Knowledge of how to exploit information technology for advantage 1.5 .Introduction Information Systems Analysis and Design   Complex process whereby computer-based information systems are developed and maintained Driven from an organizational prospective  Process of creating.

Introduction Application Software   Result of systems analysis and design Designed to support specific organizational functions or processes  Inventory management. or market analysis  Total information system  What is an information system? . payroll.

Introduction Information System         Set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve). and distribute information to support decision making. process. store. coordination and control in an organization Hardware Software Documentation Training Materials Job Roles associated with overall system Controls People What are its functions? .

Information System INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK STORAGE .

multi-step approaches to systems development  Consistent with general management style  Incorporate several development techniques  Techniques  Processes that are followed to ensure that work is well 1. complete and comprehensible to others on the project team .6 thought-out.Introduction Software engineering processes have been developed to assist in analysis and design Developed work methods to become a disciplined process  Methodologies  Comprehensive.

and information technology can best be combined to bring about improvement in the organization Systems Analyst   . methods.Introduction  Tools  Computer programs to assist in application of techniques to the analysis and design process  Tools and techniques must be consistent with an organization¶s systems development methodology The organizational role most responsible for the analysis and design of information systems Study the problems and needs of an organization in order to determine how people.

Introduction Information Systems Analysis and Design     Began in the 1950¶s A method used by companies to create and maintain systems that perform basic business functions Main goal is to improve employee efficiency by applying software solutions to key business tasks A structured approach must be used in order to ensure success 1.7 .

8 .Introduction Systems Analyst performs analysis and design based upon:   Understanding of organization¶s objectives. structure and processes Knowledge of how to exploit information technology for advantage 1.

complete and comprehensive analysis and design  Tools Computer programs that aid in applying techniques 1.Software Engineering Process A process used to create an information system Consists of (three elements):  Methodologies A sequence of step-by-step approaches that help develop the information system  Techniques Processes that the analyst follows to ensure thorough.11 .

15 understand .Data and Processes Three key components of an information system    Data Data Flows Processing Logic  Data vs. Information? Data Raw facts  Information Derived from data Organized in a manner that humans can 1.

Data and Processes Data   Understanding the source and use of data is key to good system design Various techniques are used to describe data and the relationship amongst data Groups of data that move and flow through the system Data Flows  1.16 .

Data and Processes Data Flows (Continued)  Include description of sources and destination for each data flow Describe steps that transform data and events that trigger the steps Processing Logic  1.17 .

Data Flow. and Processing Logic .Data.

business processes constantly changing  1.19 .Approaches to Systems Development Process-Oriented Approach Focus is on flow. use and transformation of data in an information system  Involves creating graphical representations such as data flow diagrams and charts  Data are tracked from sources. through intermediate steps and to final destinations  Natural structure of data is not specified  Disadvantage: data files are tied to specific applications Focuses on what the systems is supposed to do Less stable .

20 Focuses on the data the system needs to operate Data redundancy controlled. data files designed for whole enterprise . independent of where and how data are used Data model describes kinds of data and business relationships among the data Business rules depict how organization captures and processes the data 1.Approaches to Systems Development Data-Oriented Approach    Depicts ideal organization of data.

Traditional Relationship between Data and Applications Traditional Approach Database Approach .

Key Differences .

storage and retrieval by multiple users Centrally managed Designed around subjects  Customers  Suppliers Application Independence  Separation of data and definition of data from applications 1.23 .Databases and Application Independence Database     Shared collection of logically related data Organized to facilitate capture.

24 .Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development Systems Analysts work in teams  Project Based  Includes      IS Manager Programmers Users Other specialists Diversity of backgrounds Tolerance of diversity Clear and complete communication Trust Mutual Respect Reward structure that promotes shared responsibility Characteristics of Successful Teams 1.

Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development IS Manager   May have a direct role in systems development if the project is small Typically involved in allocating resources to and overseeing system development projects. Key individuals in the systems development process Systems Analyst  .

Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst  Analytical  Understanding of organizations. Operating Systems 1. identify opportunities and problems. functions. analyze and solve problems  Problem solving skills  ³System thinking´   Ability to see organizations and information systems as systems View important relationships among IS. organization they exist in.26 (OS). and computer Hardware (HW) platforms . and the environment in which the organizations exist  Technical  Understanding of potential and limitations of technology  Guide the system¶s design and development  Work with Programming languages.

other analysts and programmers  Major role as a liaison among users .Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development  Management  Ability to manage projects. risk and change  Interpersonal  Effective written and oral communication skills  Work with end-users. resources.

and selection Code generators. Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Business Managers  1. repetition.Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development Programmers    Convert specifications into instructions that the computer understands Write documentation and testing programs Structured Programming  All computing instructions represented through three structures:   Sequence.28  Have power to fund projects and allocate resources Set general requirements and constraints for projects .

development and maintenance of databases  Network and telecommunications experts  Develop systems involving data and/or voice communications  Human Factors Specialists  Involved in training users and writing documentation  Internal Auditors  Ensure that required controls are built into the system  Keeping track of changes in the system¶s design 1.Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development Other IS Managers/Technicians  Database Administrator  Involved in design.29 .

TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS KIND OF SYSTEM STRATEGIC LEVEL GROUPS SERVED SENIOR MANAGERS MANAGEMENT LEVEL MIDDLE MANAGERS KNOWLEDGE LEVEL KNOWLEDGE & DATA WORKERS OPERATIONAL LEVEL SALES & MARKETING MANUFACTURING FINANCE ACCOUNTING OPERATIONAL MANAGERS HUMAN RESOURCES .

Systems Development for Different IS Types Table 1-3 pg 17 3rd edition of Systems Analysis and Design Discusses IS Characteristics and System Development Methods for all four IS Types .

e.32 .Types of Information Systems and Systems Development Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)     Automate and support handling of data about elementary organizational business activities (transactions) Systems answer routine questions and track the flow and processing of transactions through the organization i. employee timekeeping. ± systems to record bank deposits. customer order processing. scheduling Goal:     Improve transaction processing (speed) Use fewer people Improve efficiency and accuracy Integration 1.

± relocation control systems    Quarterly or Bi-Annual Reports Aggregate and Summarize data Understand relationships between data to ultimately be summarized .e.Types of Information Systems and Systems Development Management Information Systems (MIS)      Converts raw data from transaction processing system into meaningful form Provide managers with reports or with on-line access to the organization Provide Periodic reports or summaries of data Often required data from several TPS i.

TPS DATA FOR MIS APPLICATIONS TPS Order Processing System ORDER FILE Materials Resource Planning System PRODUCTION MASTER FILE General Ledger System ACCOUNTING FILES UNIT PRODUCT COST PRODUCT CHANGE DATA EXPENSE DATA MIS FILES MANAGERS SALES DATA MIS MIS REPORTS Total amount of particular item used this quarter Compare total annual sales figures for specific products to planned targets .

35  comparative sales figures between one period and the next. 1.Types of Information Systems and Systems Development Decision Support Systems (DSS)  Designed to help decision makers  Provides interactive environment for decision making  Use internal information from TPS and MIS as well as external sources  Composed of a database (extracted from TPS or MIS) mathematical or graphical models (model base) and an user interface  Have more analytical power than other systems  Less structured and used to support a certain scope of decisionmaking activities  EIS ± serves the management level of the organization  Estimating Systems. cubes. financial calculations (given certain parameters)  inventories of information assets (including legacy and relational data sources.  projected revenue figures based on product sales assumptions . data warehouses. and data marts).

What is the five year operating plan? . user supplies answers. answers used to determine which rules apply and then ES provides a recommendation based on rules    Help senior management tackle and address strategic issues and long-term trends.Types of Information Systems and Systems Development Expert Systems (ES)  Replicates decision making process  Attempts to codify and manipulate knowledge rather than information (If-then-else rules used within a specific domain of problems)  Knowledge representation describes the way an expert would approach the problem  Interactive dialogue: ES asks questions. both in the firm and external environment Where will employment levels be in ten years?. etc.

37 in another phase  Iterative: phases are repeated as required until acceptable  Spiral: constantly cycle through phases at different levels of detail  Circular: end of useful life of one system leads to the beginning of another project .Systems Development Life Cycle System Development Methodology    Orderly set of activities conducted and planning for each development project Standard process followed in an organization Consists of:       Project Identification and selection Project Initiation and planning Analysis Design Implementation Maintenance  Life Cycle can be:  Parallel: complete some activities in one phase along with some 1.

Systems Development Life Cycle Series of steps used to manage the phases of development for an information system Consists of six phases:       Project Identification and Selection Project Initiation and Planning Analysis Design Implementation Maintenance 1.38 .

39 .Systems Development Life Cycle    Phases are not necessarily sequential Each phase has a specific outcome and deliverable Individual companies use customized life cycles 1.

Phases of the Systems Development Life Cycle Project Identification and Selection  Two Main Activities  Identification of need  Prioritization and translation of need into a development schedule  Helps organization to determine whether or not resources should be dedicated to a project. Two Activities Develop system to solve problem Project Initiation and Planning   Formal preliminary investigation of the problem at hand  Presentation of reasons why system should or should not be developed by the organization Produce a specific plan for the proposed project Baseline Project Plan the team will follow using the remaining SDLC steps 1.40  Customizes the standard SDLC  Specifies time and resources needed  .

41 Make plans to acquire HW/SW necessary to build or operate system as proposed . technical levels)  Recommend best alternative  1.Systems Development Life Cycle Analysis  Study of current procedures and information systems used to perform organizational tasks  Determine requirements  Determine what users want from proposed system  Study current system  Structure requirements and eliminate redundancies  Generate alternative designs to match requirements  Compare alternatives and determine which best meets the requirements within limits (cost. labor.

Systems Development Life Cycle Design    Devoted to designing the new or enhanced system Convert description or solution into logical and then physical systems specifications Logical Design  Concentrates on business aspects of the system ± its functions (high level of specification)  Independent of any specific HW/SW platform  Physical Design  Technical specifications  Design various parts of system to perform the physical 1. and information output  Determine physical details necessary to build final system  Final product: physical system specifications ready to be turned over to programmers and other systems builders for construction .42 operations necessary to facilitate data capture. processing.

Systems Development Life Cycle Implementation   Turn systems specifications into working system that is tested and then put into use Coding. testing and installation     Programming User Training Documentation (produced throughout the life cycle) Hardware and software installation Maintenance  Information systems is systematically repaired and improved  Users find problems ± often think of better ways to perform functions  System changed to reflect changing conditions  System obsolescence (change over time) .

Systems Development Life Cycle Highly linked set of phases whose products feed the activities in subsequent phases Must be carefully planned and managed .

Traditional SDLC Several Criticisms  The way the life-cycle is organized  Analyst must freeze design at a particular point and then go forward (milestones) ± difficult to go back  Changing business conditions  Enormous time and effort. very expensive to make changes once developed  Tends to focus too little time on good analysis and design     Does not match users¶ needs Requires extensive maintenance Increases development costs Maintenance costs account for 40% to 70% of system development costs .

more manageable units Clear distinction between physical and logical design .Structured Analysis and Structure Design Early 1970¶s To address traditional SDLC problems Even more disciplined ± similar to engineering fields  Tools:  Data Flow Diagrams  Transform Analysis      Improve the analysis and design phases Reduce maintenance time and effort Easier to go back to earlier phases in life cycle when necessary (for when requirements change) Emphasis on partitioning/dividing problem into smaller.

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design OOAD ± third approach to systems development Combines data and processes (called methods) into single entities called objects Limited number of operations for any given data structure Make system elements more reusable Inheritance: organized into object classes  Groups of objects share structural and behavioral characteristics (³person´. defining their structure and behavior. ³customer´) Identifying objects. and defining their relationship Primary tasks:  .

48 .Approaches to Improving Development Rapid Application Development (RAD)     Delay producing system design until after user requirements are clear Prototyping serves as the working description of needs Gaining user acceptance Sacrificing computer efficiency for gains in human efficiency in rapidly building and rebuilding working systems Building a scaled-down functional version of the system Advantages:  Users are involved in design  Provides feedback  Captures requirements in concrete form Prototyping (form of RAD)    Stand-alone or used to augment the SDLC 1.

Managers and Analysts work together for several days  System requirements are reviewed  Structured meetings 1.49 .Approaches to Development Joint Application Design (JAD)  New process for collecting information system requirements and reviewing system designs  Users.

50 . 1. etc.Improving IS Development Productivity Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools    Facilitate creation of a central repository for system descriptions and specifications Automate repository for easier updating and for consistency Diagramming tools for data flow diagrams and other graphical aids.

use and transformation of data in an Modern approach to systems analysis  information system  Data-Oriented  Focus is on the ideal organization of data rather than where and how data are used 1.Summary Information systems analysis and design  Process of developing and maintaining an information system Process-Oriented  Focus is on flow.51 .

52 .Summary Four types of information systems Transaction Processing (TPS)  Management Information Systems (MIS)  Decision Support (DSS)  Expert Systems (ES)  1.

53 .Summary Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Project Identification and Selection  Project Initiation and Planning  Analysis  Design  Implementation  Maintenance  1.

54 .Summary Alternatives to Systems Development Life Cycle Prototyping Rapid Application Development (RAD) Joint Application Design (JAD)  Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools 1.