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³Aerodynamics´ is derived from two words
AERO ± meaning AIR DYNAMICS ± meaning force of power
So Aerodynamics means ³ STUDY OF OBJECTS IN MOTION THROUGH THE AIR & THE FORCES THAT PRODUCES OR CHANGE SUCH MOTION´ .
ATMOSPHERE Air is a mixture of gases Air has weigh Since air answers the definition of fluid. it is considered a µFLUID¶ .
the atmospheric pressure decreases.i or ³29.7´ p.Pressure of Atmosphere The atmospheric pressure at sea level is ³14.92´ inches of mercury.s. . Since air has weight so as we go higher.
Density Density is defined as ³weight per unit volume´ Density is pressure directly proportional to Density is inversely proportional to Temperature .
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air
Higher the temperature, more amount of water vapor it can hold
Density of air varies inversely with the humidity
Water vapor weighs approximately 5/8th as much as an equal amount of perfectly dry air
The atmospheric temperature falls off at a steady rate as altitude increases This is called lapse rate. Its value is ± 6.50C for every 1000m of altitude increase. This is up to 11 kms.
Bernoulli·s Principle Bernoulli¶s Principle states that pv = constant ( p = Pressure. v = Velocity) .
FORCES ACTING ON AIRCRAFT .
An aircraft is acted upon by four forces Gravity or weight The force that pulls aircraft towards earth Thrust The force that moves the aircraft forward .
Lift The forces that pushes the aircraft upward Drag The force that exerts a braking action .
.AEROFOILS An aerofoil is a surface designed to obtain a desirable reaction from the air through which it moves/gains lift.
BERNOULLI·S PRINCIPLE ON AEROFOIL .
Aerofoil·s Terminology .
. Leading edge This part of the aerofoil meets the airflow first.Chord The chord line is an imaginary straight line drawn through an aerofoil from leading and trailing edge.
Camber The camber of an aerofoil is the characteristic curve of its upper and lower surface.Trailing edge This is the portion of aerofoil where the airflow over the upper surface rejoins the lower surface. .
Relative wind This is the direction of airflow with respect to wing Angle of attack The angle between the chord line and the direction of relative wind .
Angle of incidence The angle between chord line and longitudinal axis of a/c. Center of Pressure The point where the total lift force is acting is called center of pressure. .
Lift and Drag .
By experiment. lift and drag of an aerofoil depends on The shape of the aerofoil The plan area of the aerofoil The square of the velocity The density of air .
So. (CL = Lift co-efficient) 2 CL depends upon shape of aerofoil and angle of attack D = 1CDV2S (CD = Drag co-efficient) 2 CD depends upon shape of aerofoil and angle of attack . L = 1CLV2S.
Angle of lift/drag attack and The lift increases as angle of attack increases This increases is upto a certain angle .
Beyond this lift decreases rapidly This angle of maximum lift know as Critical angle .
Wing area and lift/Drag Wing area is area of the shadow cast by wing at high noon Includes the area blanked by the fuselage. Lift and drag are proportional to wing area .
Shape of lift/drag aerofoil and The shape of aerofoil determines the amount of skin friction or turbulence produced Turbulence and skin friction are controlled mainly be fineness ratio .
. maximum thickness occurs 1/3rd way back from leading edge.Fineness ration = Chord maximum thickness High fineness ratio. thin wing and hence large amount of skin friction For general use.
higher the lift obtained .Aspect Ratio = wing span chord Higher the aspect ratio.
Lift/Drag ratio Efficiency of a wing is measured in terms of the L/D (Lift/Drag) ratio .
This ratio varies with angle of attack L/D ratio increases very rapidly up to about 30 to 40 .
At these angle lift is 24 times the drag Beyond this L/D ratio gradually falls .
Stalling of Aerofoil The angle of attack at which the lift co-efficient of an aerofoil is maximum and beyond which it begins to decrease is called stalling angle This is because airflow becomes separated instead of streamlined .
Drag and Types of Drag
Total drag can be divided in to three types
Profile drag Induced Drag
The drag of those parts of aircraft which do not contribute towards the lift.
Form drag is created by any structure which protrudes into the relative wind. Streamlining reduces drag.
Skin friction drag Skin friction drag is caused by the roughness of airplane¶s surface Interference drag It occurs when varied currents of air over an airplane meet and interact .
Induced drag The action of aerofoil that gives us lift also cause induced drag It increases with increase of angle of attack It results in production of ³wingtip vortex´. .
Total Drag Total Drag is defined as the sum Parasite drag and induced drag It first decreases and then increases as the speed of aircraft increases .
. lateral and vertical axis.Axis of aircraft Aircraft maneuvering flight takes place around one or more of three axes of rotation These are longitudinal.
Motion about the longitudinal axis is called Roll Motion about the lateral axis is called Pitch Motion about the vertical axis is called Yaw .
Stability and control .
Stability Stability of an a/c causes it to fly in a straight & level flight plan Maneuverability It is the ability of an a/c to be directed along a desired flight path Controllability It is the quality of the response of an aircraft to the pilot commands .
Static Stability It is the initial tendency that an object displays after its equilibrium is disrupted Type of static stability Positive Static stability An airplane with positive static stability tends to return to its original attitude after displacement .
Neutral static stability If an airplane tends to remain in its displace attitude it has neutral static stability. .Negative Static stability A tendency to move farther away from the original attitude following a disturbance is called negative static stability.
.Dynamic stability Dynamic stability describes the time required for an airplane to respond to its static stability following a displacement from a condition of equilibrium.
Types of Dynamic stability Positive dynamic stability If its tendency is to return to the original attitude directly through a series of decreasing oscillation is called positive dynamic stability .
Neutral dynamic stability Neutral dynamic stability is indicated if the airplane tends to return to its state of equilibrium but the oscillations are neither increase nor decrease in magnitude as time passes. it is known as negative dynamic stability.Negative dynamic stability If the resulting oscillations increases in magnitude as time progresses. .
longitudinal stability refers to motion in Pitch .Longitudinal Stability The longitudinal stability is about the lateral axis So.
The horizontal stabilizer is the primary surface which controls longitudinal stability The action of stabilizer depends upon the speed and angle of attack of the aircraft .
The vertical stabilizer is the primary surface which controls directional stability . directional stability refers to the motion in yaw.Directional stability The stability about the vertical axis is referred to as directional stability So.
Methods to enhance directional stability Sweptback wing Large Dorsal fin Long fuselage Ventral fin .
Lateral stability Lateral stability of an aircraft involves consideration of rolling moments due to side slip A side slip tends to produce both a rolling and yawing motion Wings are the primary control surface to enhance lateral stability .
Methods to enhance lateral stability Sweptback wing Dihedral angle .
Control Control is the action to make the aircraft follow any desired fly path. Different control surfaces are used to control the aircraft about each of the three axis. .
Flight Control surfaces .
These surfaces may be divided into three groups Primary group Primary group includes elevators and rudders the ailerons Secondary group Included in secondary group are the tabs. .
speed brakes. slats. spoilers. leading edge flaps and slots.Auxiliary group Included in auxiliary group are wing flaps. .
Control axis about longitudinal The motion of the aircraft about the longitudinal axis is called rolling or banking. It is done with the help of ailerons Ailerons are linked together so that one aileron is down the opposite aileron is up .
Adverse yaw As a result of increased lift in the wing with lowered aileron the drag is also increased. This drag pulls the nose in the direction opposite to that desired. It is caused by what is known as Aileron drag .
It can be avoided use of differential aileron travel use of spoilers use of frinse ailerons .
Control about vertical axis The motion of the aircraft about the vertical axis is called yawing. It is done with the help of rudders .
It is done with the help of elevators. .Control about lateral axis The motion of the aircraft about the vertical axis is called pitching.
Tabs These are small hinge control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the primary control surfaces The tabs can be moved up or down. .
Types of tabs .
Trim tab These are used to trim out any holding forces encountered in flight such as those occurring after a change of flight path due to gust wind or any undesirable flight altitude Trim tabs are either control from the cockpit or adjusted on the ground .
are used primarily on the large main control surfaces. sometimes refer to as flight tabs. They aid in moving the control surface and holding it in the desired position.Servo tab Servo tab. Only the servo tab moves in response to the movement of the cockpit control. .
Thus assisting the movement of main control surface by reducing the aerodynamic force .Balance Tabs A balance tab moves in the opposite direction to that of main control surface.
to aid in moving a primary control surface A spring tab is hinged to the trailing edge of each aileron .e.Spring tabs Spring tabs are used for the same purpose as hydraulic actuator i.
Lift Augmenting Devices .
Flaps The use of flaps increases the camber of a wing and therefore the lift of the wing making it possible for the speed of the aircraft to be decreased without stalling. Flaps are primarily used during take off and landing .
Types of flaps Plain To the plain flap is simply hinged to the wing and forms a part of the wing surface Split flap The split flap is hinged at the bottom part of the wing near the trailing edge .
Fowler The fowler flap increases camber as well as wing area. but in appearance is like a flap having a slot in its leading edge. They provide added lift without increasing drag. . Slotted flap The slotted flap is like the fowler flap in operation.
Boundary devices Layer control Boundary layer control devices additional means of increasing the maximum lift coefficient of a section .
Types of Boundary control Devices Fixed slot Slats Automatic slot Boundary layer suction device Jet flap layer .
Mach Number It is the ratio between true air speed to the speed of sound M= TAS Speed of sound .
20 .Different regimes of flight Subsonic Flight mach numbers below 0.75 Transonic Flight mach number from .75 to 1.
200 to 5.00 Hypersonic Flight mach number above 5.Supersonic Flight mach number from 1.00 .
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