‡ The three main channel parameters required by most receivers are the carrier frequency, the carrier phase, and the symbol timing of the received signal. ‡ The Doppler effect: variation in frequency ‡ Transmission delay: variation in phase.

‡ For demodulation the receiver need to generate some reference signals. ‡ Comparison between reference signals and the incoming signals is done. ‡ For proper demodulation the phase and frequency should be same. ‡ This is synchronization.

two way communication) .Classification ‡ Receiver synchronization ± Frequency synchronization(all) ± Phase synchronization(coherent) ± Symbol synchronization(all) ± Frame synchronization(Error coding) ‡ Transmitter synchronization ± Network synchronization(ex satellite communication.

‡ Trade offs: ± Between performance and receiver complexity . complexity increases ‡ Benefits: Improved BER and less bandwidth requirement.Costs and benefits ‡ Costs: Each new synchronization stage adds to the cost.

± PLL has three main components.Receiver synchronization ‡ Frequency and phase synchronization ± Heart of this is PLL ± In digital receivers. VCO. . phase comparator and loop filter. PLL is difficult to recognize but it is always present.

Phase locked loop ‡ Let the input: ‡ Consider VCO output: ‡ Phase detector output: ‡ Output of loop filter: .

(1) ± Approximation is used sin = .Phase lock loop ‡ Difference in the frequency of VCO: .

.Phase lock loop ‡ Consider the Fourier transform of equation 1 ‡ Term H( ) is closed loop transfer function of PLL ‡ Order of loop function is 1 (highest order of j ) ‡ Order determines tracking capabilities.

Steady state tracking characteristics ‡ Phase error in Fourier transform ‡ Final value theorem states that ‡ It implies .

‡ Third order loops are used in GPS .Higher order loops ‡ Mostly second order loops are preferred due to its better tracking capabilities.

.Performance in noise ‡ Noise is present in incoming signal: ‡ Noise expansion: ‡ Output of phase detector: ‡ Output of loop filter (2nd and 3rd term).

Performance in noise ‡ Variance of n(t) and n (t) are identical denoted by 2 n ‡ Consider the autocorrelation function of n (t) ‡ The cross terms on right hand side will be zero as nc and ns mutually independent and have zero mean .

so .‡ Taking the Fourier transform ‡ As Gc and Gs are shifted versions of noise so ‡ So above equation becomes ‡ For the special case of noise Gn ( ) =N0/2 watts/hertz.

‡ Output of second order PLL ‡ Variance of output phase ‡ For Special case of white noise ‡ The integral of above equation is called two sided loop bandwidth .

‡ Narrower the loop bandwidth. poorer the loop ability to track input. .‡ Thus if the noise process is white and small angle approximation holds. ‡ The phase variance is given by ‡ Phase variance is amount of wobble in the VCO output due to presence of noise at the input. the loop can track the input.

Suppressed carrier loops ‡ No carrier ‡ Consider a BPSK signal ± Where m(t) = + with equal probability ± The average energy at radian frequency 0 is zero .

. square the signal ‡ The second order is carrier related term ‡ It can be tracked by a standard PLL design.‡ In order to eliminate the modulation.

‡ The phase noise and phase jitter have been doubled. . ‡ This angle doubling is offset by divide by 2 circuit.‡ Due to squaring all the phase angles have been doubled.

Symbol Synchronization ‡ Classification ± Open loop synchronizers: These circuits recover the replica of the transmitter data clock directly from the operations of incoming data stream ± Closed loop synchronizers: These attempt to lock a local data clock to the incoming signal by use of comparative measurements on the local and incoming signals. .

Open loop synchronizers ‡ Also called as non linear synchronizers ‡ Combination of filtering and non linear device ‡ Analogous to carrier recovery in suppressed carrier loops. .

Open loop synchronizers .

‡ Final signal contains finite rise and fall time in spite of impulses. .Open loop synchronizers ‡ The main components are differentiator and rectifier ‡ LPF is used because differentiators are sensitive to wide band noise.

.Closed loop synchronizers ‡ Open loop synchronizers has unavoidable zero mean tracking error.

. ‡ Frame marker is the single bit that transmitter injects periodically into the data stream. ‡ The receiver has the knowledge of this pattern and do regular correlations in order to synchronize.Frame synchronization ‡ Some special signaling procedure is done by transmitter.

if it is high synchronization is proper Drawback: too much time consuming .If correlation is low then receiver is not synchronized.

Network synchronization ‡ In coherent reception receiver synchronization is preferred ‡ In incoherent reception. . ‡ Often used in TDMA ‡ It is the responsibility of transmitter that the burst of data reaches receiver when it is ready. it makes sense if synchronization is done at transmitter end.

Fast acquisition ‡ Closed loop: No prior knowledge necessary. Requires return path.Classification ‡ Open loop synchronization: works best when link geometry is fixed and link parameters are known. in order to know receiver s response. . Large processing. Do comparative analysis.

Open loop synchronization ‡ Two types: ‡ Do not require any return path. simple ‡ Requires return path for computations .

Open loop synchronization (no return path) ‡ Time delay: calculation is done and signal is transmitted early ‡ Frequency correction: calculates doppler shift and change is mentioned .

Open loop synchronization (return path) ‡ Same process is followed. but comparison of return path is done in order to realize error. .

. ‡ The information on the central node can be shared with all terminals. ‡ The results are fed back to the transmitter while return path. ‡ Can track errors more efficiently.Closed Loop synchronization ‡ Special synchronization signals are transmitted to determine signal s time and frequency error. so calculation is smaller. with the involvement of central processing node.

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