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GRAVITY DAMS

What is a DAM?


A dam is a hydraulic structure constructed across a river or a stream to retain the water. It prevents the flow of water and accumulates it in a deep storage reservoir.

Types of Dams

w.r.t materials:

w.r.t structural behavior:


Earth dam Concrete dam Steel dam Timber dam

Gravity dam Arch dam Buttress dam Embankment dam

w.r.t hydraulic behavior:


w.r.t function:
Storage dam Diversion dam Coffer dam Power generation dam

Over flow dam Non over flow dam

Concrete Gravity Dam

Gravity dams are solid concrete structures that maintain their stability against design loads from the geometric shape and the mass and strength of the concrete.

Gravity dam is so proportioned that its own weight resists the forces acting upon it.

Forces acting on a Gravity Dam

Following are forces acting on a gravity dam.


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Water pressure Weight of the dam Uplift pressure Ice pressure Wave pressure Silt pressure Wind pressure Pressure due to earthquake

1) Water Pressure


It is the major external force acting on a dam. The intensity of the pressure varies triangularly, with a zero intensity at the water surface, to a value wh at any depth h below the water surface.

Force due to water pressure, P = w h / 2 w = unit weight of the water = 1000 kg/m 3 This acts at a height of h/3 from base of the dam.

2) Weight of the Dam




Weight of the dam is the major resisting force. Unit length of the dam is considered. Total weight of the dam acts at the centre of gravity of its section.

W = W1 + W2 + W3

3) Uplift Pressure


Uplift pressure is the upward pressure exerted by water as it seeps through the body of the dam or its foundation. Seeping water exerts pressure on the base of the dam and it depends upon water head.

MODES OF FAILURE
STABILITY REQIREMENTS

1) Overturning


If the resultant force cuts the base within the body of dam there will be no overturning. For safety against overturning F.O.S = Resisting moments Overturning moments F.O.S 1.5

2) Sliding
 

A dam may fail in sliding at its base. For safety against sliding F.O.S = V > 1 H

Where = coefficient of static earth pressure = 0.65 to 0.75

3) Normal stress


Let H = horizontal force V = vertical force R = resultant force cutting the base at an eccentricity e from the centre of base of width b

Normal stress distribution under the base of dam

The normal stress is given as pn = V / b (1 6e / b) For normal stress at toe use +ive sign For normal stress at heel use -ive sign

Principal stresses
The principal stress at the toe of the dam is given as = pn sec and at the heel is = pn sec p tan Where p = intensity of water pressure = wh

Shear stresses
The shear stress at the toe of the dam is given as = pn tan and shear stress at the heel is = - (pn-p) tan (pn-

Flow chart for the Analysis of Gravity Dam

1) Consider unit length of the dam.

2) Calculate the vertical forces: weight of the dam, weight of water acting on inclined faces, uplift force. find sum of these vertical forces ( V )

3) Find out the sum of horizontal forces: horizontal component of the water pressure is P = w h / 2 On both U/S and D/S side

Moment due to various forces at the toe

4) Calculate Overturning moments (taken as -ive) and Resisting moments (taken as +ive) and also find their algebraic sum M = Mr - Mo

Calculation of the factor of safety

5) Check safety against overturning F.O.S = Mr 1.5 Mo

6) Check safety against sliding F.O.S = V > 1 H

7) Calculate the shear friction factor. In large dams, shear strength of joint should also be considered. Factor of safety in that case is known as shear friction factor (S.F.F). S.F.F = V + bq H b = width of the joint q = shear strength of the joint (14 kg/cm )

Calculation of stresses 8) Find out the location (i.e. distance x) of resultant force from the toe. x= M V

9) Find out eccentricity e of the resultant from the centre. e = b/2 x where b = base width of the dam

10) Find the normal stress at the toe. pn = V/b (1+ 6e/b) (compressive stress is taken as positive)

11) Find the normal stress at the heel. pn = V/b ( 1- 6e/b) 1-

12) Find out principal stress at the toe = pn sec

13) Find out principal stress at the heel = pn sec p tan

p = intensity of water pressure

14) Find out shear stress at toe = pn tan

15) Find out shear stress at the heel = - (pn-p) tan (pn-

Examples

Question # 01: A masonry dam 10m high is trapezoidal section with a top width of 1m and a bottom width of 8.25m. The face exposed to the water has a batter of 1:10. Test the stability of the dam. Find out the principal stresses at the toe and heel of the dam. Assume unit weight of masonry as 2240 Kg/m , w for water = 1000 Kg/m and permissible shear stress of joint = 14 Kg/cm .

Solution
1) consider unit length of the dam i.e. 1m 2) vertical forces: a) self weight of the dam = [( 1 10) + ( 6.25 10 ) + (1 10)] 2240 (1 = 103600 kg

b) weight of water in column AAB = ( 1 10) 1 1000 = 5000 kg c) Uplift pressure = 8.25 (101000) (10 = 41250 kg

V = 103600 + 5000 41250 = 67350 kg

4) Horizontal water pressure H = wh/2 = 1000 100 / 2 = 50,000 kg

Moment due to various forces at the toe

4) Moment calculation about toe a) Due to self weight of the dam = {( 1102240) (1+6.25+1/3)} + 10 {( 1102240) (6.25+0.5)} + 110 {( 6.25102240) (2/36.25)} 6.2510 (2/3 = 527800 kg-m (+ ive) kg-

b) Due to column of water in AAB = (1011000) (8.25 1/3) (10 = 39583 kg-m (+ ive) ] kgc) Due to uplift force = 412502/38.25 412502/3 = 226875 kg-m (- ive) kg- (d) Due to horizontal water pressure = 50,000 10/3 = 166,700 kg-m (- ive) kg- (-

M = 527800+ 39583+ 226875 + 166,700 = 567383 339575 = 227808 kg-m kg-

Calculation of the factor of safety 5) Factor of safety against overturning = Mr = 567383 Mo 339575 = 1.67 > 1.5 ..(O.K)

6) Factor of safety against sliding 0.75 F.O.S = V = 0.7567350 H 50,000 = 1.01 > 1 .(O.K)

7) Shear friction factor S.F.F = V + bq H = 0.7567350+8.251410^4 0.7567350+8.2514 50,000 = 24.11

Calculation of stresses

8) The resultant acts at a distance x from toe x = M = 227808 V 67350 = 3.38

9) Its distance from the centre is e = b/2 x = 8.25/2 3.38 = 0.74

10) Compressive stress at the toe pn = V/b (1+ 6e/b) = 67350 / 8.25 {1 + (60.74)/8.25} (6 = 12560 kg/m

11) Compressive stress at the heel pn = V/b (1- 6e/b) (1= 67350 / 8.25 {1 - (60.74)/8.25} (6 = 3770 kg/m

12) principle stress at the toe = pn sec :. sec = 1 / (10 / 11.792) = 1.179 = 12560 (1.179)^2 = 17460 kg/m

13) principle stress at the heel = pn sec p tan :.tan = 1 / 10 = 0.1 :. Sec = 1/( 10/10.05) = 37701.01- (100010) 0.1^2 37701.01- (1000 = 3707.7 kg/m

14) shear stress at the toe = pn tan :. tan = 6.25 / 10 = 0.625 = 12560 0.625 = 7850 kg/m

15) shear stress at the heel = - (pn-p) tan (pn= - (3770 - 100010) 0.1 1000 = 623 kg/m