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Competency Mapping

Kirti Sangwan Lecturer


Geeta Institute of Management and Technology, Karhans Affiliated to Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra Email-id: kirti12sangwan@yahoo.co.in

Today organizations are all talking in terms of competence. Gone are the days when people used to talk in terms of skill sets, which would make their organizations competitive. There has been a shift in the focus of the organizations. Now they believe in excelling and not competing. It is better to build a core competency that will see them through crisis. And what other way than to develop the people, for human resource is the most valuable resource any organization has. Organizations of the future will have to rely more on their competent employees than any other resource. It is a major factor that determines the success of an organization. The company s need to sustain in a competitive environment, gave rise to the need to understand and learn to establish the context of competency mapping.

Objectives
y To know how the various competencies of individuals

are mapped at an organizational level and at the individual level. y To know the steps to implement the competency mapping model in an organization. y To know mapping systems followed by Zentec technologies and L& T InfoTech in India.

Research Methodology
y This study comes under the preview of Descriptive

research design. For methodology an extensive literature review of secondary data from various sources has been held as related to the stated objectives of the study. The secondary data has been collected from journals, books and internet.

What Is Competency
Any underlying characteristic required for performing a given task, activity or role successfully can be considered as competency. Competency may take the following forms:
Knowledge Attitude Skill Other characteristics of an individual including Motives Values Traits Self Concept Competency includes observable behavior as well as attitudes, skill and knowledge

Competency Mapping
Meaning and Concept of Competency Mapping
y Competency Mapping is a process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent s task or activities and identifying the competencies (Technical, managerial, Behavioral, conceptual knowledge and Attitude and skills etc) needed to perform the same successfully.

Competency Map. A competency map is a list of an individual s competencies that

represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs, departments, organizations, or industries that are part of the individual s current career plan.

Competency Mapping. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to


identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role

Competency profiling It is the process of identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities,


attitudes, and judgment required for effective performance in a particular occupation or profession. Competency profiling is business/company specific.

Process of Competency Mapping


First stage of mapping requires understanding the vision and mission of the organization. Second stage requires understanding from the superior performers the behavioral as well as the functional aspects required to perform job effectively. Tool for the first and second stage: BEI(Behavior Event Interview)/ Structured Interview Third stage involves thorough study of the BEI Reports/ Structured Interview Reports a) Identification of the competency based on competency frame work b) Measurement of competency c) Required levels of competency for each job family d) Development of dictionary which involves detail description of the competency based on the indicators. Care should be taken that the indicators should be measurable and gives objective judgment.

Fourth Stage requires preparation for assessment. a) Methods of assessment can be either through assessment centers or 360 Degree Feedback b) If assessment centre is the choice for assessment then tools has to be ready beforehand i. Tools should objectively measure the entire competency required. ii. Determine the type of the tools for measuring competency iii. Prepare the schedule for assessment iv. Training to the assessor should indicate their thorough understanding of the competencies and the tools and also as to how the behavior has to be documented. Fifth Stage involves conducting assessment centre. Usually it is a two day program which would involve giving a brief feedback to the participant about the competencies that has been assessed and where they stand to. Sixth stage involves detailed report of the competencies assessed and also the development plan for the developmental areas.

How Competency Is Formed

Use of Competency Mapping


Role Clarity Gap Analysis Succession Planning. Training & Development Recruitment & Selections Succession Planning Career Planning Recognition Performance Management

Need for Competency Mapping


y Need for ensuring that competent people are available for performing various critical roles. y Downsizing adds to the consequent need to get a lot of thing done with fewer people and thus reduce manpower costs and pass on the advantage to the customer. y Technology, finances, customers and markets, systems and processes can all be set right or managed effectively if we have the right kind of human resources. y The need for focus in performing roles-need for time management, nurturing of competence, increased emphasis on performance management systems. y And recognition of the strategic advantage given by employee competencies in building the core competencies of the organization.

Advantages of Competency Mapping


For the company The advantages of competency mapping for the companies or organizations are as follows: y Establishes expectations for performance excellence y Improved job satisfaction and better employee retention y Increase in the effectiveness of training and professional development programs because of their link to success criteria. y Provides a common understanding of scope and requirements of a specific role y Provides a common, organization wide standard for career levels that enable employees to move across business boundaries y Help companies raise the bar of performance expectations y Help teams and individuals align their behaviors with key organizational strategies

For Managers y The competency mapping provides following advantages to the managers: y Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease of the selection process y Provide more objective performance standards y Easier communication of performance expectations y Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the managers and employees and performance, development and career-oriented issues For employees y The employees in an organization get the following advantages by competency mapping: y Identify the behavioral standards of performance excellence y Provide a more specific and objective assessment of their strengths and the tools required to enhance their skills y Enhances clarity on career related issues y Helps each understand how to achieve expectations

Competency Model
y A competency model is an organizing framework that

lists the competencies required for effective performance in a specific job, job family (e.g., group of related jobs), organization, function, or process. Individual competencies are organized into competency models to enable people in an organization or profession to understand, discuss, and apply the competencies to workforce performance.

Steps for implementing the Competency Mapping model


y Step 1: Identify departments for competency mapping

Decide and select the departments within the organization which we would like to include into our study. The departments should be chosen based on their criticality and importance to the organization. y Step 2: Identifying hierarchy within the organization and selection of levels Study the organization hierarchy across each of the selected departments. y Step 3: Obtain the job descriptions. For all the levels at every department obtain each role s job description. Job descriptions are a basic human resources management tool that can help to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.

For each employee, a good, up-to-date job description helps the incumbent to understand:
y their duties and responsibilities; y the relative importance of the duties; and, y how their position contributes to the mission, goals, and objectives of the organization. For the organization, good job descriptions contribute to organizational effectiveness by: y ensuring that the work carried out by staff is aligned with the organizations mission; and, y Helping management clearly identify the most appropriate employee for new duties and realigning work loads.

Step 4: Preparation of semi structured interview y In structured interviews, carefully planned questions are asked individually of job incumbents, their managers, or others familiar with the job. Benchmarking interviews with other organizations are especially useful in achieving a broader view of the job or determining which competencies are more universally deemed necessary for a particular job. However, it is important to be cautious in applying the information collected from other organizations as there are many variables such as work environment, culture, and differences in job responsibilities that may limit the relevance of the information. Step 5: Scheduling of interviews y Obtain a list of employees from respective department heads and accordingly schedule interviews. A minimum of 5 candidates are to be interviewed at each level in each department.

Step 6: Recording of interview details y The candidate s answers and opinions have to be recorded in as much detail as possible for further reference during the project. Step 7: Preparation of a list of Skills y As per the interview and the details that were generated from the candidate, generate a list of skills observed for the job. Thereon a list of identified competencies should be drawn for each interviewed candidate. Step 8: Repeat for next levels and functions. y The interviews and appropriate recording of answers should be done at all remaining levels and other departments.

Step 9: Make the list of the competencies required for the department for each level and each function giving behavioral indicators. y For each position at each department a list of competencies observed from both the job description and the semi structured interview (list of skills) should be drawn up. y Each competency should be given a name and an appropriate definition that clearly indicates its meaning and essence. Step 10: Validate identified competencies and proficiency levels with Head of Departments. y Confirm competency definitions with respective Head Of Department s and obtain from the required proficiency levels of each competency that is ideal for each role. Also locate any missing competencies.

Step 11: Preparation of competency matrix y Prepare a matrix defining competencies required and corresponding proficiency levels for each level across all departments. Step 12: Mapping of competencies y Map the competencies of selected employees against the competency matrix as per their employee level and department. Here an employee s actual proficiency level of a particular competency would be mapped against the target proficiency level.

Strategies for Model Building


There are two approaches for model building: y Universal model approach y Multiple model approach

Universal model approach y This is a one-size-fits-all approach. It involves creating a single competency model with one set of competencies applicable to all jobs. Usually 10-15 competencies are identified. They are general skills, traits, and values that are needed for effectiveness in a broad category of jobs, as in all management positions or the entire organization. They would be less related to a specific function or job.
y It is used when the top management wants to send a strong message about values and skills needed for everyone in the organization.

y Multiple model approach y The other strategy is to build multiple models

depending on jobs and levels. Such models take a set of generic competencies, modify, redefine and add to them to arrive at specific job related competencies. The multiple model approach is used when competency models are needed for many jobs and when these jobs do not have many common features.

The Roman Pavilion Competency Framework


y Core competencies form the roof for the Roman pavilion, an apt

representation of competencies that are relevant to the entire organization. These competencies are unique to the organization. Hence the model provides for these to be identified through focus group discussing with senior management levels. members and leaders of teams, which may include managers and supervisors. The role competencies are categorized into those relating to activities, people, resources and information. causal relationship with effective or superior performance. Their classifications into tasks, personal attributes, relationships, and service are reflected as four pillars.

y Role Competencies are only relevant to employees in a team role, to

y Behavioural competencies are underlying characteristics having a

y Functional Competencies stand for the knowledge and skill

components that are specific to jobs. They form the foundation of the pavilion.

Competency Mapping at Zensar Technologies


Zensar has a behavioral competency model which is based on various job roles in the organization. The process of implementation is detailed below: Having defined the various job roles, a focused study was initiated where job role holders were interviewed on the critical incident method and the data of success-critical factors was collated. The job roles and deliverables were finalized on the basis of the competencies derived from the data. This data was further analyzed, and on the basis of these competencies that had an impact on the job roles and deliverables were finalized. After identifying the competencies, a job analysis exercise was carried out where the importance level of every competency was ascertained before freezing the competency model.

Cont.
y For team leaders and project managers, the company also runs development centers in-house; here, individuals are profiled on behavioral competencies required for their position. This process creates awareness in the individual about his behavioral traits in detail, and helps him chalk out an individual development plan. Development centers help map an individual's potential, which is useful to both the individual and the organization. All management development programs are also fine-tuned to address the specific competency needs at different levels; the 360degree feedback has also been designed on the competency model, enabling managers to get feedback from their teams. This feedback is based on the rating of the competencies which are an integral part of their managerial skill-set.

Competency Mapping at L&T InfoTech


y L&T InfoTech, a PCMM Level 5 company, has a successful competency-based HR system. Recruitment, training, job rotation, succession planning and promotions-all are defined by competency mapping. Nearly all the HR interventions in the company are linked to competency. Competencies are enhanced through training and job rotation. y All people who have gone through job rotation undergo a transformation and get a broader perspective of the company. For instance, a person lacking in negotiation skills might be put in the sales or purchase department for a year to hone his skills in the area.

y The competency mapping process in the company took eight months for development of six roles and two variations. Eventually, 16-18 profiles were worked out. The company uses PeopleSoft for competency mapping. Behavioral competencies do not change every month. Two appraisals are done subsequently every project-end for skills, and annual for behavioral competencies. Every quarter, an SBU-based skills portfolio is published. As far as training and development is concerned, instead of asking people to attend classes, they themselves get pulled to the classes. Introduction of competency mapping has also involved introducing skill appraisals in performance appraisals. This has also led to training people on how to assess subordinates on competencies.

Conclusion
y Competency Mapping therefore, is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization. y A lot is going on in recent times on the issue of competency mapping. A lot of resources are spent and consultants are being invited to do competency mapping. Increased manpower costs, need for ensuring that competent people handle critical positions, and the need to be competitive and recognition of the strategic advantages of having good human resources have compelled firms to be more competency driven. y In the report we have discussed how competent employees have become need of the hour in every organization and it is now essential that they undertake competency mapping, identify models, gaps and imbibe this as an every day practice in an organization.

Further scope
y Models of competency mapping may be studied as

followed by international organizations A detailed , an in depth study may be done on the development of the competency models specific to manufacturing organizations

References
y

Human Resources Champion - by David Ulrich The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations -by Richard Lepsinger, Anntoinette D. Lucia- ebook Building Robust Competencies: Linking Human Resource Systems to Organizational Strategies - by Paul C. Green The Handbook of Competency Mapping: Understanding, Designing and Implementing Competency Models in Organizations- by Seema Sanghi by Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd; Second Edition edition (November 5, 2007) Competency Mapping Education Kit module 3 and 4-T V Rao http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/media/documents/pdf/Employment/UNIDOCompetencyModel-Part1.pdf http://bg.astd.org/Users/Company/Forms/frmViewProduct.asp?Product=762&compID=89 4 http://www.microsoft.com/education/competencies/comp_planning.mspx www.healthcareworkforce.nhs.uk/option,com_docman/task,doc_download/gid,961.html http://pillars.gmu.edu/managergrid.html

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