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# Synchronization

Shakti.R.Chopra

Introduction

The three main channel parameters required by most receivers are the carrier frequency, the carrier phase, and the symbol timing of the received signal. The Doppler effect: variation in frequency Transmission delay: variation in phase.

Introduction

For demodulation the receiver need to generate some reference signals. Comparison between reference signals and the incoming signals is done. For proper demodulation the phase and frequency should be same. This is synchronization.

two way communication) .Classification Receiver synchronization ± Frequency synchronization(all) ± Phase synchronization(coherent) ± Symbol synchronization(all) ± Frame synchronization(Error coding) Transmitter synchronization ± Network synchronization(ex satellite communication.

Trade offs: ± Between performance and receiver complexity . complexity increases Benefits: Improved BER and less bandwidth requirement.Costs and benefits Costs: Each new synchronization stage adds to the cost.

± PLL has three main components.Receiver synchronization Frequency and phase synchronization ± Heart of this is PLL ± In digital receivers. VCO. . phase comparator and loop filter. PLL is difficult to recognize but it is always present.

Phase locked loop Let the input: Consider VCO output: Phase detector output: Output of loop filter: .

(1) ± Approximation is used sin = .Phase lock loop Difference in the frequency of VCO: .

.Phase lock loop Consider the Fourier transform of equation 1 Term H( ) is closed loop transfer function of PLL Order of loop function is 1 (highest order of j ) Order determines tracking capabilities.

Steady state tracking characteristics Phase error in Fourier transform Final value theorem states that It implies .

Third order loops are used in GPS .Higher order loops Mostly second order loops are preferred due to its better tracking capabilities.

.Performance in noise Noise is present in incoming signal: Noise expansion: Output of phase detector: Output of loop filter (2nd and 3rd term).

Performance in noise Variance of n(t) and n (t) are identical denoted by 2 n Consider the autocorrelation function of n (t) The cross terms on right hand side will be zero as nc and ns mutually independent and have zero mean .

so . Taking the Fourier transform As Gc and Gs are shifted versions of noise so So above equation becomes For the special case of noise Gn ( ) =N0/2 watts/hertz.

Output of second order PLL Variance of output phase For Special case of white noise The integral of above equation is called two sided loop bandwidth .

Narrower the loop bandwidth. poorer the loop ability to track input. . Thus if the noise process is white and small angle approximation holds. The phase variance is given by Phase variance is amount of wobble in the VCO output due to presence of noise at the input. the loop can track the input.

Suppressed carrier loops No carrier Consider a BPSK signal ± Where m(t) = + with equal probability ± The average energy at radian frequency 0 is zero .

. square the signal The second order is carrier related term It can be tracked by a standard PLL design. In order to eliminate the modulation.

The phase noise and phase jitter have been doubled. . This angle doubling is offset by divide by 2 circuit. Due to squaring all the phase angles have been doubled.

Symbol Synchronization Classification ± Open loop synchronizers: These circuits recover the replica of the transmitter data clock directly from the operations of incoming data stream ± Closed loop synchronizers: These attempt to lock a local data clock to the incoming signal by use of comparative measurements on the local and incoming signals. .

Open loop synchronizers Also called as non linear synchronizers Combination of filtering and non linear device Analogous to carrier recovery in suppressed carrier loops. .

Open loop synchronizers .

Final signal contains finite rise and fall time in spite of impulses. .Open loop synchronizers The main components are differentiator and rectifier LPF is used because differentiators are sensitive to wide band noise.

.Closed loop synchronizers Open loop synchronizers has unavoidable zero mean tracking error.

. Frame marker is the single bit that transmitter injects periodically into the data stream. The receiver has the knowledge of this pattern and do regular correlations in order to synchronize.Frame synchronization Some special signaling procedure is done by transmitter.

if it is high synchronization is proper Drawback: too much time consuming .If correlation is low then receiver is not synchronized.

Network synchronization In coherent reception receiver synchronization is preferred In incoherent reception. . Often used in TDMA It is the responsibility of transmitter that the burst of data reaches receiver when it is ready. it makes sense if synchronization is done at transmitter end.

Fast acquisition Closed loop: No prior knowledge necessary. Requires return path.Classification Open loop synchronization: works best when link geometry is fixed and link parameters are known. in order to know receiver s response. . Large processing. Do comparative analysis.

Open loop synchronization Two types: Do not require any return path. simple Requires return path for computations .

Open loop synchronization (no return path) Time delay: calculation is done and signal is transmitted early Frequency correction: calculates doppler shift and change is mentioned .

Open loop synchronization (return path) Same process is followed. but comparison of return path is done in order to realize error. .

. The information on the central node can be shared with all terminals. The results are fed back to the transmitter while return path. Can track errors more efficiently.Closed Loop synchronization Special synchronization signals are transmitted to determine signal s time and frequency error. so calculation is smaller. with the involvement of central processing node.