Erika Agustin 3PSED2

‡ An active language process in which the reader uses the familiar language clues of syntax, semantics and phonology to aggressively and purposefully anticipate and access meaning in printed language ‡ Depends on interest and prior knowledge ‡ Closely related to language ‡ An active process ‡ Anticipation ‡ Not just a basic skill (we can t do away with it) ‡ A complex process (comprehension?) ‡ Is problem solving ‡ Not the same as decoding ‡ Is situationally bound *phonology- sound *syntax- structure *semantics - meaning

Good Readers are:
‡ Mentally engaged (focused) ‡ Motivated to read and to learn ‡ Strategic in monitoring the interactive processes that assist comprehension ‡ Setting goals that shape their reading processes ‡ Coordinating a variety of comprehension strategies to control the reading process

Goals of Reading: ‡ To acquire meaning from the ordered arrangement of symbols ‡ To obtain understanding ‡ To obtain information .

Importance of Reading: ‡ Simple reading or writing will have an important for a future job. position or even a game show ‡ It helps us learn things that are not taught in school or by a teacher ‡ Writing or reading can increase vocabulary ‡ Informs us with what is going on in the outside world and our country ‡ Increase our writing skills .

u=index. word-for-word type of reading requires you to read materials related to your course or research . Pay attention closely to the title. Skimming a.Types of Reading ->close reading or reading according to purpose 1. Requires you to look for particular or specific information in the text 3. Scanning a. Intensive or Functional Reading a. headings. aspects of the reading material to get a general understanding of the whole text 2.

Extensive or recreational reading a. light type of reading b. exposes you to various types of written works that express man s best thoughts and feeling on a certain subject matter 6. Detailed study reading R.question R.survey Q. purpose: understand the content of the reading material by practicing SQ3R S.recite R. resort to reading as your way of spending your leisure time . Literature reading a.Types of Reading ->close reading or reading according to purpose 4.

Object of your eyes here are the typographical errors . Proofreading a. Makes you absorb information at an extra speedy reading act 2. to reading performance or rate of understanding the text 1. Reading occurs when you recognize the form of the word and internally sound it in your mind the way one pronounces it as a spoken word 3. Sub-vocalized reading a.Types of Reading -> accord. Speed reading a.

SPE (Structure Proposition Evaluation) Three Stages: a. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence c. Multiple Intelligences a. spatial intelligence d. musical intelligence b. evaluating ideas. intra-personal intelligence . making inferences c. to reading performance or rate of understanding the text 4. interpersonal intelligence e.Types of Reading -> accord. reasons or conclusion 5. recognizing language structures b.

activating schemata. Guided reading - . the reader. examining illustrations.Types of Reading -> accord. proper pacing and correct pronunciation instructions on reading are given through an alternative reading by your teacher and you. Both of you take turns in reading portions of the texts Reading strategies for independent reading such as using contextual clues. Shared reading ± 3. to reading-instruction program 1. discussing things about the story Semi-independent reading 2. read-aloud Teachers should model this to let students learn your good expressions.

Fluency reading . intonation) 5. Independent reading . pausing.Types of Reading -> accord. Developmental reading .main concern is on language (pronunciation.reading alone or by yourself 6.refinement of reading . to reading-instruction program 4. phrasing.

reading enhancement spend time reading aloud what you are reading or thinking of . Strategic reading .you only read things that interest you . Selective or keyword reading . scanning 8.Types of Reading -> accord. to reading-instruction program 7. Remedial reading .for correction and follow-up .skimming.

this induces chemical changes that create patterns of nerve currents into the optic nerve fiber . identify and recognize the printed words .The light patterns from the printed symbols hit the foveal areas or closely packed sensory cell of the retina .In turn.Finally using the currents that travel to the midbrain.The basic step: for the eyes to see.Views of Reading Physiological (organic) Reading Mental process/ cognitive process Reading as a Physiological Process . the cerebral cortex interprets the symbols .These currents travel to a center in the midbrain .

quick hop & jump movement ‡ Regressions ± Backward right-to-left movement ‡ Span of recognition ± Eyes recognition of a group of words .Eye Movements ‡ Fixation ± The eyes are stopping on the word/s ± The duration of fixation the length of time eyes have to pause (3 for good readers) ‡ Inter-fixation ± The eyes are moving from stopping point to the other ‡ Return sweeps ± The eyes are swinging back from the end of the line to the beginning of the next line ‡ Saccades ± Short.

generalization and critical judgment *metacognition (refers to higher comprehension skill characterized by) -self-awareness .COGNITIVE PROCESS ‡ Reading depends on vocabulary. memory. the essence.the deliberate and combined ability to reflect. question. classify. the heart. summarize and predict -information reading which gives attention to SQ3R Psychological process of reading: ‡ Schemata (stored knowledge) ± ± ± ± Background knowledge Views Concepts Experiences ‡ Schema ± Symbol or mental representation of this knowledge in your brain Comprehension/meaning identification: . bottom line of the final outcome of any reading act .careful reading & greater retention -making previous assumptions/hypothesis .act of understanding or making the text meaningful .Serves as the core. verbal reasoning.

modify.Reading Process ‡ Recognize the printed language symbols ‡ Attach meaning to the symbols based on your stock/prior knowledge ‡ Fuse or relate the schemata or concepts of the symbols with the author s ideas represented with words ‡ Adjust. create/construct new knowledge about the text based in the schemata and the knowledge expressed by printed words .

Methods of Processing Meaning: ‡ Bottom-up reading ± If you have very limited background knowledge about the reading material ‡ Top-down reading ± Your understanding of the text is not based only on the data explicitly stated on the page but also on things beyond visible information ± Going beyond what the text is ‡ Interactive or schema reading ± Deal with both top-down and bottom-up reaing .

Reading as a Language Process Language.code used by humans to communicate .

Characteristics of Language which are also conducive to man s reading recognition and appreciation: ‡ Clarity ± Code symbols are concrete rather than abstractions and generalizations ‡ Simplicity ± Ideas should be expressed directly and to the point ‡ Adapted language ± Words of expression should relate to the reader s age. ethic origin and other personal factors ‡ Forceful ± Stimulating language provides color. interest and excitement ‡ Vivid language ± Vivid wording is descriptive and stirs the senses of the reader . educational attainment.

initial reading (6-7y.o.) ± Decoding stage ± Learner is aware of the letters that represents sound ± He has achieved an understanding of the critical concept of the alphabetic code ‡ Stage 2.prechool ± ± ± ± ± reading readiness /oral language development Best time to motivate the learner to read Child gains familiarity with the language and its speech sound He becomes conscious of sound similarities between words He learns to predict and recognize a few familiar written words especially with the aid of pictures ‡ Stage 1.Reading as a Process of Development: Stages of Reading Development: ‡ Stage 0.confirmation and fluency (8-10) ± Confirms the knowledge acquired in the first 2 stages which will lead to fluency skills ± Dev t in speed reading is apparent .

reading for learning the new (11-onwards) ± He has enough reading skill to begin to read the text to gain relevant information ‡ Stage and reconstruction (highest level of reading development) ± Reader learns how to read selectively and form his own opinions about what he reads ± Understanding is based on analysis and synthesis .multiple viewpoints (HS) ± Reader analyzes texts critically and comprehends multiple viewpoints ‡ Stage 5.Reading as a Process of Development: Stages of Reading Development: ‡ Stage 3.

hunger. etc.g.Factors/obstacles in reading achievement ‡ Physical ± Malfunction of the visual and auditory faculties ± Eye defects such as short/far sightedness. thirst ‡ Psychological ± Child s lack of self-confidence. including the attitude among parents in guiding their children s progress in school . speech imperfections. ± Physical discomfort among students e. headache. feelings of rejection and other negative personality traits ± Teacher s personality factors ± General emotional atmosphere at home an at school.

‡ Socio-economic ± Low economic status (poverty) of children of poor families ± Sensationalism and retrogressive literacy as fostered by commercialism in mass media ± Policies and programs of the government and of the schools on the dev t reading program. ventilation. etc. seating arrangement.Factors/obstacles in reading achievement ‡ Environmental ± Conditions at home and school including conditions of poor room lighting. .

college entrance exams ± Studies have indicated that students with wide vocabulary are more successful in school ± The keys to survival and success in the workplace are the ability to communicate skillfully and learn quickly.Vocabulary Development Why vocabulary development counts: ± Vocabulary is a basic part of reading comprehension ± Vocabulary is a major part of almost every standardized tests including: reading achievement tests. Solid vocabulary is essential for both skills WORD RECOGNITION ‡Ability of a reader to recognize written words correctly and virtually effortlessly WORD RECOGNITION SKILLS ‡Instant recognition ‡Mature readers identify words with remarkable speed and accuracy ‡Beginning readers recognize very few words .

titles. headings.Clues to recognizing words: ‡ Sight vocabulary clues ± Consists of the words a student recognizes instantly by sight ± Structure words (suffixes) ± Content words (parts of speech) ‡ Meaning clues ± Clues within the semantic component of language that help readers anticipate and expect words they will meet in reading types: ‡ Anticipatory clues ± Topics. clarify concepts and generate predictions about the text . events and even pictures that cause readers to expect certain meaning from text ‡ Context clues ± Clues found in surrounding words that allow a reader to predict the meaning of an unfamiliar/unknown word ‡ Picture clues ± Describe objects.

Clues to recognizing words: ‡ Visual clues ± Configuration clues (provided by the general shape of words) ± Salient-feature clues (most important word in the group of words) ‡ Structural clues ± Affixes (consist of 1 or more letters or sounds that are attached to the beginning or end of the words and that serve to give added meaning to words ± Compound words (single word unit formed from the combination of 2 morphemes that can each stand independently as root words) .

Clues to recognizing words: ‡ Phonic clues ‡ Dictionary clues .

usu.Types of context clues: ‡ Definition or restatement ‡ Meaning of the vocabulary word is in the sentence itself. Following the vocabulary word ‡ Synonym ± Sentence uses a similar word to help explain the meaning of the vocabulary word .

Types of context clues: ‡ Antonym/opposite/contrast ± Sentence used a word with an opposite definition to give meaning to the vocabulary word ‡ Example/explanation ± Type of context clue uses examples to help the meaning of the vocabulary word ‡ Cause and effect ± Cause of an action may be stated using an unfamiliar word .

AFFIXES ‡ Prefix ‡ Infix ‡ Suffix .

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