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Chapter 9

Models of Chemical Bonding

9-1

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Figure 9.1

A general comparison of metals and nonmetals.

9-2

Types of Chemical Bonding 1. Metal with nonmetal: electron transfer and ionic bonding 2. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Nonmetal with nonmetal: electron sharing and covalent bonding 3. Metal with metal: electron pooling and metallic bonding 9-3 .

2 The three models of chemical bonding.Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 9-4 . Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 9. Inc.

: N . Place one dot per valence electron on each of the four sides of the element symbol. N: . . .Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. is in Group 5A and therefore has 5 valence electrons. . . Example: Nitrogen. . : : . N. N. Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols For main group elements The A group number gives the number of valence electrons. . . 9-5 . Permission required for reproduction or display. Pair the dots (electrons) until all of the valence electrons are used. N.

3 Lewis electron-dot symbols for elements in Periods 2 and 3. Figure 9. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 9-6 .Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Covalent Bonding 9-7 . Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 9.11 Covalent bond formation in H2.Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 9-8 . Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.

Inc. back to previous slide 9-9 . Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 9-10 .Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. C O PLAN: (a) The bond order is one for all and sulfur is bonded to halogens.Br. (b) Using bond orders we get O SOLUTION: (a) Atomic size increases going down a group.Br Bond length: C .2 PROBLEM: Comparing Bond Length and Bond Strength Using the periodic table.Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. S . Bond length: S .Cl (b) C = O.F.F Bond strength: S .3.O > C = O > C Bond strength: C O>C=O>C-O 9-11 .Br > S . bond length decreases as bond order increases while bond strength increases as bond order increases. SAMPLE PROBLEM 9. rank the bonds in each set in order of decreasing bond length and bond strength: (a) S . bond length should increase and bond strength should decrease with increasing atomic radius. (b) The same two atoms are bonded but the bond order changes. C . but not Tables 9.Cl > S .2 and 9.Cl > S .O.F > S . S .

14 Strong forces within molecules and weak forces between them. Figure 9. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Strong covalent bonding forces within molecules Weak intermolecular forces between molecules 9-12 .Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc.15 Covalent bonds of network covalent solids. Figure 9. 9-13 .Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

9-14 .Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figure 9. Permission required for reproduction or display.19 The Pauling electronegativity (EN) scale. Inc.

Permission required for reproduction or display. 9-15 .20 Electronegativity and atomic size. Figure 9. Inc.Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

0. Permission required for reproduction or display.0 N-H F-N I . the arrow should point toward the negative end.5. SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.Cl (b) The order of increasing EN is C < N < O. I-Cl. all have an EN larger than that of H.Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. H-O. (b) Rank the following bonds in order of increasing polarity: H-N. H-C. I = 2.19(button at right) to find EN values. Cl = 3.0.1. F-N. Inc. SOLUTION: (a) The EN of N = 3. H-C < H-N < H-O 9-16 . F = 4. (b) Polarity increases across a period. H = 2. PLAN: (a) Use Figure 9.4 Determining Bond Polarity from EN Values PROBLEM: (a) Use a polar arrow to indicate the polarity of each bond: N-H.

Permission required for reproduction or display. 9-17 . Figure 9.21 Electron density distributions in H2. Inc.Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. and HF. F2.

Inc.0 (EN 2. Permission required for reproduction or display.22 Boundary ranges for classifying ionic character of chemical bonds. Figure 9.0 9-18 .Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3.0 0.

24 9-19 Properties of the Period 3 chlorides. Figure 9. . Inc.Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.25 Electron density distributions in bonds of the Period 3 chlorides. 9-20 . Figure 9.

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