Chapter 10 Optical Communication Systems


Elements of an optical communication system
In optical communication systems, electrical signals are first converted into optical or light signals by modulating an optical source, such as light emitting diodes (LED) or laser diodes (LD). Then the optical signal is transmitted over long distances via optical fiber. At the receiving end, the optical signal is converted to electrical signal by avalanche or PIN photodetector followed by the receiver circuits. The main components of an optical communication system are:       Optical source Modulator Transmission media Repeaters/Amplifiers Optical detector Demodulator

the slowest component in the system will ultimately control the system bandwidth since the system response time cannot be faster than the response time of the slowest component. PS (dBm) is the amount of output power from the light source and PR (dBm) is the minimum detectable optical power of the receiver.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM System Design Power Budget  Each component introduces a loss. Rise Time Budget  Similarly.  The process is called link rise time budgeting procedure. we must ensure that the components of the links do not cause a cumulative loss higher than PS ± PR. while designing an optical communication system. .  The process is called link power budgeting procedure.  Each element of the link is fast enough to meet the given bit rate.  Thus.

is required for unexpected losses. the power budget equation can be written as P = PS  PR = Ls + Ld + NLj + EL + Psm P = power margin PS = source power PR = received power N = no. of joints Ls = source coupling loss Ld = detector coupling loss Lj = joint loss E = fibre attenuation Psm = system margin L = total fiber length . If Pi and Po are the power in and out to the component respectively.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Power budget Each component in the optical link has a specific loss in dB. the loss Li of the component is given by Li = 10 log(Po/Pi) Apart from the component losses. Thus. called as system margin. a certain amount of power margin Psm.

PT ! Ps  PR ! mlc  nlsp  E f L  System Margin n = no. m = no. lc = connector loss. L = transmission distance Try Examples 8.2 (in the book by Gerd Keiser) . lsp = splice loss.1 & 8. of connectors.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Optical power-loss model Total optical power loss allowed between the light source and the photodetector where PS = source power. PR = received power. and Ef = fiber attenuation (dB/km). of splices.

0.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Rise time budget In a system with N cascaded components. allowed rise time ts max ! . OR ts max ! B NRZ B RZ B NRZ and B RZ is the bit rate for NRZ and RZ signals respectively Total rise time of a digital link should not exceed ‡ 70% for a NRZ bit period ‡ 35% of a RZ bit period .7 0. the total rise time tsys of the system is N t sys ! t i2 ! t t 2  t mat 2  t mod 2  t r 2 § i !1 where  tt = transmitter rise time  tmat = material dispersion rise time of the fibre  tmod = modal dispersion (broadening in time) of the fiber  tr = receiver rise time Try Example 8. each of which has a rise time ti.35 Max.3 (in the book by Gerd Keiser) Hence the system speed is affected by the parameters as stated above.

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM DETECTION AND MODULATION SCHEMES IN OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS DETECTION SCHEMES There are two principal types of detection schemes ‡ Direct detection ‡ Coherent detection .

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Direct detection ‡ The optical signal is directly converted to base band by the photo detector Coherent detection ‡ The incoming light is combined with a local light (local oscillator laser) and the combined beam is detected by the photo detector ‡ The output current is a base band signal if the local oscillator frequency is equal to the optical carrier frequency which is called homodyne reception ‡ If the local oscillator frequency differs from the incoming optical frequency (heterodyne). then the output of the photo detector is an IF (intermediate frequency) signal. .

Finally the output of the demodulator is passed through the decision circuit and finally to a low pass filter to get information signal.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM  The IF signal is then filtered by a band pass filter (BPF) and demodulated by an IF demodulator. The generalized coherent detection scheme is shown in the figure below .

. Phase modulation (PM).OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM MODULATION SCHEMES Analog modulations :       Direct Intensity modulation (D-IM) Sub carrier intensity modulation (SC-IM) Sub carrier phase modulation (SC-PM) Sub carrier frequency modulation (SC-FM) Pulse frequency modulation(PFM)-intensity modulation (PFM-IM) Frequency modulation (FM).

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM DIRECT INTENSITY MODULATION It is the process of modulating the laser source directly by the analog modulating signal. The receiver consists of a photo detector to convert the optical signal to electrical form and then passed through a low-pass filter to get the modulating signal. The intensity of the optical signal is varied in accordance with the amplitude of the modulating signal. .

PM or FM. PM or FM. Demodulation is then done by using a demodulator of similar type to get the information signal. SUBCARRIER PHASE/FREQUENCY MODULATION These are similar to SC-IM. In the receiver. the output of the detector is a MW signal with AM. The modulated MW signal is then used to modulate the laser using intensity modulation. Instead of Intensity modulation (IM) here the laser is frequency or phase modulated by the sub carrier signal.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM SUB CARRIER INTENSITY MODULATION (SC-IM) In this scheme. the modulating signal is used to modulate a microwave (MW) sub carrier with AM. .

. This signal is then used to intensity modulate the laser. the output of the photo detector is pass through a limiter and a low-pas filter for PFM demodulation.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM PULSE FREQUENCY MODULATION (PFM) / INTENSITY MODULATION (PFM-IM) The modulating signal is used to frequency modulate a pulse carrier of microwave frequency or RF frequency. In the receiver.

Quadrature PSK (QPSK). PSK. FSK. Differential PSK (DPSK). .OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEMES : The digital modulation schemes used in optical communication are similar to those used in conventional radio frequency communications like ASK. pulse position modulation (PPM) etc.

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM MULTIPLEXING SCHEMES There are three main multiplexing schemes used in optical communications: Optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) Optical frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) or Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) Sub carrier multiplexing (SCM) .

The time multiplexed optical pulses are then transmitted through the optical fiber.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OPTICAL TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (OTDM) In this scheme. The type of modulation may be IM. PSK or FSK. The transmitting laser have the same wavelength. the optical pulses are de-multiplexed by an optical TDM de-multiplexer. the optical transmitters are separately modulated by the signals from the different channels. ASK. The output of the de-multiplexers are then received by separate photo detectors followed by receivers. The block diagram is shown in following figure . The optical pulses from the transmitters are time multiplexed by sending clock signals to the transmitters. At the receiving end.


the different frequency signals are separated by optical filters in case of FDM. The block diagram is shown in the following figure. different signals from different channels are used to modulate laser sources separately. a WDM de-multiplexer is used to separate the different wavelengths. At the receiving end. The output signals from the different sources are then combined by a star coupler (for FDM) or a WDM multiplexer for WDM. The laser sources have different frequency or wavelength. In case of WDM. The separated signals are then detected by separated photo detectors and received by the receivers.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OPTICAL FREQUENCY DIVISION OR WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING In this schemes. . The combined signal is passed through the fiber.

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Block diagram of a WDM system .

WDM If the separation between the wavelengths is very small like 1 nm or less. Then the scheme is called Frequency division multiplexing (FDM). then frequency separation is very large such as 125 GHz. the frequency separation is small. corresponding to wavelength separation of 1 nm. it is not suitable to use grating WDM multiplexers or de-multiplexers for separating the frequencies. In this case as wavelength separation is large.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OFDM If the separation between the wavelengths is large. In this case it is possible to use the grating multiplexers to multiplex or de-multiplex the wavelengths. The frequencies can be separated by using filters. Then the scheme is called WDM. .

The output of the laser is fed to the fiber.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM SUB CARRIER MULTIPLEXING (SCM) In this scheme. This FDM signal is then used to modulate the laser source using analog or digital modulations. At the receiving end of the fiber. the signals from the different channels are used to modulate microwave (MW) sub carriers separately with some separation between the sub carrier frequencies. . The output of the sub carrier modulators are then combined by a microwave (MW) power combiner. the optical signal is detected by a photo detector. The output of the PD is the electrical FDM signal which is amplified by a low noise amplifier (LNA) and is received by heterodyne microwave receivers. The output of the combiner is an electrical FDM (frequency division multiplexed) signal.

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Any particular channel may be selected by tuning the local oscillator which may be a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). The block diagram of the SCM scheme is shown in the figure below Widely used in CATV distribution .

the IF modulated signal is mixed with an IF carrier recovered from the IF signal. Synchronous demodulation In synchronous demodulation. . Synchronous demodulation can be used for ASK.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM DEMODULATION SCHEMES IN COHERENT DETECTION There are two basic types of demodulation in coherent detection of optical signals  Synchronous demodulation  Non-Synchronous demodulation. PSK or FSK. At the output of the mixer the base band signal is received which is filtered by a low pass filter and fed to the decision circuit.

the demodulation is carried out by envelope detection.OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Non-Synchronous demodulation Non-synchronous demodulation can be applied only for ASK and FSK. In this scheme. The block diagrams of ASK and FSK envelope detection receiver is shown below ASK FSK .

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