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Tourism Resources

Ramakrishna Kongalla

R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University

A resource is a source or supply from which benefit is produced Typically resources are materials or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable From a human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism Resources have three main characteristics:
1) utility, 2) limited availability, and 3) potential for depletion or consumption.
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On the basis of origin

Abiotic resources comprise non-living things (e.g., land, water, air and minerals such as gold, iron, copper, silver). Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere. Forests and their products, animals, birds and their products, fish and other marine organisms are important examples. Minerals such as coal and petroleum are sometimes included in this category because they were formed from fossilized organic matter, though over long periods of time.
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On the stage of development

Potential Resources are known to exist and may be used in the future. For example, petroleum may exist in many parts of India having sedimentary rocks, but until the time it is actually drilled out and put into use, it remains a potential resource. Actual resources are those that have been surveyed, their quantity and quality determined, and are being used in present times. For example, petroleum and natural gas is actively being obtained from the Mumbai High Fields. The development of an actual resource, such as wood processing depends upon the technology available and the cost involved. That part of the actual resource that can be developed profitably with available technology is called a reserve resource, while that part that can not be developed profitably because of lack of technology is called a stock resource.

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On the basis of renewability

Non-renewable Resources are formed over very long geological periods. Minerals and fossils are included in this category. Since their rate of formation is extremely slow, they cannot be replenished once they are depleted. Out of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them, but coal and petroleum cannot be recycled. Renewable resources, such as forests and fisheries, can be replenished or reproduced relatively quickly. The highest rate at which a resource can be used sustainably is the sustainable yield. Some resources, like sunlight, air, and wind, are called perpetual resources because they are available continuously, though at a limited rate.
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based on distribution and ownership

Ubiquitous Resources are found everywhere (e.g., air, light, water). Localized Resources are found only in certain parts of the world (e.g., copper and iron ore, geothermal power). On the basis of ownership, resources can be classified as
individual, community, national, and international
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A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, or amusement opportunities. Eg:
Historicalplaces, monuments, zoos, aquaria, museums and art galleries, botanical gardens, buildings and structures
(e.g., castles, libraries,former prisons, skyscrapers, bridges),national parks and forests, theme parks and carnivals, living history museums, ethnic enclave communities, historic trains and cultural events
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UNIQUE FEATURES OF TOURISM PRODUCTS Intangible Irreversible Inseparable Perishable Lack of ownership

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Mountain passes of India

Name Asirgarh Banihal Pass Bara-lacha-la Changla Pass Debsa Pass Dongkhala Dhumdhar Kandi Pass Fotu La Goecha La Haldighati Indrahar Pass Jelep La Khardung La Kunjum Pass Lungalacha La Jammu and Kashmir Sikkim Rajasthan Himachal Pradesh Sikkim Jammu and Kashmir Himachal Pradesh 14,473 14,300 18,380 14,931 13,451 Rohtang Pass 16,207 Sasser Pass Sela Pass Sin La Tanglang La Traill's Pass Jammu and Kashmir Arunachal Pradesh Uttarakhand Jammu and Kashmir Uttarakhand Jammu and Kashmir 17,753 14,000 18,028 17,583 17,100 12,400

State Madhya Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Sikkim

Height (ft)

Name Lamkhaga Pass Marsimik La Mayali Pass Nama Pass Namika La Nathu La Palakkad Gap

State Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir

Height (ft) 17,336 18,314

9,291 16,400 17,800 17,520 12,000

Uttarakhand Jammu and Kashmir Sikkim Kerala Himachal Pradesh

18,045 12,139 14,140 1,000 13,051

Jammu and Kashmir R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University 16,600 Zojila Pass

Mountain ranges
Agasthyamalai Hills, Aravalli Range, Anamalai Hills, Camore Hills, Cardamom Hills. Eastern Ghats Garo Hills, Great IndianHimalayas Jaintia Hills Karakoram Range Khasi Hills Manipur Hills Mizo Hills Naga Hills Nag Tibba Range Nilgiri Hills Palani Hills Patkai Hills Pir Panjal Range Purvanchal Range Satpura Range Sahyadri Shivalik Hills Vindhya Range Western Ghats Zaskar Range

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Deserts in India
Thar Desert Great Indian Desert, is 496 miles long and 248 miles wide Rajasthan to southeast Pakistan and some of Gujarat annual rainfall is less than 10 inches Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Bikaner historical palace Mehrangarh the most colorful desert in the world contains sand dunes, marshes, gravel and hillocks. Paleontologists have discovered fossils as old as 300 million years Kutch Deserts western tip of the state of Gujrat Bordered by the Arabian Sea, the Kutch deserts are salty, muddy grasslands and swamps that flood in monsoon season myriad wildlife, including desert cats, gazelles, cranes, falcons, pelicans and the wild Asiatic ass Raan of Kutch, a wetland within the desert, is crossed by the river Lun and is home to 18 tribes of indigenous people. Because of rapid deforestation and salt extraction, the ecosystem of the Kutch has come under threat The Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary of Gujarat, the largest in the country, and a biosphere reserve house many rare and endangered animals including vultures and eagles.

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Desert Tours
Camel and jeep safaris city to city historic buildings and sites meeting residents camp in mud huts or tents participate in local festivals and activities prepared for very hot very cold nights , bring a large supply of water most popular safari circuit takes visitors to the cities of Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur, encompassing villages, palaces, lakes and historic forts and other sites along the way The Desert National Park, which is 20 percent sand dunes, provides a glimpse into the deserts' ecosystems

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islands of India
Lakshadweep lie 200 to 300 km (124 to 186 miles) off the coast of Kerala in the Arabian Sea with an area of 32 km (11 sq mi). They consist of 12 atolls, 3 reefs and 5 submerged banks, with a total of about 36 islands and islets. Andaman and Nicobar Islands consist of 572 isles, lying in the Bay of Bengal near the Myanmar coast. It is located 1255 km (780 miles) from Kolkata (Calcutta) two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands 204 small islands with a total length of 352 km India's only active volcano, Barren Island Narcondum is a dormant volcano mud volcano at Baratang. Indira Point Salsette Island is India's most populous island on which the city of Mumbai (Bombay) is located.

Portuguese enclave; Majuli, Asia's largest freshwater island; Elephanta in the Bombay Harbour Sriharikota barrier island in Andhra Pradesh. Forty-two islands in the Gulf of Kutch constitute the Marine National Park.

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Flora and Fauna, India

Project Tiger was started in 1973 now covers 27 Tiger Reserves and an area of 37,761 Corbett National Park in Uttaranchal is one of the oldest national parks in India and where Project Tiger started. Kanha National Park, Ranthambor National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park are some of the best Kaziranga National Park and Manas in Assam are also famous as they are home to the One Horned Indian Rhinoceros. The Gir forest in Gujarat is the last refuge of the Asiatic Lion. the Annamalais, which are in the high ranges and Periyar National Park in Kerala Bandipur National Park in Karnataka (866 sq. kms), Nagarahole National Park (643 sq. kms), Mudumalai National Park (321 sq. kms) and Wayanaad in Kerala, Mukurthi National Park (80 sq. kms) and Silent Valley National Park (78 sq. kms) are the forests which form the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, which encompasses over 5500 sq. kms and was the first biosphere reserve to be set up in India. It has the largest population of Asiatic elephants in the world and is also home to the Royal Bengal tiger and other large mammals such as the Indian Bison or Gaur.

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Trekking in India
the high altitude regions of Indian Himalayas Indian Himalayas Ladakh J&K Darjeeling Sikkim Trekking Places in India: Ladakh-Zanskar Via Lahaul Manali to Beas Kund Garhwal Trekking Himachal-Manikaran To Spiti Dodi Tal Khatling Saharatal Trek Gangotri Nandvan Trek Kinner-Kailash Parikrama Manimahesh Chui Yatra Jagatsukh To Base of Deo Tibba Adi Kailash Trek Hemkund Trek

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Skiing Holidays India

Kufri, H.P Narkanda, H.P. Manali, H.P. Auli, Uttaranchal Mundali, Uttaranchal Munsiyari, Uttaranchal Dayara Bugyal, Uttaranchal

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Mountaineering in India
Ladakh, the Nun-Kun Massif, Jammu and Kashmir, Destinations For in hills of Manali in Mountaineering Himalayas and Uttranchal Himalayas of North India are the best destinations for Himachal and Uttranchal Ranges enjoying mountaineering in peaks of Kanchenjunga India. North East Ranges Idle sights Rhododendron trek Garhwal and Kumaon Mountaineering on the hills of Himalaya Darjeeling
Sahasratal trek, Garhwal Himalaya, Hills of UP Khatling glacier trek, Garhwal Himalaya, Hills of UP Ladakh, Lahaul, Spiti / Kinnaur

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India-ASEAN Car Rally
Guwahati - 250 participants 8,000 km rally from Guwahati to Batam Island in Indonesia

Maruti Suzuki Desert Storm Car Rally

one of the toughest motorsports terrains of Thar Desert rocky mountains of Aravalli slippery white sands of Rann of Kutch

Great Arc Rally

Kochi in the south to Mussorie in the north

Blind Man Car Rally

raise funds for national theme 'Freedom through Education in partnership with National Association for the Blind (NAB)

Indian National Rally Championship

organized by Federation Internationale de l Automobile (FIA) and Motorsports Association of India (MAI)

Monsoon Rally
from Kolkata

Vintage Car Rally

Delhi up to Sohna (Haryana)

Himalayan Car Rally

New Delhi to New Delhi

Women Car Rally by NGO Uthaan Kalinga Green Car Rally

Kalinga Motor Sports Club (KMSC)

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Himacha Pradesh, Ladakh in Jammu & Kashmir, the Garhwal Himalayas in Uttaranchal, the Beas River of Himachal Pradesh and Teesta River in Sikkim. River Rafting in Uttarakhand, River Rafting in Himachal Pradesh, River Rafting in Ladakh, River Rafting in Sikkim, River Rafting in Kashmir in River Ganga , Alaknanda River, Bhagirati River, Indus River, Zanskar River, Kali Sarda River and Brahmaputra River.

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Canoeing & Kayaking

Kayaking is just like backpacking on an off beaten path, except that this time your adventure is on the sea Kayaks look like small fishing boat and are not a new thing in the Indian coastal sites, but they are fastly picking up as a favourite water sport in India Lake Paradise, Nanital Mumbai Dal Lake, Srinagar Nagin Lake, Srinagar Manasbal Lake, Srinagar canoeing presents quiet a unique combination of exploration. Paddle through the amazing sea caves, explore offshore islands, and snorkel the marine reserves that are filled with abundant marine treasures the beaches of Goa, Karnataka and Kerala In j&k and uttaranchal

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India Surf Spots

India has 7,000 km of coastline Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal waves in India all year round averaging 3 to 5 feet but the season for big waves [8feet plus] is May through September pre-monsoon and monsoon season. At this time the surf will range from 8 to 15 feet and bigger On the westcoast - 200 surfable river mouths Except for a few beaches around Goa, Gokaran, Varkala, Kovalam, Pondicherry and Mahabalipuram KanyaKumari , KovalamBeach, Rameswaram, Tiruchendur, Varkala, Mahe, Krishna River , Auroville, Vizag, Dwarka, Jagannatha Puri, Gokarna, Goa

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Dive Sites of India

Lakshadweep Islands
Kadmat Island

Andaman Islands
Havelock Island Minerva Ledge South Button Island Neil Island South Andamans

S.S. Rita


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Parasailing in India
3 methods of parasailing currently being offered to consumers around the world. Winchboat Parasailing, Beach Parasailing and Platform Palasailing. However, Winchboat Parasailing is the most popular and widely accepted method.

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Hot Air Ballooning

India also has its own hot-air balloons and the Ballooning Club of India organizes international balloon festivals and demonstration flights annually. There are Ballooning clubs in Guwahati, Dehradun, Bangalore and Jaipur. Ballooning Places in India:
Agra, UP Pushkar, Rajasthan Beneshwar, Rajasthan Nagaur, Rajasthan
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Hang Gliding
Most Indian hang gliding sites have been highly rated and those in the lower regions of the Himalaya are among the best the world has. Hang gliding clubs in India are located at Pune, Delhi, Mumbai, Chandigarh, Shimla, Devlali and Bangalore. Hang Gliding Places in India:
Billing, HP Dharamkot, HP Pune, Maharashtra Delhi Mumbai, Maharashtra Mumbai, Maharashtra Chandigarh Shimla, HP Devlali, Maharashtra Bangalore, Karnataka Kalahatty, Ooty
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Para gliding in India

Paragliding Places in India:
Billing, HP Kullu, HP Solang, HP Lahaul & Spiti, HP Naukutchiyatal, Nainital Dayara Bugyal, Garhwal Dhanolti Ridge, Garhwal Bedni Bugyal, Kumaon Jaipur, Rajasthan Jaisalmer, Rajasthan Jodhpur, Rajasthan Udaipur, Rajasthan Bikaner, Rajasthan Matheran, Maharashtra

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100 Wildlife National Parks and more than 400 Wildlife Sanctuaries famous for its tigers and elephants but with more than 500 species of mammals including leopard, the rare one-horned rhino, 2000 bird species and subspecies
Corbett National Park Nagarhole National Park Keoladeo Ghana (Bharatpur) National Park Nameri National Park Kanha National Park Kaziranga National Park Bandhavgarh National Park Gir National Park Ranthambore National Park Singalilla National Park Sundarbans National Park Periyar National Park (Thekkady National Park) Gorumara National Park Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Jaldapara National Park Manas National Park
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R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University


Corbett National Park Uttartranchal 201 square mile park in 1973 and this park was one of the first such tiger reserves in the country 100 species of tree. It is also home to 50 species of mammal, 580 bird species and 25 reptile species four kinds of deer, wild boar, the leopard cat, jungle cat and fishing cat, dhole (wild dog) gharial crocodile and the mugger crocodile

Keoladeo Ghana (Bharatpur) National Park 350 species of birds find refuge in Bharatpur's 11 square miles of shallow lakes and woodland there are four species of cormorants, eight species of egrets, three ibises, 17 species of duck and geese, and two species of crane. Siberian Crane is one of the rarest species in the world huge rock pythons sambal deer and blue bull

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Kanha National Park Mandla district of MP 2000 square km Mekal Hills Surpan River runs attraction is the tiger gray langur, porcupine, mongoose and wild pig 175 varieties of birds

Bandhavgarh National Park Vindhyan mountains declared a park in 1968 highest density of tiger Sundarbans National Park part of the largest delta in the world formed where Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna largest National Park in India more than 250 tigers

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Ranthambore National Park Eastern Rajasthan Aravali Hill ranges and the Vindhyan plateau meet Chambal in the South and Banas in the North bound the Ranthambore National Park. Six man made lakes 300 trees, 50 aquatic plants, 272 birds, 12 reptiles and amphibians- including the marsh crocodile - and 30 mammals

Jaldapara National Park West Bengal is situated in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas in the Jalpaiguri district formed in 1943 for the protection of wildlife, in particular the one-horned rhino bisected by the River Torsha Nameri National Park foothills of the eastern Himalayas and is a haven for many endangered animals, in particular the Bengal tiger consists of hilly deciduous forests flanking the Jia Bhoroli river

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Nagarhole National Park separated from the famous Bandipur National Park by the mighty Kabini river the Park was extended to include the Mysore Forests in 1974 Gorumara National Park located on the flood plains of the Murti and Jaldhaka rivers in the Dooars (rolling hill slopes) region of Jalpaiguri district in West Bengal Asiatic one-horned rhino

Kaziranga National Park one horned rhinocerous Gir National Park Asiatic lion is incredibly rare and is the most endangered large cat species in the world. Sasangir (Gir) National Park in Gujarat is the only place where they can be found in the wild and only approximately 300 remain

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Periyar National Park (Thekkady National Park) in the Western Ghats Nilgiri Tahr, gaur (Indian bison) 100 species of butterfly and at least 240 bird Dibru-Saikhowa National Park biggest National Park in Assam one of the 19 biodiversity hotspots in the world Manas National Park along the Assam-Bhutan border World Heritage Site Bengal florican and the Giant hornbill

Dachigam National Park 22 kilometers from Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir a National Park in the year 1981 Hangul Musk Deer Leopard Himalayan Gray Langur Dudhwa National Park Terai of Uttar Pradesh national park in January 1977 In 1988, the park was declared as a tiger reserve

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Mudumalai National Park first wildlife sanctuaries established in India. The sanctuary is divided into 5 ranges - Masinagudi, Thepakadu, Mudumalai, Kargudi and Nellakota 48 tigers in the Nilgiri Reserve Valley of Flowers National Park Uttarakhand UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004 declared a national park in 1982

MADHAV shivpuri NATIONAL PARK Jhansi-Shivpuri Road wildlife buffs chinkara, Indian gazelle and chital Nanda Devi National Park Uttarakhand in northern India World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988 Nanda Devi: 7,816 m (25,643 ft) Devistan I, II: 6,678 metres (21,909 ft), 6,529 m (21,421 ft) Rishi Kot: 6,236 m (20,459 ft)

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History of India

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History of India
Divided in 7 Periods 1. Original Indians (1700BC 3300BC) Indus Valley Civilization: Mohenja-daro and Harappa People 2. Aryans (2500BC 322BC) India s Root Culture 3. The Mauryan Empire (322BC 188BC) Spread of Buddhism 4.Gupta Period (320AD 480AD) Golden Age of India 5. Muslim Period (1175AD 1800AD) Turks and Mughals 6. European Rule (1800AD 1947AD) Portuguese, French, Dutch, and English 7. Independence and Democratic India
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1. Indus Valley Civilization

Excavation in Northwest part of Pakistan has discovered civilization that is over 5,000 years old. This is the period where people in the rest of the world were nomadic The artifacts discovered from excavation Urban planning
Sanitation system Advancements in Art and science Agriculture and trade Engineering metallurgy Medicine dentistry Peaceful egalitarian society Engineering Science Medicine Arts
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2. Aryans (2500BC 322BC)

Group of nomadic tribes who had originally inhabited Central Asia (There is a dispute on this) Tall, fair haired, with clear cut features, they settled in Punjab, in the Indus Valley River region. Fought with the original people of Indus Valley Civilization, who were dark skin and known as Dasyus or Dravidians The superiority of the Aryans resulted in the Dravidian submission and retirement to the south. The Aryan society was very well organized, ruled by a monarch. Practiced the four Vedas Caste system was introduced and practiced, based on one s profession:
Brahmins: Priests, teachers, intellectuals Khsatriyas: Warriors, soldiers Vashya: Traders, merchants, peasants Shudras: People in service of others

Aryan period ended At the end of 322BC.

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Cultural Impact of Aryans The culture of the Aryan period exist today and has been an integral pat of Hindus all over the world. All Hindus accept Vedas as their most sacred scripture. Hindu religion originated with Aryans With the invasion of Persian kings Cyrus and Darius in the 500 BC, there were significant changes and commingling of Aryan and Persian culture. Persian and Greek Invasion The Persian Invasion in 500BC, and the invasion of Alexander the Great of Greece in 327 BC, changed the Indian culture for ever. The most significant impact of this period was:
(1) Cultural mixing (2) Establishment of contacts with foreign countries
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3. Mauryan Empire (322BC -188BC)

The Mauryans were better rulers and culturally rich. They had a highly centralized and hierarchical government, well developed trade and commerce, welfare of foreigners, maintenance of public places including markets, and temples. The most significant ruler of this period was Emperor Ashoka who converted to Buddhism and introduced Buddhism outside India After the death of Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire disintegrated rapidly and all of South Asia fragmented into regional powers. Cultural Impact of Mauryans Origin of non-violence in India War in Kalinga Ashoka promoted non-violence, along with Buddhism. spread of Buddhism to neighboring countries of China, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, etc. Education and Intellectual movement The World's first university was established in India. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects.
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4. Gupta Period (320 AD 480 AD)

After the decline of Mauryans, Gupta rulers rose to power The Gupta period in Indian history is known as the Golden Age of India. Era of the most advanced civilization, flush with wealth, higher education, trade with foreign countries, and an overall happy life. Religious tolerance and freedom of worship Period of Hindu renaissance. Impact of the Gupta Period Emperor Ashoka promoted Buddhism, but Gupta rulers showed a preference for Hindu religion Music, architecture, sculptures and painting were at its best. Various copper statues images of Buddha reflect the craftsmanship of the Gupta period. After the death of the last Gupta ruler in 570 AD, the Gupta empire declined and broke off.

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Gupta Period (320 AD 480 AD) Huien Tsang has provided a good historical account of the life in this period. Foreign Invasions Due to its wealth and culture, India has attracted foreigners throughout its history:
Persian invasion in 500BC Greek Invasion in 327 BC Turks in 1175AD Mughal in 1526 Portuguese in 16th century Dutch and French in 17th century English in 18th through 20th century
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5. Muslim Period Turks & Mughals (1175 1800 AD)

Turks from Central Asia invaded India and ruled from 1175 to 1340 AD. Attracted by India s wealth, looted and destroyed temples. More interested in wealth rather than politics and were soon replaced by the Mughals. The Turks dominance ended in 1526 with the invasion of Mughals from central Asia The Turks Fierce and famous, Turk invader-Mahmud of Ghazni
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Muslim Period (1175 1800 AD) The Mughals

Nomadic people of central Asia. The first invader was Babur, related to Genghis Khan. He defeated Rajputs and Afgans and ruled in India Babar s successors: Akbar and Shahjahan are the most prominent in Indian history. Akbar is known to be the first Muslim emperor to unite Hindus and Muslims, and marrying a Hindu woman. Shahjahan is known in history for building the world famous monument Tajmahal. Shahjahan built the Tajmahal in memory of his deceased wife Noorjahan, who died on June 17, 1631 in child birth. Aurangzeb was the last significant ruler of the Mughal Empire, preceding the european rulers His successors were week and corrupt, Aurangjeb is generally regarded as the last significant Mughal ruler. The Hindu Maratha Empire mostly replaced Mughal rule during the rest of the 18th century Today, 13.4% of India s population is Muslim
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6. European Rule (1800 1947) Discovery of India

The invasion of Alexander had boosted trade contacts outside India Italians and Portuguese made several attempts to find an easy route to India that will avoid the hostile route through northern part of India. Columbus, in his quest to find India ended up in North America and erroneously thought he had reached India, calling the native of the new land as Indians. On April, 1498 Vasco da Gama reached the western coast of India and the quest for Europeans to reach India was fulfilled. Subsequent to Vasco Da Gama s arrival in India, the Portuguese fought and established their dominance and appointed Portuguese Governor in India. After a century, due to the incompetent administration, the Portuguese power began to decline.
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Culture of India
India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food and customs differ from place to place within the country, but nevertheless possess a commonality. India is the only country in the world to have so many religions and beliefs. The culture of India is an amalgamation of these diverse sub-cultures spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old Regarded by many historians as the "oldest living civilization of Earth", the Indian tradition dates back to 8000 BC and has a continuous recorded history since the time of the Vedas, believed variously to be 3,000 to over 5,500 years ago. Several elements of India's diverse culture such as Indian religions, yoga and Indian cuisine have had a profound impact across the world. R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University 56

Religions and spirituality Marriage - Arranged Marriage Namaste Festivals Names and language Animals Cuisine Clothing Languages and literature History Epics

Performing arts
Dance Drama and theatre Music

Visual arts
Painting Sculpture Architecture

Sports and Martial arts

Sports Indian martial arts

Popular media
Television Cinema

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Indian society
Culture of India is an amalgamation of these diverse sub-cultures spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old

Hindu society Beliefs

Concept of God Devas and avatars Karma and samsara Objectives of human life Yoga

Rituals Pilgrimage Festivals

Shruti Smritis

Demographics Society
Denominations Ashramas Monasticism Varnas Ahimsa, vegetarianism

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Caste system in India is a system of social stratification and social restriction in India in which communities are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called J tis. The J tis were hypothetically and formally grouped Poverty by the Brahminical texts under the four well Sanitation known categories (the varnas): Corruption viz Brahmins (scholars, teachers, fire priests), Kshatriyas (kings, warriors, law enforcers, administrators), Vaishyas(agriculturists, cattle Initiatives raisers, traders, bankers, artisans), and Shudras (labourers, craftsmen, service linkage between education providers). Certain people like foreigners, and economic growth nomads, forest tribes and the chandalas (who Measurement of returns to dealt with disposal of the dead) were excluded school altogether and treated as untouchables. Issues Although identified with Hinduism, in the past (1883 year data) the caste-like systems were also observed among followers of other religions in the Religious violence Indian subcontinent, including some groups of Muslims and Christians, most likely due to Terrorism inherited cultural traits. Theoretically, all Naxalism foreigners are considered to be casteless; in the 18th century, the high-caste Brahmins avoided Caste related violence undertaking sea trips, as they considered the R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University 59 European merchants as untouchable

Socio-economic issues Overpopulation Economic issues



Indian Traditions
India, in the past, witnessed successive waves of migration from various foreign forces like the Persians, Arabs, British and Turks. Though, with time, all of them retreated, they left behind their indelible mark which is still reflected in the culture and traditions of India. From one state to another, there is huge variation in the language, attire, beliefs and other demographic aspects of the denizens that it is simply mind-boggling. However, there are some very prominent features that bind all Indians to the brand 'Hindustani'. These traditions range from the aarti done to welcome the guests to touching the feet of the elders. The cultural traditions of India have been passed on from generation to generation and are deeply rooted in the Indian way of living.
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Dressing Etiquette Majority of the Indians, India is a vibrant amalgamation especially in the rural areas, of varied ethnic groups, climate, small towns and cities, are a cultures, regions and traditions. conservative. As such, many people visiting Short, revealing clothes, the country for the first time especially for women, is a find it uniquely different. On strict taboo. one hand, you will find many As such, it's expected that conservatively dressed Indian you dress up according to the women flocking the temple situation. entrance. On the other, there E.G. when you go out for are others who have no qualms sight-seeing, you can wear walking the fashion ramp in the knee length Bermudas, tee skimpiest of clothes. While shirts, long or quarter length skirts, capris and jeans. there are millions of illiterates in the Indian subcontinent, However, at high-end there are also those who are restaurants, bars and discos, you can dress in a more the driving force behind the relaxed manner, without booming IT industry in India. worrying much about the dress codes. R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University 61


Customs on usage of Shoes Indian Proximity

Indian temple etiquette stipulates that you take off your shoes before entering the premises. The same applies to even certain churches in India. Usually, there will be people stationed outside most temples and gurdwaras, who will keep your shoes safely for a nominal sum. You will be expected to follow the same protocol when you visit a person's home in some of the cities of India. Indian culture and tradition forbids unnecessary touching or any form of physical contact, especially between a man and a woman, in public. Kissing in public is a not advisable. You can shake hands with people, or better still stick, to the traditional Namaste, the popular Indian style greeting. For this, you need to press your hands together with all fingers pointing towards the sky in front of your chest and politely say Namaste, while looking at the person you are R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University 62 saying it to.

Generic Attitude Joint Family System Indian manners and etiquette also A majority of the people in India comprise of not speaking ill prefer to live in a joint family, about or criticizing the country which could comprise or its people openly. anywhere between a group of The natives are bound to take two or more members to even great offence to it. over 20 members sometimes. At the same time, never address As per the Indian way of living, the elderly by their first name, the commanding position in a unless they allow you to. family is held by the eldest earning male member. He It's advisable for you to call them consults other adult members sir or ma am instead. With on important issues, but it is his youngsters, you can choose to be decision that ultimately informal. prevails. However, a lot of It is also considered disrespectful importance is also given to the in India to use loud and foul advice of the eldest retired language words publicly. members of the family.
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Women as Homemaker As per the lifestyle of the Indian people, it is the duty of a woman to take care of her home. As such, from her childhood, a girl child is taught to rustle up mouth-watering dishes by her mother and other ladies in her family. She is also taught to attend to guests and strangers politely and elegantly because it is thought to greatly reflect upon her upbringing.

Respecting Elders One common trait you will find amongst Indians is that children show utmost respect to their elders. Now this is one habit all Indian parents deliberately inculcate in their children, since beginning. It is an unsaid rule in India that a person cannot rudely respond to elders. It is deemed disrespectful in India to refer to an elder by his / her name. Instead people prefer calling them uncle and aunt, especially if the person is very elderly. It is also customary in India for the youngsters to touch the feet of their elders as a way of greeting as well as on R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University 64 important occasions.

Places of Worship - Customs

Worshipping is an important part of the daily life of Indian people. You will find the holy basil tulsi planted in maximum houses, which people water as well as worship everyday religiously. Many Indians are associated to various religious sects and attend weekly gatherings to listen to the sermons. Apart from temples, mosques and gurdwaras, there will also invariably be a personal place for worship, and pictures of Gods and Goddesses, in every house in India
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Welcoming Guests- Traditions Hospitality Perhaps, the one thing that is Playing the perfect host is an integral part of the Indian going to take you by culture and tradition. As such, surprise and also deeply Indian people go to great touch you on your India lengths to make their guests feel tour is the warm hospitality welcome. Garlanding, aarti and applying tilak, or a red of Indians. A ready smile on vermillion mark, on the the face, always willing to forehead of the guest is, thus, go out of the way to help an important part of the somebody, exuding genuine reception ritual. There are happiness upon meeting a basically two reasons behind the garlanding tradition of India. person - these are some of Firstly, it showcases one's the common traits you will happiness at receiving the find in maximum Indians. particular guest and secondly, it The Sanskrit adage, "Atithi is a form of publicly Devo Bhava," meaning the acknowledging the guest's guest is truly your god importance. dictates the respect R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University granted 66 to guests in India.

Indian Family Value System

Examples of Indian family values are - a young person should always touch the feet of his elders; he should never speak in a high or rude tone to those who are older to him; he should always give respect to elders and refer to them as 'aap'; he should not consume alcohol and tobacco or smoke cigarettes; he should respect women; he should always speak truth and try to engage in non-violent behavior; and so on. Most of the values that the parents impart to their children in India, as a part of the family value system, are similar in nature. Some other values that are part of India's cultural heritage are: Living peacefully and respecting each other's rights. Never ever compromising on integrity for the purpose of prosperity. Maintain strong bonds with the family members as well as relatives. Being hospitable to everyone who comes to your home, irrespective of his caste, creed, financial position or status. Treating guest as God i.e. 'Atithi Devo Bhava'. Remembering and bowing to God first thing in the morning. Indulging in yoga and meditation. Always taking the advice of elders in case of any important decision
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Cuisine and Food habits

Indian cuisine consists of thousands of regional cuisines which date back thousands of years are characterised by the extensive use of various Indian spices, herbs, vegetables and fruit. known for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society. Each family of Indian cuisine includes a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. As a consequence, it varies from region to region, reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically-diverse subcontinent. Hindu beliefs and culture have played an influential role in the evolution of Indian cuisine. However, cuisine across India also evolved as a result of the subcontinent's large-scale cultural interactions with Mongols and Britain making it a unique blend of some various cuisines. Indian cuisine has influenced cuisines across the world, especially those from Southeast Asia and the Caribbean. by a 5000 year history of various groups and cultures interacting with the subcontinent, leading to the diversity of flavors and regional cuisines
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Antiquity Many recipes first emerged during the initial Vedic period, when India was still heavily forested and agriculture was complemented with game hunting and forest produce. a normal diet consisted of fruit, vegetables, grain, dairy products, honey, and poultry and other sorts of meats. Over time, some segments of the population embraced vegetarianism, This was facilitated by the advent of Buddhism and an equitable climate permitting a variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains to be grown throughout the year. saatvic, raajsic or taamsic developed in Ayurveda. A reference to the kind of food one is to eat is also discussed in the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 17, Verses 8,9 & 10). In this period eating beef became taboo, a belief still commonly held today.

Middle Ages period in which several North Indian dynasties were predominant, including the Gupta dynasty. Travelers who visited India brought with them new cooking methods and products like tea and spices. Later, India saw the period of Central Asian and Afghan conquerors, which saw the emergence of the Mughlai cuisine that many people now associate with India. This included the addition of several seasonings like saffron, the addition of nuts, and the practice of cooking in a sealed pot called a "dum". R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University 69

are Bajra, rice, atta (whole wheat flour), and a variety of pulses, of which the most central to this cuisine are masoor (most often red lentils), channa (bengal gram), toor (pigeon pea or yellow gram), urad (black gram), and moong (green gram). Pulses may be used whole, dehusked for example, dhuli moong or dhuli urad or split. Split pulses, or dal, are used extensively. Some pulses, like channa and mung, are also processed into flour (besan). Most Indian curries are cooked in vegetable oil. In northern and western India, peanut oil is popular, while in eastern India, mustard oil is more commonly used. Coconut oil is used widely along the western coast, especially in Kerala; gingelly (sesame) oil is common in the south as well. In recent decades, sunflower and soybean oil have become popular across India. Hydrogenated vegetable oil, known as Vanaspati ghee, is another popular cooking medium. Butter-based ghee, or desi ghee, is used very frequently, but still less used than before. The most important or frequently used spices in Indian cuisine are chilli pepper, black mustard seed (sarso), cumin (jeera), turmeric (haldi), fenugreek(methi), asafoetida(hing), ginger(adrak), coriander (d hania), and garlic (lehsun). Popular spice mixes are garam masala, a powder that typically includes five or more dried spices, especially cardamom, cinnamon, and clove. Each region, and sometimes each individual chef, has a distinctive garam masala blend. Goda masala is a comparable, though sweet, spice mix that is popular in Maharashtra Some leaves commonly used for flavoring include tejpat (Bay leaf),coriander leaf, fenugreek leaf, and mint leaf. The use of curry leaves and roots is typical of Gujarati and all South Indian cuisine. Sweet dishes are seasoned with cardamom, saffron, nutmeg, and rose petal essences.

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Regional cuisines
Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andhra Pradesh Seafood plays a major role Telugu and Hyderabadi cui in the cuisines sine of Andaman and Nicobar Rice, Islands, which were, and curries and lentil soups or still are inhabited by the broths indigenous Andamanese. heavy use Since they had very little of spices and chillies contact with the outside pickles, such as avakaya world, raw fish and fruits mango, and gongura were their staple diet for a long time Curds to kill spicyness Hyderabadi biryani
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Arunachal Pradesh Rice with fish, meat and green vegetables. Lettuce common vegetable with ginger, coriander and green chillies. Boiled rice cakes wrapped in leaves . Thukpa is a kind of noodle soup of Monpa tribe Assam bhuna, the gentle frying of spices before the addition of the main ingredients, so common in Indian cooking, is absent. khar, a class of dishes ends with a tenga, a sour dish. The food is usually served in bell metal utensils. Pann, the practice of chewing betel nut, generally concludes the meal.

Bihar buttermilk (called mattha) poha (flattened rice) with yoghurt and sugar. Sattu Parathas, Chokha alu-bhujia Tangy raita made from lauki (winter melon) Chattisgarh liquor brewed from the Mahuwa flower Red ant chutney pork constitute a large part of Chatisgarh Daman and Diu Gujarati food and traditional Portugese food

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Goa Seafood, coconut milk, rice and paste are main ingredients. Kokum is a distinct feature. staple foods are rice and fish. Kingfish (Vison or Visvan) is most common Gujarat primarily vegetarian. The typical Gujarati Rotli in Gujarati), daal or kadhi, rice, and sabzi/shaak, Keri no ras (fresh mango pulp) is often an integral part of the meal. Garam Masala less in summer. Regular fasting is a common practice. Haryana dairy is a common component , Kadhi Pakora, Besan Masala Roti, Bajra Aloo Roti, Churma, Kheer, Bathua Raita, Methi Gajar, Singri ki Sabzi and Tamatar Chutney. Lassi and Sherbat are the two popular non-alcoholic beverages. liquor

Himachal Pradesh similar to north India, including lentil, broth, rice, vegetabl es and bread. specialities of Himachal include Pateer, Chouck, Bhagjery and chutney of Til. Jammu & Kashmir influence of the Kashmiri Hindus andBuddhists. invasion of Kashmir by Timur. influenced cuisines of Central Asian, Persia, and the North Indian. notable ingredient is mutton (lamb), over 30 varieties. Kashmiri Pandit food, differences between Kashmiri cuisine and Punjabi cuisine is rice and Roti. Jharkhand equally vegetarian as well as nonvegetarian. not available at the restaurants , not been commercialised. on a visit to a tribal village to taste such exotic food.

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Karnataka Vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisines. Influence of South Indian states and Maharashtra, Goa to its north. Some typical dishes include Bisi bele bath, Jolada rotti, Chapati, Ragi rotti, Akki rotti, Saaru, Huli, Vangi Bath, Khara Bath, Kesari Bath, Davanagere Benne Dosa, Ragi mudde, and Uppittu. Masala Dosa traces its origin to Udupi cuisine. Plain and Rave Idli, Mysore Masala Dosa and Maddur Vade are popular in South Karnataka. Coorg district is famous for spicy pork curries, sweets Mysore Pak, Dharwad pedha, Chiroti are well known. typical Kannadiga Oota (Kannadiga meal) includes Uppu(salt), Kosambari, Pickle, Palya, Gojju, Raita, Dessert, Thovve, Chitranna, Rice and Ghee.

Kerala grated coconut and coconut milk are widely used in dishes and curries. Rice is grown in abundance, and could be said, along with tapioca (manioc/cassava) main starch ingredient . spices - black pepper, cardamom, cloves, ginger, and cinnamon predominantly nonvegetarians, variety of breakfast dishes like idli, dosa, appam, idiyappam, putt u, and pathiri. Lakshadweep influence of Kerala, coconut and sea fish. coconut water Manipur simple, organic and healthy. use chili pepper rather than Garam masala. staple diet of Manipur consists of rice, leafy vegetables, and fish. The Umarok is a very popular chili that is used in the cuisine.

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Madhya Pradesh wheat and meat, dominated by rice and fish. Gwalior and Indore abound in milk and milk-based, Bhutte ka kees, Sabudane ki khicri, Aaloo Patis Chat house. Bhopal - rogan josh, korma, keema, biryani pilaf and kababs such as shami and seekh, Dal bafla. Bafla is a steamed and grilled wheat cake dunked in rich ghee which is eaten with daal (a pungent lentil broth). It is followed by sweet ladoos. Another popular dish in Malwa region (central M.P) is poha (flattened rice), it is mostly a breakfast item served with Jalebi. local liquor which is distilled from the flowers of the mahua tree. date palm toddy Mizoram Mizo cuisine is a blend of Chinese and north Indian , served on fresh green banana leaves. Meals are usually less spicy and plain in taste, popular dish is Bai, eaten with rice. Sawchair made of rice cooked with pork or chicken.

Maharashtra Bajri, Wheat, rice, jowar, vegetables, lentils and fruit, puran poli, ukdiche Modak and batata wada. The staple dishes of Maharashtrian cuisine are based on Bajri, Jowar and Rice(Tandul). Konkani cuisine. Vidarbha area, has its own distinctive cuisine known as the Varadi cuisine. kokum, a deep purple berry that has a pleasing sweet and sour taste. panha made from boiled raw mango is consumed. 'varan'/'aamtee' a type of lentils Meghalaya home of three Mongoloid tribes, has a unique cuisine of its own. rice with spicy meat and fish preparations. They rear goats, pigs, fowl, ducks and cows and relish their meat. The popular dishes areJadoh, Ki Kpu, Tung-rymbai, and pickled bamboo shoots. ferment rice beer

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Nagaland Naga cuisine, of the Naga people is known for exotic meats cooked with simple and flavorful ingredients like the extremely hot bhut jolokia or ghost chili, fermented bamboo shoots and soya beans. oil minimally, prefer to ferment, dry and smoke their meats and fishes, food is healthy and light. Orissa Panch phutana, a mix of cumin, mustard, fennel, fenugreek and kalonji (nigella) is widely used for tempering vegetables and dals, while garam masala (curry powder) andhaladi (turmeric) are commonly used for non-vegetarian curries. Pakhala, a dish made of rice, water, and yoghurt, that is fermented overnight, is very popular in summer, particularly in the rural areas. fond of sweets

Puducherry The French and the Indo style have given birth to an innovative taste. The influence of the neighboring areas like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala is also visible. Coconut Curry, Tandoori Potato, Soya Dosa, Podanlangkai, Assad, Curried Vegetables, Stuffed Cabbage, Baked Beans Punjab restaurant style using large amounts of ghee, with liberal amounts of butter and cream with home cooked concentrating on mainly upon preparations with whole wheat, rice and other ingredients flavored with masalas. prefer stuffed parathas and dairy products, Mah Di Dal, saron da saag, and many othe things.The food is tailormade for the Punjabi lifestyle in which most of the rural folk burn up a lot of calories while working in the fields. Tandoori food is a Punjabi speciality Tandoor, Naan, Pakoras and vegetable dishes with paneer derive from the R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University Punjab. 76

Rajasthan food is generally cooked in milk or ghee, Besan or gram flour is a mainstay of Marwari food mainly because of the scarcity of vegetables in this arid land. Major dishes of a Rajasthani platter includes Daal-Baati, Tarfini, Raabdi, ghewar, Bail-Gatte, Panchkoota, Chaavadi, Laapsi, Kadhi and Boondi, and snacks like Bikaneri Bhujia, Mirchi Bada, Pyaaj Kachori, Dal Kachori. Sikkim the Nepalese, Bhutias and Lepchas. Rice is the staple food. Meat and dairy products finger millet, wheat, buckwheat, barley, vegetable, potato, soybeans, etc. are grown.

Tamil Nadu rice, legumes and lentils, its distinct aroma and flavour achieved by the blending of spices including curry leaves, tamarind,coriander, ginger , garlic, chili, pepper, cinnamon, cl oves, cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, coconut and rosewater. "curry" is derived from the Tamil word 'kari' which means "an additive to the main course or a side dish" Rice and legumes play an important role in Tamil cuisine. Tripura The major ingredient of Tripuris cuisine for non-vegetarian food includes pork, chicken, mutton, tu rtle, fish, prawns, crabs, and frogs.

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Uttar Pradesh Awadhi and Mughlai cuisine but a vast majority of the state enjoys sober vegetarian meals with Dal, roti, sabzi and rice constituting the essentials of daily food habits. Pooris and kachoris, Chaat, samosa and pakora, are also originally from Uttar Pradesh. Uttarakhand Garhwali and Kumaoni cuisine are the same, there are some basic differences , Kumauni cuisine is the tightfisted use of especially milk and milk-based. Badi (sun-dried Urad Dal balls) and Mangodi (sundried Moong Dal balls) as substitute for vegetables at times. Main dishes from Uttarakhand include Chainsoo, Kafuli, Jholi, Thechwani, Baadi, etc.

West Bengal Bengali cuisine is known for its subtle flavours, its confectioneries and desserts, and has perhaps the only multi-course tradition from India that is analogous with French and Italian cuisine in structure. The nature and variety of dishes found in Bengali cooking are unique even in India

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Desserts Indian sweets, known as mithai, are a type of confectionery. Many are made with sugar, milk and condensed milk, and cooked by frying. The bases of the sweets and other ingredients vary by region. In the Eastern part of India, for example, milk is a staple, and most sweets from this region are based on milk products

Tea, Lassi, Sharbat, nimbu pani Alcoholic beverages Beer

Eating habits
breakfast, or nashta, Lunch by pan snacks. Dinner by sweets Seated without cutlery right hand South India - banana leaves Now spoons and forks


Barfi Chikki Gulab jamun Jalebi Khaja Kulfi Kheer (Paayasam) Laddu Malpoa (pan cake rice or wheat) Motichoor Ka Ladoo (gram flour) Rasgulla R'tist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University Shrikhand (yogurt)


Music of India - folk, popular, pop, classical music

Hindustani music Vedic times around 1000 BC. developed circa the 13th and 14th centuries AD with Persian influences and religious and folk music. The practice of singing based on notes was popular even from the Vedic times where the hymns in Sama Veda, a sacred text, was sung as Samagana and not chanted. Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds but also enriched by the Persian performance practices of the Mughals. During the Medivel age especially in Mughals era various Gharana became famous due to excellence and class in type of musics like raga. Tansen is one of the navratna of Mughals Admiral Akbar. Classical genres are dhrupad, dhamar, khyal, tarana sadra. Carnatic music 15th - 16th centuries AD and thereafter, one of the gifts bestowed on man by the gods of Hindu mythology. It is one of the oldest musical forms that continue to survive today. Carnatic music is melodic, with improvised variations. It consists of a composition with improvised embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga Alapana, Kalpanaswaram, Neraval, and, in the case of more advanced students, Ragam Tanam Pallavi. The main emphasis is on the vocals as most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in a singing style (known as g yaki). There are about 7.2 million ragas (or scales) in Carnatic Music, with only 300 or so still in common use today. Purandara Dasa is considered the father of carnatic music. Sri Tyagaraja, Sri Shyama Shastry and Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar are considered the trinity of carnatic music and with them came the golden age in carnatic music in the 18th-19th Noted artists of Carnatic Music include MS Subbulakshmi, Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar (the father of the current concert format), Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer, TN Seshagopalan and more recently Sanjay Subrahmanyan, TM Krishna, Bombay Jayashri, etc.

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FOLK Bihu of Assam

Bihu is the festival of New Year of Assam falling on mid April

Popular music
Film music Interaction with non-Indian music

Indi-pop music
Daler Mehndi, Bombay Rockers

Bhangra lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region to celebrate Vaisakhi Dandiya
t is practised in (mainly) the state of Gujrat

Rock & metal music

Ravi Shankarand Zakir Hussain

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Indian Musical Instruments

A musical instrument is a device constructed or modifies with a purpose of making music. In principle, anything that produces sound, and somehow controlled be a musician can serve as a musical instrument. The expression is reserved generally to items that have a specific musical purpose. The academic study of musical instrument is called Organology In the sphere of instrumental music, India occupies a prominent position. There are as many as 500 musical instruments with distinct names and techniques of play. The musical instruments of India have been so devised as to fully serve the needs of her highly developed melodic system of music. All music performances are accompanied by artists on musical instruments.
classified as (i) Tala Vadhya - Stringed instruments that stretch in tension. Egs. Veena, Violin, Tambura, Gottuvadhyam, Sitar, Sarod. (ii) Sushira Vadhya -Wind instruments. Egs. Nadhaswaram, Flute and Shehnai. (iii) Avanaddha Vadhya Percussion instruments that have one or two faces covered with the hide skin. Egs. Mridhangam, Dolak, Tabla. (iv) Gana Vadhya - Solid instruments that do not require any tuning. Cymbals, Jaltarang are some of the Gana Vadhyas.

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TALA VADHYA (Stringed Instruments)

A String instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. SITAR
 Most well known of the Indian instruments.  It is a long necked instrument with an interesting construction.  It is played in north Indian classical music (Hindustani Sangeet), film music and western fusion music.  It developed during the collapse of Mughal empire.(1700 BC)  Prominent Players Ravi Shankar, Imdad Khan, Vilayat Khan, Nikhil Banerjee.

 Instrument indigenous to Kashmir.  Has a vibrant tone and has become very popular in the last 20 years.  2 types: The Indian santur is box-like while the Persian version is much wider.  Origin is from Middle East.  Prominent players: Shiva Kumar Sharma, Bhajan Sopori, Omprakash Chaurasiya.

 Western Origin.  Introduced by Portuguese 3 centuries ago  Techniques used in Indian & Western Violins are different.  Most refined technique is found in Indian Music.  Prominent Players: V.G. Jog, Gajananrao Joshi, N. Rajam.

 Sophisticated drone instrument of concrete platform.  There are 3 main styles: Miraj style, Tanjore style and Tamburi. (small instrumental version)  Known for its rich sound.  Came into use in 13th century.

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SUSHIRA VADHYA (Wind Instruments)

A Wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. The pitch of the vibration is determined by the length of the tube and by manual modifications of the effective length of the vibrating column of air. FLUTE
 They are typically made of Bamboo or Reed.  There are 2 main types; Bansuri and Venu. Bansuri is used in the North Indian system.  Venu is the South Indian flute and is used in the Carnatic system.  Special significance in India because of its association with Lord Krishna.  Prominent Players: Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasya, Pannalal Ghosh, Raghunath Seth.

North Indian oboe. It is a quadruple-reed instrument. Has a wooden body with a brass bell. Found in temples and is an indispensable component of any North Indian wedding. Origin from Persia. Prominent players: Bismillah Khan.

South Indian version of the shehnai. Larger than the shehnai and has a simple double reed . Considered a very auspicious instrument and is found at temples and at weddings. Smaller version of the nadaswaram which is played in folk music is known as mukhavina

The harmonium is also known as peti or baja. It is a European instrument which was imported in the 19th century. It is a reed organ with hand pumped bellows.

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Avanada percussion instruments

One or two faces covered with the hide skin. About 290 varieties of drums. TABALA, PAKHWAJ, MRIDANGAM, GHODAM, CHENDA, EDAKKA, DHOLAK TABALA Considered as a royal instrument. Consists of two drums. Right side is called tabla & left bayan. Sakir Hussain. The drums are hollow from inside and covered with leather straps. Black circle are called ankhs/syaki Straps are pulled to raise or lower the pitch. PAKHWAJ
Originated in North India. Played with an open left hand. In south musicians use the left side. Similar to Mridangam except for slight differences in construction and playing techniques. Only confined to classical compositions like Dhrupad and Dhamar.

Means earthen body. Originated in South India. The most highly developed and most ancient of all percussion instruments. A cylindrical hollow block of wood with hide being used to cover the two ends. A wide variety of tones can be obtained from different part of the instrument. Heads on both sides keeping time and rhythm. Different in the sound, quality, shape and making procedure.

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An ancient percussion instrument. Often used in Carnatic music concerts. This is a mud pot with an open month. Played with hands, wrists and fingers. The player can bring to light various volume and tones by using finger strokes at different parts of the instrument neck, center and bottom. Is a hollow cylindrical instrument. Made from softwood, the ends of which are covered with cowhide. Is the chief accompaniment in kathakali. Most important instrument which is played in temples.



Is a sensitive percussion instrument. Made of wood a quarter metre long, the drumheads are held in position by interlacing cotton threads. The player beats the drum with one hand while simultaneously manipulating the strings with the other, thus creating a variety of musical notes. Is a drum used to accompany light forms of music and most of folk music. Light forms of music like bhajans, ghazals, quawwalis. In the Carnatic school of music, the dholak accompanies Nadaswaram and is called dhol .


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Solid instruments that do not require anything are called ghana. Not as important as other instruments.

Literally means waterwaves It consists of 18 porcelain cups of different sizes. Each one will produce different tone. Arranged in a semi-circle in front of the performer. Beginning from largest to smallest. Bigger cups produce a deep pitch. Smaller have higher pitch. Classical as well as light music is played on it.


Bells & Gongs

Used for the support of other instruments. Especially used in temples.
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Physical expression of emotive content of music Gestures coupled with rhythmical movements to expressions can be defined as Dance Expression of mind through body movements In ancient culture dance was purely for religious practices, in modern societyentertainment Pleasure of dancing is in watching that music through the visual expression Literary work which gives information about dance is Natyasasthra by Bharata

TECHNIQUE OF DANCE According to sangeetharatnakara and Abhinayadarpana, dancing is divided in to3 distict categories NATYA corresponds to drama NRITHA pure dance movement of body do not express any any mood and do not convey any meaning NRITHYA or Abhinaya gesticulation of song
Bharatanatyam Mohiniyattam Kathakali Kathak Odissi Kuchipudi manipuri

There are three principles that govern the structure of Indian Dance THE MODE OF PRESENTATION Stage way (natya) Way of world (loka) TYPE OF STYLE Gracial (kaiseki) Grand (stavathi) Energetic (arabati) Verbal (bharati) TYPES OF ACTING vocal (vachiak) gestures (angika) stage props (acharya) temperment (satvika)

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Dance form of Tamilnadu Opens with ALARIPPU performed in the beginning for the obedience of God 2nd stage is JATISWARAM Performer waves several patterns on musical base SABDAM a composition of Karnatic music VARNAM complex item and central piece THILLANA conclude Bharatha stands for Bhava which is mood. Raga is music, and Tala is rhythm, while Natyam stands for Nritya.

Dance originated in Kuchipudi, AP Traced back to dance drama of enacted by Brahmanas in temples Theme Bhagavat Purana, esp. life of Krishna Famous thing is dancing up on brass plate and pot on his head Performed both in solo and in group

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Originated in Kerala Based on lasya Derives it s name from Mohini of Puranas It has elements of Bharatanatyam and Kathakali

Dance drama of kerala Born in the temples of Kerala Performed in open air, in the light of Nilavilakku Themes epics Katha will recite in music by a singer accompanied by drums and musical instruments Actor never opens his lips movement of body, facial expressions and mudras are used to interpret the play

Training of 10 to 12 years It will take 3 to 6 hrs for make up and dressing female characters are played by males Colour of facial make up indicate the character Green-dignity and nobility (heroes) Black demons and demoness kathi villain characters Thadi animals and animal God Famous institution kalamandalam by Vallathol

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Dance form of UP Derives it s name from kathika which means story teller He recites from epics with gestures and music Gradually it assumed an elaborate style involving Nritha and Nrithya Under Mughal rulers it was influenced by Persian customs and style of dancing Dance begins with Ganesh vandana Salami amad is the term through which a dancer enters into the stage Then comes the soft and varied movements Padhani is a special feature in which dancer recites complicated items Concluding item is Jatkar which concentrate on fast foot movements Male dancer usually wear sharvani and velvet cap He ties nearly 200 bells around his angles and can move all or any no. according to his will Male or female dance or as couple dance

Dance form of Orissa As devotion to lord Krishna Based on Geethagovinda Used to depict love and devotion to God It was originally temple art ,later performed in royal courts Mudras and expressions are similar to Bharatanatyam Dance form based on archaeological evidence

Dance of Manipur Describe the plays of Krishna and gopikas Body moves with slow and grace arm movements and movements of fingers

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Folk comprises common people Folk dance is common people s dance They are simple, natural and spontaneous expression of every day themes and feelings Language is very simple and local FAMOUS FOLK DANCES
Tamasha Kowada Dasavatar Dangytamasha Bhavai Garbha Bhopa-Bhopi Ruf Hikat Parasa Bhangra Ghidha(panjab) Dhamyal Lahoor Puppertry Yakshagana Ghoomar Nautanki Gair(Rajasthan) Velakali kaikottikali

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Miniature paintings Mural paintings Executed on Small scale. Huge works executed on On perishable materials like paper, walls or solid structure. Clothes etc. Eg. Rajasthan and Mughal Early examples of murals miniature. Miniature Paintings gained are found in the caves of prominence in the 11th and 12th century when people starting Ajanta and Ellora developing manuscripts to store valuable knowledge using palm Fragments of mural leaves. paintings are also found in This art got great boost by the Mughals who ruled over India over the contemporary that period. Pitalkhora Caves. Some of the great miniature paintings gained inspiration from Early evidences of the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagvata Purana. tradition of mural paintings in southern India are found Miniature paintings in there in the manuscripts of Jains, Buddhist, in the sites of Badami Rajput, and Mughal theories and
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Classical Paintings Prehistoric paintings Ajantha paintings Found in primitive Ellora paintings caves and rock Fresco Paintings shelters Method of painting water Paintings are mainly based pigments on freshly applied plaster, usually on hunting scenes wall surfaces. Most of them The colours, which are made washed off by grinding dry-powder pigments in pure water, dry Less tourists are and set with the plaster to attracted towards become a permanent part of the wall. them The Italian Renaissance was Not Promoted by the greatest period of fresco tourism dept. painting
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Ajantha Cave Paintings Located nearly 106 Km from Aurangabad, Maharashtra The are 30 Buddhist caves in Ajantha Hinayan and Mahayan have their separate caves No idol worship for Hinayan Cave 1, 2, 16 and 17 are famous for coloured wall paintings Buddha is depicted through sculptures and paintings. Paintings were created by Buddhist monks during vanaprastha Most of the paintings show stories related to Buddha called jataka tales Human figures with different hair style, dress style, ornament style and facial expressions have reflected the social life of the day

Ellora Paintings Belongs to three different religious style - Buddhist, Hindu and Jain Budhist caves(1-12) belongs only Mahayana sect Total 34 caves Cave 2,29,& 10 are attractive Buddhist caves Paintings cover the ceilings of walls of mandapas Have lovely floral designs , animals, and birds 13-29 are Hindu caves 30-34 are Jain caves Entire surface of ceiling and wall covered with paintings Paintings are found in 5 caves Some what preserved in Kailasnath temple

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Medieval Paintings Rajputh paintings Mughal paintings Tanjore paintings Madhubani paintings Pithora paintings Kalamkari paintings

Rajputh paintings
These are Rajasthani miniatures Deal with prevailing literary works Messages through paintings were always spiritual or religious Colours used symbolically Mainly deal with Radha and Krishna Major paintings include , Ragmala paintings, Geethagovinda, Banithani Rajasthan has been the leading state with regards to Miniature painting and even today different miniature art schools do exist in the regions of Jodhpur, Jaipur, Kangra and Mewar. The Jodhpur School of Miniature paintings depict love scenes of lovers Dholu and Maru on camel back. There are hunting scenes with elephants and horses also available. The major colors used in this style of painting are gold and stone color.

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Mughal paintings Combination of Persian and Indian art Small in size, so miniature Neither represented Indian emotions nor scenes from Indian life Appreciated nature and portrayed with great accuracy and feeling Beautiful colour combinations of red blue or gold Immense use of gold , silver and precious stones Introduced margin decoration Halos were also introduced to show high personality and spirituality Technique: A high degree of expertise is required as it involves the use of a very fine brush. The colours used are mainly derived from minerals, vegetables, precious stones, conch shells, gold and silver Paper painting in Miniature art are done on old or new hand made paper of very fine quality that depict Animals, Birds, Butterfly, Mughal themes and more. Miniature paintings made of pure marble slabs that feature Mythology, Birds, Turbans, Women and Mughal themes can be used as table tops or wall frames as well. Miniature Painting are pain staking efforts of skill and talent exhibited by Indian artisans.

Tanjore paintings
Tanjore painting is an important form of classical South Indian painting native to the town of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu. The art form dates back to the early 9 th century, a period dominated by the Chola rulers, who encouraged art and literature. Done on wooden material Colours from locally available natural materials Also drawn on glass by using different technique These paintings are known for their elegance, rich colours, and attention to detail. The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu Gods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology. In modern times, these paintings have become a much sought after souvenir during festive occasions in South India.
The first stage involves the making of the preliminary sketch of the image on the base. The base consists of a cloth pasted over a wooden base. Then chalk powder or zinc oxide is mixed with water-soluble adhesive and applied on the base. After the drawing is made, decoration of the jewellery and the apparels in the image is done with semi-precious stones. Laces or threads are also used to decorate the jewellery. On top of this, the gold foils are pasted. Finally, dyes are used to add colours to the figures in the paintings.

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Madhubani paintings
Traditional style developed around Madhubani, Bihar Done by women Done on freshly plastered mud wall For commercial purpose doing on paper clothes etc. Religious nature, on special rooms, Offers special prayer before the work Various figures include Krishna, Rama , Lakshmi, sun, moon, wedding scenes etc. Brush cotton wrapped around bamboo stick Home made colours Yellow from turmeric, black from cow dung and soot, green from leaves , white from rice powder

Kalamkari paintings
Done mainly on clothes Using wooden blocks and natural dyes Painting method of Rajashan

Modern paintings
Bengal School of Art -Raja Ravi Varma Calcutta School of Art - Abanindranath Tagore During the colonial era, Western influences started to make an impact on Indian art. Schools of art in India provided access to modern techniques and ideas The Progressive Artist's Group The founders were six eminent artists K. H. Ara S. K. Bakre H. A. Gade M.F. Husain S.H. Raza F. N. Souza, Some of those who are well-known today are Bal Chabda, V. S. Gaitonde, Krishen Khanna, Ram Kumar, Tyeb Mehta, and Akbar Padamsee. Other famous painters like Jahar Dasgupta, Prokash Karmakar, and Bijon Choudhuri enriched the art culture of india. They have become the icon of modern Indian art.

Pithoro paintings
Paintings of Gujrath Not a decorative wall piece, way of appealing to God Walls of houses are painted by professional artists Young unmarried girls will plaster the wall with clay and cow dung Actual painting is done on Wednesday Tuesday , walls will be whitewashed

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HINDU PILGRIMAGE Allahabad Amarnath Ayodhya Badrinath Bhuwaneshwar Dwarka, Gangotri Haridwar Kanchipuram Kanyakumari Kedarnath Konarak

Jainism Pilgrimage Palitana Ranakpur Sravanabelagola Udaygiri & Kandhagiri Caves Christian Pilgrimage Goa Velankanni Muslim Pilgrimage Ajmer Sharif Fatehpur Sikri Haji Ali Jama Masjid
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SIKH PILGRIMAGE Anandpur Sahib Damdama Sahib Fatehgarh Sahib Golden Temple Delhi Gurudwaras Hemkund Sahib Manikaran Patna Sahib Poanta Sahib Takht Sri Hazoor Sahib

Buddhist Pilgrimage Ajanta & Ellora Bodhgaya Kaushambi Kushinagar Lumbini Nalanda Rajgir Sarnath Shravasti Vaishali

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Each city had a well fortified citadel Well planned streets Used backed bricks for building construction Houses are often double storied No windows on the street side Unique sewage system The Great Bath Granary

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Ancient Indian
Stupas Rock-cut Architecture Chaithyas Viharas Cave Temples Temple Architecture

Preserving the remains of important personality under a heap of accumulated earth Buddhist Source- Buddha's relics were divided into different parts and placed under the Stupas Sacred place of Buddhism

Structure of Stupas
Shape of bowl turned upside down Flat structure called Hermika (abode of God) at the top A wooden rode placed in the middle above Hermika Small umbrella-like disk above the rode symbolizing respect, veneration, and magnanimity.

Main Stupas in India Gaya Sanchi Nagargunakonda Saranath


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Rock-cut architecture
Cell of worship with Stupa placed in the center Have a long rectangular hall ending in a semi-circle at the back-end The long hall is internally divided into three sections 1. Nave: long central path where the seats are arranged 2. Apse: semi-circle area of the cell 3. Aisle: passage between rows of seats Aisles are separated from the Nave by two rows of pillars The hall has a carved sealing The door-way is usually placed facing the Stupa Horse-shoe shaped window called Chaitya window

Residents of monks Square hall in the centre A pillared Verandah in the front Have a number of small square cells Raised benches in each cell
Cave Temples
Rock-cut Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain temples Examples: Kailasnath temple of Ellora Mahabalipuram temple Elephanta cave

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Temple architecture Patterns of Temples

Sanctum sanctoreum (Garbha Griha) Shikhara- prominent roof Pathway Pradakshin padh Mandapa

Nagara Style
Curvilinear tower Shrine is square in the center Projections leading to cruciform shape One projection- Triratha Two projections- Pancharatha Three projections- Saptharatha Four projections- Navaratha Nagara style consists of two buildings 1. Building with main Shrine 2. Mandapa Bell-shaped structure to a height Kalasa at the top Eg: Temples of Orissa, Rajasthan, and Gujarat

Differ in the shape of Sikhara

Types of temple architecture

Nagara style (North Indian) Dravida style (South Indian) Versara (Combined)

Dravida style
Vimana: tall pyramidal tower consists of small storeys Gopuram: two storeys separated by horizontal moulding Prakara: outer wall envelops the main the Shrine

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Shore temple of Mahabalipiram, Vaikunta Temple of Kancheepuram

Versara style
Combined style of Nagara and Dravida Chalukyan Temple(500-750 AD) Eg. Pattadakal, Aihole

CHOLA STYLE(AD 900-1150)

Brihadewara Temple, Tanjore

PANDYA STYLE(AD 1100-1350)

Chitambaram, Kumbhakonam, Tiruvannamalai

Auradaiyar koil, Vellur Vittala temple, Hampi

NAYAKA STYLE (1600 onwards)

Rameshvaram, Chidambaram, Madurai
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Agra Fort - former royal residence of the Moghul, Agra Amba Vilas Palace-Mysore Bangalore Palace - Bengaluru Chowmahalla Palace City Palace, Jaipur - Seat of the Maharaja of Jaipur City Palace, Udaipur - Seat of the Maharana of Udaipur Delhi Fort - former seat of the Moghul, Delhi Falaknuma Palace - royal residence, Hyderabad Fatehpur Sikri - former royal residence of Emperor Akbar Hawa Mahal (Palace of Winds) - former royal residence, Jaipur Hill Palace, Tripunithura, Cochin - former Royal Residence of Maharaja of Cochin, now one of the largest archaeological museum in India Jag Mandir - former residence of Shah Jahan, Udaipur Jag Niwas (Lake Palace) - former royal residence, Udaipur Jaisalmer Fort - Seat of the Maharaja of Jaisalmer Kangra Fort - Seat of the Maharaja of KangraLambagraon King Kothi Palace - Palace of VII Nizam, Osman Ali Khan Kowdiar Palace- Residence of the Travancore Royal Family

Lalgarh Palace - former royal residence, today hotel, Bikaner Laxmi Vilas Palace - Seat of the Maharajah of Baroda Laxmipuram Palace Marble Palace (Kolkata) Mattancherry Palace (Dutch Palace), Cochin former Royal Residence of Maharaja of Cochin, archeological museum at present. Nedumpuram Palace New Palace - Seat of Maharaja of Kolhapur Padmanabhapuram Palace - Seat of the Maharaja of Travancore Purani Haveli - Seat of the Nizam of Hyderabad Rajbari - Seat of the Maharaja of Cooch Behar Rambagh Palace - former residence of the Maharaja of Jaipur (today hotel) Rashtrapati Bhavan - Seat of the President, former viceregal residence, Delhi Red Fort Samode Palace - former royal residence, today hotel, Jaipur Shaniwar Wada, Pune Thanjavur Nayak - Thanjavur (Tanjore) Nayak Palace, Thanjavur Umaid Bhawan Palace - Seat of the Maharaja of Jodhpur

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