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# INDIAN INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICS

NEW DELHI

AERODYNAMICS

INTRODUCTION
Aerodynamics is derived from two words

## AERO meaning AIR DYNAMICS meaning force of power

So Aerodynamics means

STUDY OF OBJECTS IN MOTION THROUGH THE AIR & THE FORCES THAT PRODUCES OR CHANGE SUCH MOTION

ATMOSPHERE
Air is a mixture of gases

## Since air answers the definition of fluid, it is considered a FLUID

Pressure of Atmosphere

The atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.7 p.s.i or 29.92 inches of mercury.

## Since air has weight so as we go higher, the atmospheric pressure decreases.

Density
Density is defined as weight per unit volume

Density is pressure

directly

proportional

to

Humidity

the

## Density of air varies inversely with the humidity

Water vapor weighs approximately 5/8th as much as an equal amount of perfectly dry air

Temperature
The atmospheric temperature falls off at a steady rate as altitude increases This is called lapse rate. Its value is 6.50C for every 1000m of altitude increase. This is up to 11 kms.

Bernoullis Principle
Bernoullis Principle states that

pv = constant
( p = Pressure, v = Velocity)

## FORCES ACTING ON AIRCRAFT

An aircraft is acted upon by four forces Gravity or weight The force that pulls aircraft towards earth

## Drag The force that exerts a braking action

AEROFOILS

An aerofoil is a surface designed to obtain a desirable reaction from the air through which it moves/gains lift.

## BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE ON AEROFOIL

Aerofoils Terminology

Chord
The chord line is an imaginary straight line drawn through an aerofoil from leading and trailing edge.

This part of the aerofoil meets the airflow first.

Trailing edge
This is the portion of aerofoil where the airflow over the upper surface rejoins the lower surface.

Camber
The camber of an aerofoil is the characteristic curve of its upper and lower surface.

Relative wind
This is the direction of airflow with respect to wing

Angle of attack
The angle between the chord line and the direction of relative wind

Angle of incidence
The angle between chord line and longitudinal axis of a/c.

Center of Pressure
The point where the total lift force is acting is called center of pressure.

## By experiment, lift and drag of an aerofoil depends on

The shape of the aerofoil The plan area of the aerofoil The square of the velocity The density of air

So, L = 1CLV2S, (CL = Lift co-efficient) 2 CL depends upon shape of aerofoil and angle of attack D = 1CDV2S (CD = Drag co-efficient) 2 CD depends upon shape of aerofoil and angle of attack

Angle of lift/drag

attack

and

## Wing area and lift/Drag

Wing area is area of the shadow cast by wing at high noon Includes the area blanked by the fuselage. Lift and drag are proportional to wing area

Shape of lift/drag

aerofoil

and

The shape of aerofoil determines the amount of skin friction or turbulence produced

## Turbulence and skin friction are controlled mainly be fineness ratio

Fineness ration =

## Chord maximum thickness

High fineness ratio, thin wing and hence large amount of skin friction

For general use, maximum thickness occurs 1/3rd way back from leading edge.

Lift/Drag ratio

## Beyond this L/D ratio gradually falls

Stalling of Aerofoil
The angle of attack at which the lift co-efficient of an aerofoil is maximum and beyond which it begins to decrease is called stalling angle

## Profile drag Induced Drag

Parasite Drag

Parasite Drag
The drag of those parts of aircraft which do not contribute towards the lift.

Form Drag
Form drag is created by any structure which protrudes into the relative wind. Streamlining reduces drag.

## Skin friction drag

Skin friction drag is caused by the roughness of airplanes surface

Interference drag
It occurs when varied currents of air over an airplane meet and interact

Induced drag
The action of aerofoil that gives us lift also cause induced drag

## It results in production of wingtip vortex.

Total Drag
Total Drag is defined as the sum Parasite drag and induced drag

## It first decreases and then increases as the speed of aircraft increases

Axis of aircraft
Aircraft maneuvering flight takes place around one or more of three axes of rotation

## Stability and control

Stability
Stability of an a/c causes it to fly in a straight & level flight plan

Maneuverability
It is the ability of an a/c to be directed along a desired flight path

Controllability
It is the quality of the response of an aircraft to the pilot commands

Static Stability
It is the initial tendency that an object displays after its equilibrium is disrupted

## Type of static stability Positive Static stability

An airplane with positive static stability tends to return to its original attitude after displacement

## Negative Static stability

A tendency to move farther away from the original attitude following a disturbance is called negative static stability.

## Neutral static stability

If an airplane tends to remain in its displace attitude it has neutral static stability.

Dynamic stability
Dynamic stability describes the time required for an airplane to respond to its static stability following a displacement from a condition of equilibrium.

## Types of Dynamic stability Positive dynamic stability

If its tendency is to return to the original attitude directly through a series of decreasing oscillation is called positive dynamic stability

## Negative dynamic stability

If the resulting oscillations increases in magnitude as time progresses, it is known as negative dynamic stability.

## Neutral dynamic stability

Neutral dynamic stability is indicated if the airplane tends to return to its state of equilibrium but the oscillations are neither increase nor decrease in magnitude as time passes.

Longitudinal Stability

## So, longitudinal stability refers to motion in Pitch

The horizontal stabilizer is the primary surface which controls longitudinal stability

The action of stabilizer depends upon the speed and angle of attack of the aircraft

Directional stability
The stability about the vertical axis is referred to as directional stability So, directional stability refers to the motion in yaw. The vertical stabilizer is the primary surface which controls directional stability

## Methods to enhance directional stability

Sweptback wing Large Dorsal fin Long fuselage Ventral fin

Lateral stability
Lateral stability of an aircraft involves consideration of rolling moments due to side slip A side slip tends to produce both a rolling and yawing motion Wings are the primary control surface to enhance lateral stability

## Methods to enhance lateral stability

Sweptback wing

Dihedral angle

Control

Control is the action to make the aircraft follow any desired fly path.

Different control surfaces are used to control the aircraft about each of the three axis.

## These surfaces may be divided into three groups

Primary group
Primary group includes elevators and rudders the ailerons

Secondary group
Included in secondary group are the tabs.

Auxiliary group
Included in auxiliary group are wing flaps, spoilers, speed brakes, slats, leading edge flaps and slots.

Control axis

longitudinal

The motion of the aircraft about the longitudinal axis is called rolling or banking. It is done with the help of ailerons Ailerons are linked together so that one aileron is down the opposite aileron is up

As a result of increased lift in the wing with lowered aileron the drag is also increased. This drag pulls the nose in the direction opposite to that desired.

## It is caused by what is known as Aileron drag

It can be avoided
use of differential aileron travel

use of spoilers

## use of frinse ailerons

The motion of the aircraft about the vertical axis is called yawing.

## It is done with the help of rudders

The motion of the aircraft about the vertical axis is called pitching.

## It is done with the help of elevators.

Tabs

These are small hinge control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the primary control surfaces

## The tabs can be moved up or down.

Types of tabs

Trim tab
These are used to trim out any holding forces encountered in flight such as those occurring after a change of flight path due to gust wind or any undesirable flight altitude

Trim tabs are either control from the cockpit or adjusted on the ground

Servo tab
Servo tab, sometimes refer to as flight tabs, are used primarily on the large main control surfaces. They aid in moving the control surface and holding it in the desired position. Only the servo tab moves in response to the movement of the cockpit control.

Balance Tabs
A balance tab moves in the opposite direction to that of main control surface. Thus assisting the movement of main control surface by reducing the aerodynamic force

Spring tabs

Spring tabs are used for the same purpose as hydraulic actuator i.e. to aid in moving a primary control surface

## Lift Augmenting Devices

Flaps
The use of flaps increases the camber of a wing and therefore the lift of the wing making it possible for the speed of the aircraft to be decreased without stalling.

## Types of flaps Plain

To the plain flap is simply hinged to the wing and forms a part of the wing surface

Split flap
The split flap is hinged at the bottom part of the wing near the trailing edge

Fowler
The fowler flap increases camber as well as wing area. They provide added lift without increasing drag.

Slotted flap
The slotted flap is like the fowler flap in operation, but in appearance is like a flap having a slot in its leading edge.

Boundary devices

Layer

control

Boundary layer control devices additional means of increasing the maximum lift coefficient of a section

## Types of Boundary control Devices

Fixed slot Slats Automatic slot Boundary layer suction device Jet flap

layer

Mach Number
It is the ratio between true air speed to the speed of sound

M=

TAS

Speed of sound

## Different regimes of flight Subsonic

Flight mach numbers below 0.75

Transonic
Flight mach number from .75 to 1.20

Supersonic
Flight mach number from 1.200 to 5.00

Hypersonic
Flight mach number above 5.00