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COSC 541

■ What is OSI?
■ Characteristics of the OSI layers
■ The 7 OSI Layers
■ Interaction between the OSI layers
■ Conclusion
What is OSI?
■ The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
is a model that was developed by the
ISO (International Organization for
Standards ) and it describes how
information from a software application
in one computer, moves through a
network medium to a software
application in another computer.

List location or contact for specification (or other related

documents) here
Characteristics of the OSI

■ Upper layers
■ 7 Layers
■ Lower layers
■ The Upper Layers: This deals with
Application issues and generally are
implemented only in software. The
highest layer, application layer is
closest to the end user. This layer is
where communication from one end
user to another begins through the
interaction between the application
layer processes and the end user.
■ The Lower layers: This handles Data
transport issues. The physical layer and
The 7 OSI Layers
■ The OSI model consists of 7 layers they
■ Application layer
■ Presentation layer
■ Session layer
■ Transportation layer
■ Network layer
■ Data-link layer
■ Physical layer
■ Physical layer: This layer defines
the hardware means of sending
and receiving data through a
medium. Example of devices that
work at this layer include repeaters
and Hubs

■ Data-link: At this layer Data error

Checking and Media Access
– Network Layer: This layer deals
with the routing of packets over
the network. It decides the best
path in which to transmit a
packet, using routing protocols.
E.g IP (Internet Protocol), IPX
(Internet Protocol Exchange).
– Transport Layer : The Transport
layer ensures reliable service. It
breaks the message (from
sessions layer) into smaller
packets, assigns sequence
number and sends them.E.g of
protocols that work at this level
are TCP(Transport Control
Protocol) and SPX (Sequence
Packet Exchange).
– Session Layer: This layer sets up,
coordinates, and terminates
conversations, exchanges, and
dialogs between the applications
at each end. It deals with session
and connection coordination
Highlight any procedural
differences from regular projects
of this type.
– Presentation Layer: This layer
provides a variety of coding and
conversion functions that are
applied to the application layer.
These functions ensure that
information sent from the
application layer of one system
will be readable by the
application layer of another
− Application Layer: This OSI layer, is
the closest to the end user, which
means that both the OSI
application layer and the end user,
interact directly with the software
application. Some of the protocols
that work at this layer include
FTP(File Transfer Protocol) and
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
Interaction Between OSI
Model Layers

■ Information sent from a software

application in one system to a
software application in another,
must pass through each of the OSI
layers. An example of this is shown
in the diagram below:
■ A given layer within the OSI model
communicates with three other
layers:the layer directly above it,
the layer directly below it and it’s
peer layer in other networked
computer system. In the diagram
below, the data link layer in
system A, communicates with the
network layer and physical layer of
system A. It also communicates
■ Overall, this presentation has tried
to describe the OSI model,what it
is all about and how
communication occurs through the
layers of the model from one user
to another .