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Modeling and Simulation Simulation Tools Introduction to µEXTEND¶ Goal of Extend Pioneering Features of Extend Extend Products Extend Modeling Environment Communication with Other Applications Integrated Database Data Analysis Optimization Advantages of Extend Applications Conclusion
Modeling and Simulation
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business process.manufacturing.aerospace. warehousing and distribution 4 . warehousing and logistics improvement Manufacturing. business process.military. supply chain.warehousing. customer management. supply chain/logistics.ba ggage handling and manufacturing Automative.Simulation Tools Softwar e Vendor Typical Applications of the software Primary Markets for which the software is applied Arena Rockwell Software Manufacturing. military.airp ort operations.healthcare Automod Brooks Material handling and Automation movement systems. healthcare.
scientif ic Manufacturing.engineering. Micro saint Microanalys Has been used primarily Defense industry.transportation. material handling. distribution.call centres. . supply chain. storage access systems Large scale and rate based systems. human factors. container shipping.Software Vendor Typical Applications of Primary Markets for the software which the software is applied Model Continuous.manufacturing. discrete event or discrete rate processes plus get a relational data management system Manufacturing. real-time monitoring/analysis.huma is & Design to model applications in factors Inc. manufacturing and 5 service industries. warehousing. warehousing.logi stics. supply chain. distribution. storage access systems Extend Imagine That Flexsim Flexsim Software Products Inc.busines s. container shipping.packaging lines. material handling. real time monitoring/ analysis. defense.
tables.Introduction to µEXTEND¶ Extend from Imagine That. or read from files as the simulation runs. interactive simulation tool(Krahl 1995) that contains a built in development system that allows the user to construct components and build custom user interfaces.is a visual. Data can be entered directly into block dialogs.Inc. 6 .. Output is in the form of plots. histograms. interactively using controls. and customizable reports. Models are constructed graphically by dragging and dropping blocks(high level model components) from library windows onto the model worksheet.
This programming environment allows the modeler to create their own simulator. ± A simulation authoring package where model interfaces can be easily created to enhance productivity and ease of use. again no coding is necessary. 7 .Extend exist as: ± A standalone simulation tool which can be used to create complex discrete event and continuous models without programming. ± A development environment for building sets of custom reusable and integrated components.
Goal of µExtend¶ The goal of Extend is that a modeler will be able to: ± Build models quickly ± Make changes interactively ± See results immediately ± Explore all alternatives ± Develop customized components ± Simulate any system or process ± Share models and components with others ± Use the model as a virtual environment for communicating ideas 8 .
Pioneering Features of Extend In the process of developing and enhancing Extend. Imagine That has scored a number of firsts in the simulation industry. YEAR 1988 1988 1988 1992 1992 1995 1998 2001 2001 2001 2001 INNOVATION First open source modeling components First template-based (library) simulation system First application designed for a GUI First hierarchical modeling environment First message-based discrete event architecture First Windows/Macintosh simulation system First scripting capability First open source Optimizer First drag and drop ActiveX support First integrated support for proof animation First integrated network communication support 9 .
Extend Products Extend is unique in its use of open source and an integrated development environment. Extend product family is designed to meet the needs of the entire enterprise. All products based on Extend include ± Drag and drop modeling using the Extend built-in modeling components. This allows model builders to create their own components based on the standard components. ± Hierarchical modeling architecture ± Evolutionary Optimization ± Animation ± The innovative ModL language for development of vertical market simulation solutions. ± A full suite of inter-process communication tools for communicating with other applications such as Microsoft Excel. 10 .
embedded database and sophisticated animation in one package. combining continuous.EXTEND PRODUCT Extend Extend + BPR Extend + Manufacturin g Extend + Industry DESCRIPTION Drag and drop simulation for continuous models Business process reengineering package Advanced discrete event modeling components Adds an integrated database and high speed systems modeling to Extend+ Manufacturing Proof Animation and Stat::Fit as well as the BPR and manufacturing modules TYPICAL USE Continuous modeling of scientific and engineering systems. Modeling business processes Manufacturing. healthcare and communications. discrete event. The ultimate in simulation support. High speed processes and complex systems where it is useful to separate the model data from the structure Organizations which need to model complex processes and build high quality animations. 11 Extend Suite Industry Suite Extend Suite and the added benefit of the industry module . rate.
Each library represents a grouping of blocks with similar characteristics such as discrete event. Blocks reside in libraries. The flow is then established between the blocks. Block dialogs are mechanism for entering model data and reporting block results. Blocks are placed on the model worksheet by dragging them from the library window onto the worksheet. plotter. electronics or business process reengineering. 12 . Each block describes a calculation or a step in process.Extend Modeling Environment Extend models are constructed with library based iconic blocks.
Extend Modeling Structure 13 .
Generator block: periodically creates items (dirty cars in this case) Queue: FIFO block that holds the cars until requested by the next block. a new value is sampled from this. Single Queue Example Model of car wash is shown. Input Random Number block-specifies the delay for the activity and is connected to µD¶ or delay connector.Single Server. Exit block: removes the cars from the system. Each time a car arrives to a activity. 14 . Wash bay: Represented by activity delay block with a limited capacity of one processing unit.
the results of the simulation are reported within the blocks.Graphical Output Discrete Event Plotter graphically displays model metrics(values). Length connector(L) on queue FIFO is connected to an input on the plotter. sent to reports and exported to other applications. Plotter will graph the contents of the queue (number of dirty cars waiting in line)over time. 15 . During and after the simulation run. displayed on plotters.
The final block simply removes completed customers from the system. The "waiting line" block simply records how long each customer is in the waiting queue. The teller blocks delay each customer for some random length of time.Bank Teller Simulation in Extend The first/customer block generates an arrival stream of customers according to some arrival process that you specify. Tel l er s T U count Cust omer s come i n f r ont door D Tel l er 1 T U Leave bank # Exi t (4) Pl ot t er Pl ot t er Hel p V 1 2 Cust omers F L W Wai t i ng Li ne D Tel l er 2 T U D Tel l er 3 16 . As with the first block. you can specify the distribution of this delay.
a "deposits only" teller? ± What is the effect of reducing the service time. by increasing the wage rate so that the bank keeps more experienced tellers? 17 .. for example. e.g.Questions that can be answered with such simulation Some examples are: ± What's the benefit of adding more tellers? Is it worth the cost? ± What's the effect of offering specialized service.
Link where the information is automatically updated between Extend and Excel. ± The IPC(Inter Process Communication) library in Extend allows models to send data to. get data from and execute macros within other applications. 18 . Setting up this type of communication only requires copying the value in one application (Extend or Excel) and selecting paste-link in other application. These blocks utilize IPC functions to communicate directly with other applications and respond to simulation events and traverse the spreadsheet.Communication with Other Applications Automatic communication between Extend and other applications can take following forms: ± Paste. including Excel spreadsheets. This produces a live link that updates whenever the value in the host application changes.
± DLL(Dynamic Link Library):A separate application in the form of a DLL can be called from the ModL code.PASCAL.C. 19 .± Extend can access database information through ODBC(Open Database Connectivity) . This library can be written in any one of a number of popular programming languages including FORTRAN.C++.As with all of Extend¶s inter process features. this is available both on the block level(accessible with no programming required) and on API level within Extend¶s ModL programming environment.
flexible analysis and improved project management.Integrated Database The Extend + Industry package contains an integrated relational database. Leverage dates. Assign strings to items using database aware attributes. ± ± ± ± Configure tables for experiments and reports Use database aware blocks to built powerful model constructs. This database provides a complete data management system for model input and output. process information and experiment with scenarios. 20 . the database enables fast scenario implementation. times and other data formats such as currency. The database is built directly into the model to house product data. By separating data from the model.
Integrated database is relational and parent-child relationships can be used to better organize the information in the model. each entry in a table of part types can reference its own unique routing table. For example.Integrated Database«. 21 . This is an extremely powerful feature for organizing information used in complex simulation models.
22 . An interface to distribution-fitting programs is provided to aid users in selecting appropriate statistical distributions based on empirical data collected in the field. sensitivity analysis can be performed on the inter-arrival mean parameter of the Generator block. For example: to determine how sensitive the car wash is to the changes in the inter-arrival time of dirty cars.Data Analysis Extend offers a number of methods for analyzing both input and output data. These range from internal analysis features to built-in interfaces with other applications. Sensitivity analysis can be performed to determine how sensitive a system is to changes in specific input parameters.
Data Analysis«. Blocks from the Statistics library automatically gather data from the specific blocks and calculate confidence intervals. By cycling through different interarrival times for the dirty cars and comparing the results from the different runs. 23 . Simulation parameters such as the number of runs and simulation end time can be specified in the Simulation Setup dialog under the Run menu. the change in the parameter value from one run to the next is defined. By selecting the inter-arrival time dialog item and choosing Sensitize parameter from the Edit menu. an understanding of how sensitive the car wash is to the arrival rate of dirty cars an be obtained. The Statistics library helps users to collect and analyze output data.
Using a drag and drop interface. performance metrics and parameters that can be varied are entered into the Optimizer block.Optimization Extend¶s Evolutionary Optimizer employs powerful ³enhanced evolutionary´ algorithms to determine the best model configuration. 24 . When the model is run. the Optimizer block generates alternatives and locates the statically best configuration. These parameters are used in an equation that defines the objective function.
25 . For eg. the source code is available for examination and modification. Extend¶s optimization is well integrated into the program. when the optimization process is complete.Optimization Unlike external optimizers. model parameters are automatically set to the optimal configuration. In addition. because the optimizer has been implemented in a block.
Or develop custom blocks with unique behaviors.Advantages of Extend Interactive ± Even during a model run. improves consistency of design. and leave no alternative unexplored. and avoids having to reinvent the wheel each time you build a new model. reuse. Extend's point and click interactivity translates into faster answers and winning solutions. This means we can get fully involved with an Extend model. Group existing blocks to save them as one hierarchical block. even distribute Extend blocks ± the components that comprise a model. icons. Block reusability increases productivity. even play with it. Extend parameters and model logic can be changed "on the fly" rather than having to wait until the simulation ends. 26 . Reusable ± We can create. Store our new block in an Extend library for reuse in other models or for distribution to others. and dialogs.
In Extend. While we can add more functionality to Extend. in the form of third party modules and companion products. we always have full capability to model any size project. 27 .Advantages of Extend Scalable ± Because of its powerful constructs and unlimited hierarchical structure. Extend is used to produce complex enterprise-wide models. Extend Firsts ± Extend was the first simulation tool developed specifically for a windowing environment. Visually Transparent ± Block icons convey the structure and behavior of the model at a glance. Yet its accessibility makes it the simulation tool of choice for small and mid scale models. This unique mapping of visual meanings into their equivalent icons promotes quick understanding of a model to anyone viewing it. both the flow of items and the flow of values are graphically represented.
These technologies have been implemented as modeling components so that communication between applications is a drag-and-drop operation. We can embed an Excel spreadsheet into our Extend model. Extend's open source architecture gives us the freedom to model anything. Extendable (open source) ± Extend block components are developed using its compiled language and integrated development environment. control an application from within Extend.Advantages of Extend Well Connected ± Extend supports the component object model (COM/ActiveX) and open database connectivity (ODBC). 28 . or have it control Extend. directly access data from a database. We can alter existing blocks and develop new proprietary components for distribution to internal or external customers. Linking to code and routines written in external languages is also supported. with no programming necessary. They are Open Source to allow modification and enhancement.
Applications Since Extend is a general purpose simulation program. it has been used in many types of simulation projects. Areas where Extend has been successfully applied include ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Manufacturing Service industries Business Process Reengineering Communications Logistics Health care Control systems Environmental studies High speed processing 29 .
Pre-analytical section models specimen receipt.Supply Chain Simulation The Pre-analytical. specimen receipt time and the number of tests to be performed. analytical and Postanalytical blocks each simulate their portion of the lab¶s operation. accession number. 30 .
Supply Chain Simulation Analytical hierarchical gathers information about the number of accessions and tests performed by the analyzer and determine turn-around times and utilization for all instruments Post Analytical blocks export pertinent data to a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for analysis and reporting. 31 . Communication between model and the spreadsheet is handled automatically by Extend¶s IPC(Inter-Process Communication) library.
32 . rich set of modeling components. makes it a better solution for simulation engineers who need to efficiently utilize their modeling time. Its intuitive interface. Extend has succeeded in defining its position as a leader in simulation software .Conclusion Extend¶s design provides a superior simulation environment. an extensive authoring and development environment .and more advanced simulation technology.
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