QUALITY CONTROL

What are the different dimensions of quality?
Sl No Dimension of Meaning product / Service
Performance Features Primary product or service characteristics Added touches, bells and whistles, secondary characteristics Consistency of performance over time Useful life Resolution of problems and complaints Characteristics of human-tohuman interface (timeliness, Courtesy, Professionalism etc.) Sensory characteristics (e.g. Sound, Feel, Look etc.) Past performance and other intangibles Competitive cost compared to other competitors similar type of product (s)

Measures Product Example Service Example (Stereo Amplifier) (Checking Account at a bank)
Signal-to-noise ratio, power Remote Control Time to process customer requests Automatic bill paying

1 2

3 4 5 6

Reliability Durability Serviceability Response

Mean time to failure Useful life (with repair) Ease to repair Courtesy of dealer

Time variability to process requests Keeping pace with industry trends Resolution of errors Courtesy of teller

7 8 9

Aesthetics Reputation Cost

Ok-finished product Public opinion, Advertisement Moderate cost

Appearance of bank lobby Past experience Reasonable processing time

Why should we now be concerned with Quality? Customer satisfaction To improve productivity To improve competitive position To stay in business .

Quality Assurance / Quality Control Input Process Output Man Machine Material Method Measurement Environment .

compare it with a standard. and act on the differences´. Taken from quality Planning and Analysis by Juran .What is Quality Control ? Quality control is ³the process through which we measure actual quality performance.

Used to define problems.Process step by step. 6. Cause-and-Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram/ Ishikawa Diagram)--.(Pictorial view of data) 5.7 Quality Control (QC)tool 1.(Relation of effect with cause) 4. Histogram ----. Pareto Chart ---.To figure out any possible causes of a problem.(Relation Diagramme²only Relation with each other) 7. Check Sheet ---. to set their priority. Control Chart -----Provides control limits whether process is in control or not . Scatter Diagram -----Shows a pattern of co-relation between two variables.Bar chart of accumulated data and provides the easiest way to evaluate the distribution of data.Used for data collection. Decision-making and actions. Flow Chart ----.(Mean you have some check point with blank space) 2. (Sequence of activity) 3.

BENEFITS ÁImproved work flow ÁReduction in costs ÁPrevention oriented ÁDevelopment of a quality consciousness ÁWork with facts rather than opinions ÁImprove decision making .

1.W.etc) ‡ USE THE COMMON SENSE .M/Cing.H.CHECK SHEET ‡ Used for data collection. Decision-making and actions. ‡ Mean you have some check point with blank space ‡ Check point²visual inspection/specification (L.

2.FLOW CHART Process step by step. (Sequence of activity) START TO END START &END ACTIVITY DECISION DIRECTION HOLD .

(Relation of effect with cause) M1 CAUSE M2 M5 M3 EFFECT ‡ M4 E .3. Cause-and-Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram/ Ishikawa Diagram) To figure out any possible causes of a problem.

22log10 n ÅClass Width=R+W/K ÅW=Least count of measuring information .HISTOGRAM Pictorial view of data ÅR(Range) =Max-Min ÅClass(k) =1+3.

HISTOGRAM Purpose of histograms: ÅFact finding ÅVisualization of data ÅProvides a simple and common language .4.

no Class boundry Tally marks frequency .table s.

16.15.15.16.12.Height of a group is 10.10. Make a Histogram Calculate std.16.12.13. deviation .

Step 5: Fill in frequency values on vertical axis. Step 6: Draw each frequency bar corresponding to each value. Step 4: Fill in numeric values on horizontal axis. Step 2: Rank order and tally data Step 3: Prepare the vertical and horizontal axis of the histogram. .Construction of Histogram Step 1: Gather the data or information.

‡ His ideas was 80% problems can be races to 20% of the causes . ‡ this principle was named for an italian Economist.5.PARETO DIAGRAM ‡ Pareto analysis is based on the pareto principle.

‡ Decide the number of classification ‡ Calculate category percentage ‡ Rank categories in descending order ‡ Calculate the cumulative percentage .PARETO DIAGRAM ‡ Following steps are necessary to construct a pareto chart.

SCATTER PLOT ‡ This is only relation diagram ‡ Only relation with each other .6.

Positive correlation An increase in y depends on increases in x. but y seems to have causes other than x No correlation There is no correlation between X and Y Variable. If x is controlled. y will increase somewhat.SCATTER PLOT Scatter Diagram shows relation between 2 variables. y naturally will be controlled Positive Correlation may be present If x increases. .

Therefore. as with positive correlation.SCATTER PLOT Negative Correlation may be present An increase in x will cause a tendency for a decrease in y. . x may be controlled instead of y. By knowing the relationship between X and Y variables. variation in one of them can be predicted by knowing the other. Negative correlation An increase in x will cause a decrease in y.

7. CONTROL CHART (VARIABLE & ATTRIBUTE) .

. + Rk k X = X1 + X2+. Step 4: Test distribution for Normality Step 5:Calculate the central lines R = R1 + R2 +««.««.+ Xk k . Step 3: Calculate Mean ( X) and Range (R) for each sample...Average & Range chart ( X & R) Step 1: Select subgroup period & sample size Step 2: Record the data on the control chart format.

Average Range ( X & R). np). Average SD. Pre-Control] B: Attribute Control Chart [Defective ( p. Sample to sample variation.ANSWERS QUESTIONS BEFORE CHOOSING A CONTROL CHART ? zWhat characteristic is to be investigated ? zWhat testing devise of gauges will be required ? zWhat is the purpose of the control chart ? zWhich chart will most effectively accomplish the purpose: A: Variable Control Chart [Moving Range. Within sample variation. Cost) zHow often sample should be drawn? zHow sample will be drawn? ( Consecutive. Median Range. Defect (c. Randomly) .u)] zWhat sample size should be drawn? ( Risk. Moving Average.( X & S).

(2) Example: i) Output from a single established machine batches of (1) They occur infrequently in an unpredictable manner. (2) Example: i) Between operators / machines / different raw material.Difference between Common & Assignable Cause Common Cause Assignable Cause (1) Inherent Variability & remain constant over time. . to discover and make changes. will reduce that variability. (3) Only a change in the system (3) They can be found. measured & eliminated. (4) Only management has the ability (4) The machine operator is best able to make changes. ii) Due to Tool wear / set up.

How to decide which are important characteristic? zCustomer Critical zProduct Critical zProcess Critical zUnder Study for Quality Improvement .

73% 1W 1W 1W 1W 1W 1W .Normal distribution and standard deviation 68% 95% 99.

Purpose of Data gathering ÁCan we make it right? (Machine / Process Capability) ÁAre we making it right? (Process Control) ÁHave we made it right? (Process Audit) ÁCan we make it better? (Process Improvement) .

When the data is arranged into a histogram. the highest bar represents the mode. Mode (Most Occurring Value) : Mode is the most frequent occurring value in a group.X)2 /n-1 (Sample SD) .X)2 /n (Population SD) s = ˜§ (X .Introduction to Basic Statistics Total for Member 2000 = 400 Mean (Average) = -----------------. Range : Difference between the lowest and greatest value. Standard Deviation: W = ˜§ (X .= -----Number of Members 5 Median (Middle Value) : Middle value in a group when arranged from lowest to highest.

what is happening on certain operations ÅUsed to predict.Organizing the facts Trend Chart ÅSimple and basic tool ÅShows a period-to-period picture ÅUsed to monitor. what will happen in the future. .