# Objectives

    Review basics of centrifugal compressors Explore key terminology Understand parameter relations Performance capabilities of different compressor technologies

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Basics of Compressors
 The principles of increasing pressure for pumps and compressors are the same.  A PUMP moves an incompressible fluid - a liquid. The volume of a liquid does not change with pressure and temperature.  A COMPRESSOR moves a compressible fluid - a gas. The volume of a gas changes with pressure, temperature, and gas composition.

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Centrifugal Compressor characteristic (performance) curve

Surge

Stonewall

Flow (ACFM)
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

W. June 1. 2007 . k-1 P1 (k-1)/k -1 Los Angeles.Centrifugal compressors don¶t make pressure ratio They make HEAD! Had (ft-lbf/lbm) = z * 1545 * T1 (°R) * k * P2 M.

2007 . June 1. not Mass Flow Q=w*T*z M.W. * P       Q = volume flow w = mass flow MW = mole weight P = absolute pressure T = absolute temperature z = compressibility Los Angeles.« And they do Volume Flow.

Flow  Process Engineers are trained to calculate mass balances and therefore work in MASS flow (lbm/hr.  Difference between ± ³Standard´ volume flow.  Centrifugal compressors are designed to handle a given VOLUME flow. 2007 . and ± ³Actual´ volume flow Los Angeles. June 1. kgm/hr).

2007 .2 acfm. 1. 60 °F Normal Conditions = 0 BAR g.616 SCFM Los Angeles.000 lb/min of pure Methane @ 500 psia & 50 °F correspond to 632. 0 °C Example: 1.000 psia & 100 °F correspond to 339. or 23. June 1.616 SCFM.000 lb/min of pure Methane @ 1. or 23.7 acfm.Flow Standard Conditions = 0 psig.

Key Terminology  Volume Flow  Headrise (adiabatic and polytropic) ± Specific heat ratio (k) ± Compressibility (z)      Specific Speed Mass Flow Power Mach Number Surge. 2007 . June 1. Stonewall or Choke Los Angeles.

June 1. 2007 .Headrise  Head is the energy in ft-lbf (N-m) required to compress and deliver one lbm (kgm) from one energy level to another. Head H = ft-lbf / lbm (N-m/ kgm) Los Angeles.

June 1. 2007 .Headrise  Reversible thermodynamic paths ± Isentropic (adiabatic) = no heat loss ± Polytropic = heat loss ± Adiabatic and polytropic virtually the same for single stage. Much different for multistage Los Angeles.

1. June 1. 2007 .Headrise Calculation  Required Headrise = z* R*T1(r m-1)/m ± ± ± ± ± ± ± z = Compressibility Factor (approx.0) R = Universal Gas Constant (1545/MW) T1 = Absolute Suction Temperature of Gas r = Pressure Ratio m = [(k-1)/kLA k = Specific Heat Ratio of Gas (Cp/Cv) L= Polytropic Efficiency Los Angeles.

Headrise The amount of energy required to compress a volume to the same pressure for a gas is much higher because the gas is at a much lower density than the liquid. Los Angeles. June 1. 2007 .

Adiabatic (Isentropic) Head Had (ft-lbf/lbm) = z * 1545 * T1 (°R) * k * P2 M. n-1 P1 n = polytropic exponent T2 = P2 T1 P1 (n-1)/n (k-1)/k ±1 (n-1)/n ±1 Lp = k-1 * n k n-1 Had = Hp Lad Lp Los Angeles.Polytropic vs.W. 2007 . k-1 P1 Hp (ft-lbf/lbm) = z * 1545 * T1 (°R) * n * P2 M.W. June 1.

14. 114. Water P = 100 PSI HEAD = 231 Ft.G.7 PSIA 1T1 = 100°F HEAD 1545 (T1) (Ft. P1 = 14. GAS K K-1 ( ) P2 P1 K-1 K -1 Nitrogen P = 100 PSI HEAD = 86.7 PSIA Pump M Compressor .) = M.7 PSIA 86. P1 .Headrise LIQUID HEAD = 2.311 X P (Ft.7 PSIA 1T1 = 100°F 231 Ft.359 Ft.) S. 114. W.359 Ft.

Los Angeles. 2007 . June 1.

Headrise from the Impeller¶s Point of View  Head = C * Q N2 * D2 ± C = Unit conversion constant ± N = Speed ± D = Impeller Diameter ± Q = Impeller head coefficient (.4 to . 2007 .7) Los Angeles. June 1.

June 1. 2007 . MMSCFD Los Angeles. m3/hr  Standard Flow ± volume flow rate referenced to an established set of P.Volume Flow  Actual Flow ± volume flow rate entering the suction flange ± acfm. Nm3/hr. T conditions ± scfm.

Specific Speed  Ns = N * Q1/2 H 3/4 ± N = speed ± Q = flow ± H = headrise  Specific Speed drives impeller geometry and efficiency Los Angeles. 2007 . June 1.

Impeller Efficiency Full Emission Impellers EFFICIENCY . 2007 .(%) Partial Emission Impellers SPECIFIC SPEED . June 1.Ns Los Angeles.

2007 .Power  Gas Horsepower (GHP) GHP = Head * Mass Flow 33. June 1.000 * Eff  Brake Horsepower (BHP) BHP = GHP + FHP (seal + gearbox losses) Los Angeles.

2007 .3 Los Angeles. Practical limit = 1. June 1.Mach Number  Acoustic Velocity a = 223 * T1 * Z1 * k MW  Relative Mach Number MnRel = Inlet Velocity a  Machine Mach Number MnMachine = U = D * N a 229*a  Affects curve shape and range.

June 1. 2007 .Surge & Stonewall Surge Head Stonewall Flow (ACFM) Los Angeles.

 Left to continue. Surge is a bad thing! Los Angeles. June 1.Surge  Surge is a system phenomena that is the result of flow separation caused by low gas velocity anywhere in a compressor stage. 2007 .  Surge is an oscillation of backflow and forward flow.

Stonewall or Choke  Stonewall or choke flow is the maximum flow a given stage can handle. Los Angeles. or Mach 1. June 1. 2007 .0.  This value occurs when the ratio of the relative gas velocity to the acoustic velocity of the process gas is equal to 1.

k-1 P1 Q (acfm) = (lb/min) (k-1)/k -1 * 10. June 1. 2007 .Parameter Relations Had (ft-lbf/lbm) = z * 1545 * T1 (°R) * k * P2 M.W. BHP (hp) = GHP + losses = Had (ft-lbf/lbm) * (lb/min) + losses 33.000 * Lad Los Angeles.729 * T1 (°R) * z P1 (psia) * M.W.

Parameter Relations  Assuming No Hardware Changes  Assuming Hardware Can Be Altered Los Angeles. 2007 . June 1.

HP Los Angeles. MW CHANGED CONDITIONS P2 . T2 . w . HP ACFM P1. T1. T1. H. T2 . w . HP MW P1. P2 . T1. June 1. MW. H. H.No Hardware Changes VARIABLE P1 CONSTANT ACFM. ACFM P2 . T2 . w . w . HP T1 P1. ACFM P2 . 2007 . MW H . T2 .

June 1. ACFM . HP ACFM P1. H w . 2007 . w. MW CHANGED CONDITIONS H . HP MW P1. T2 . T1. w .With Hardware Changes VARIABLE P1 CONSTANT P2. P2. ACFM H . T2. w . T2 . T1. T1. P2. HP T1 P1. T2 . ACFM H . MW. T1. P2. HP Los Angeles.

000 * Lp Los Angeles.Affinity Laws Q 2 = N2 Q1 N1 GHP2 = N2 3 GHP1 N1 GHP (hp) = * Had (ft-lbf/lbm) = 33.000 * Lad (lb/min) (lb/min) H 2 = N2 H1 N1 2 * Hp (ft-lbf/lbm) 33. 2007 . June 1.

2007 . June 1.New Inquiry: Required info: Q & H ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Flow (Q) Suction pressure (P1) Suction temperature (T1) Compressibility (z) Specific heat ratio (k) Mole weight (MW) or Gas Analysis Discharge pressure (P2) Los Angeles.

June 1.Compressor Technologies  Positive Displacement ± Reciprocating (piston & diaphragm) ± Screw (oil flooded and dry) ± Rotary (liquid ring. 2007 . lobe)  Dynamic (Turbo) ± Centrifugal ± Regenerative ± Axial Los Angeles. sliding vane.

Integrally Geared Centrifugal 20 Single Stage Recip.Compressor Types 200 PRESSURE RATIO Multi-st. Sundyne Multistage centrif Multi-st. Recip. Axial Rotary 2 102 103 104 105 106 VOLUME FLOW .

June 1. 2007 Volume .Positive Displacement vs Dynamic Positive Displacement Dynamic Pressure Pressure Volume Los Angeles.

June 1.runs out of power. 2007 500 ACFM 1000 . 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Head 0 0 Flow Los Angeles.Positive Displacement Compressors  Constant volume delivery  Variable head  Not self limiting  Flow not sensitive to pressure ratio .

Positive Displacement Compressors  Types Include ± ± ± ± Reciprocating Screws Sliding Vane & Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe Los Angeles. June 1. 2007 .

Reciprocating Compressor  Similar to an automobile engine  Compresses a given volume of gas through the use a reciprocating piston  Positive displacement compressors increase the pressure of a gas by operating on a fixed volume in a confined space. 2007 . Los Angeles. June 1.

Reciprocating Compressor PISTON & RIDER RINGS VALVE DESIGN MOTOR-OVER MOUNTING SEGMENTED TEFLON PACKING CYLINDERS CROSSHEAD EXTERNAL VALVES CRANKCASE LUBRICATION FORCE FEED CYLINDER LUBRICATION VARIABLE CLEARANCE HEADS Los Angeles. 2007 . Double Acting. June 1.Horizontal. Balance Opposed.

Diaphragm Compressor Los Angeles. June 1. 2007 .

efficiency +/90% ± special designs to nearly 20.000 HP. June 1. compression ratio to 20:1 (3:1) per stage .Reciprocating Performance  Piston Type: flow to 3.000 psi. compression ratio 20:1 per stage.000 cfm at low suction pressures  Diaphragm Type: flow to 100+ cfm. pressure to 30. 2007 . pressure to 30. power to 150 HP Los Angeles.000 psi.000 cfm. power to 15.

June 1. 2007 .Screw Compressor Hierarchy SCREW COMPRESSORS Oil Free Oil Flooded Dry Liquid Injected Medium Pressure Air & Gas High Pressure Gas & Refining Los Angeles.

2007 .Screw Compressor Top View Los Angeles. June 1.

2007 .Screw Compressor Side View Los Angeles. June 1.

June 1. 2007 .Rotary Liquid Ring Los Angeles.

2007 . June 1.Rotary Liquid Ring Los Angeles.

2007 .Rotary Liquid Ring Los Angeles. June 1.

June 1.Rotary Sliding Vane Los Angeles. 2007 .

Rotary Sliding Vane Los Angeles. 2007 . June 1.

June 1. Los Angeles.Rotary Lobe (Roots) Blower Operating Principle Four distinct ³pockets´ of gas are moved from the suction to discharge in each revolution of the driving shaft. 2007 .

000 cfm.000 cfm. flow to 17. max efficiency 70%  Lobe (Roots Type) ± Pressures to 20 psid.000 cfm. June 1. flow to 25. flow to 6.000 cfm. 2007 . 5:1 compression ratio. max efficiency 75%  Liquid Ring ± Pressure to 175 psig (29´ Hg Vacuum). 15:1 compression ratio flooded. max efficiency 50%  Sliding Vane ± Pressure to 50/100 psid.Rotary Compressor Performance  Screw ± Pressure to 350 psid. max efficiency 70% Los Angeles. 2+:1 compression ratio. 4:1 compression ratio dry. 4:1 compression ratio. flow to 10.

Centrifugal Compressors
 Dynamic Machines  Impeller uses centrifugal force to add velocity to gas  Diffuser reduces the velocity changing the energy from velocity to pressure

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Dynamic Compressors
 Variable volume delivery  Fixed head capacity (for a certain flow)  Self limiting  Flow is sensitive to pressure ratio
9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Head 0 0
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Flow 500 ACFM 1000

Single Stage, Overhung, Centrifugal

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Multistage Centrifugal Compressor Los Angeles. 2007 . June 1.

2007 . June 1.Multistage Centrifugal Compressor Los Angeles.

Multistage Centrifugal Compressor Los Angeles. June 1. 2007 .

June 1. 2007 .Regenerative Compressor Los Angeles.

2007 . June 1.Axial Compressor Los Angeles.

Axial Compressors 140 120 Percent Design Pressure Rise Su r 100 ge Li ne % 100 N N 95% 80 N 90% 60 N 80% N 85% 40 20 60 70 80 90 100 110 Percent Design Volume Los Angeles. June 1. 2007 .

Sulzer Burckhardt  Diaphragm / Regenerative ± Burton-Corblin (Periflow)  Screw ± Mycom. Dresser. June 1. Dresser-Rand Man Turbo (Sulzer + Borsig). Roots Los Angeles. York  Reciprocating ± Ariel. Kobelco. GE. Atlas Copco.Competitors  Centrifugal ± AC. 2007 . Howden. Neuman & Esser. Demag. Cooper.

June 1.Centrifugal Compressors  Dynamic Machines  Impeller uses centrifugal force to add velocity to gas  Diffuser reduces the velocity changing the energy from velocity to pressure Los Angeles. 2007 .

Dynamic Compressors  Variable volume delivery  Fixed head capacity (for a certain flow)  Self limiting  Flow is sensitive to pressure ratio 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Head 0 0 Flow 500 ACFM 1000 .

June 1. 2007 .Sundyne Multistage Multi-pinion Los Angeles.

2007 .IG Compressor Staging Arrangements Los Angeles. June 1.

2007 .Integrally Geared Technology Benefits and Features           Almost 40 years experience 1600+ process gas installations Compact designs-reduced space Lower installation costs Fewer rotating components API 617 specification Participation on API sub-committee Proven and accepted equipment Optimized specific speed-higher efficiencies Proven centrifugal reliability Los Angeles. June 1.

672 Packaged Integrally Geared... June 1. 2007 . Centrifugal Plant & Instrument Air Los Angeles... Shaft Sealing . 617 Centrifugal Compressors 618 Reciprocating Compressors 619 Rotary Type PD Compressors 670 Vibration. Axial Position and .Applicable API Standards        613 Special Purpose Gear Units 614 Lubrication.