Reported by :Michael John P. Paderes

According to Glatthorn (1987) curriculum are plans made for guiding learning in the school, usually represented in retrievable documents of several levels of generality, and the implementation of those plans in the classroom this includes the environment that influences the learning process

‡ Hutchins described curriculum as permanent studies ‡ Basic education should focus on 3 r s ‡ College should be grounded on liberal arts ‡ Written plan of actions in accomplishing goals

‡ The written materials are actualized by the learner. ‡ Total learning experience of the individual ‡ Thought is not derived from action but tested by application. ‡ Grounded to the children's experiences

Four elements of a curriculum
1. Educational purposes or intended educational outcomes 2. Curricular content or subject matter covered by the curriculum 3. Learning experiences the students goes through 4. Evaluation scheme to asses the extent to which learning outcomes have been achieved

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ProgramField of study- components Subject/courseLesson plan -objectives, content, activities and evaluation

Curriculum planning
‡ What are the educational purposes or intended outcomes? why develop the curriculum ‡ What should be thought/learned to achieved these educational purposes ‡ How will those be taught/learned to achieve these educational purposes?(content or subject matter)

‡ How will the attainment of purpose be measured?(evaluation schemes)

Educational purposes
‡ Aims targeted purpose To develop ‡ Goals more specific than educational aims. This are the basis for the objectives ‡ Objective- general or specific, General objectives- intended purpose for a given course Specific objective for each lesson

Curriculum planning
‡ To come up with a written curriculum ‡ Identifying who will develop the curriculum ‡ Monitoring the process towards curriculum development ‡ Functions of the educational managers

Curriculum development
This is the process of improving an existing curriculum or crating a new one ‡ Micro local ‡ Macro national /regional/ district

Curriculum assessment/evaluation
‡ The process of determining the effectiveness of a curriculum and the efficiency with which it is implemented.

Curriculum engineering
‡ Development ‡ Implementation ‡ Evaluation

Types of curriculum operating in schools

Recommended curriculum
‡ Most of the curriculum are provided by national agency like the CHED, DEPED

Written curriculum
‡ Syllabi handed to schools, districts divisions departments or colleges for implementation ‡ Lesson plan ‡ Curriculum pacing guide

Taught curriculum
‡ Planned activities that are put into action depending on the teaching styles of the teacher and learning styles of the student.

Supported curriculum
‡ Materials which will support the implementation of a written curriculum ‡ Textbooks, computers, audio visual materials ‡ Playgrounds and facilities

Assessed Curriculum
‡ This refers to a tested or evaluated curriculum That validates the students progress ‡ Pencil or paper test ‡ portfolios

Learned curriculum
‡ Learning outcomes achieved by the students ‡ Is there a change in behavior that can be either cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

Hidden curriculum
‡ Unintended curriculum which is deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influence learning outcomes.

Development of curriculum in the Philippines

‡ Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956)- the emphasis is on students need and preparing students for life ‡ Werret Charters(1875-1952)-the focus is on the students need and activities are planned by the teacher.

‡ William Kilpatrick (1875-1952) purposeful activity which are child-centered which focuses on child development and growth. Focus group discussion, development of social relationship ‡ Harold Rugg(1886-1960)should develop the whole child. Learner centered approach. Social studies is included in the curriculum. And the teacher plans the curriculum ahead of time

‡ Hollis Caswell(1901-1989) sees curriculum that is centered on the Childs interest. Subject matter is developed around social functions and learner s interest. ‡ Ralph Tyler(1902-1994)- the focus is on students need and interest. Curriculum is related to instruction and should be parallel with knowledge skills and values. The emphasis is on problem solving. This curriculum is aimed on generalist rather than specialist.

Philosophical basis of the curriculum

Suggestions from subject specialist

Studies of learner

School purposes

Use of psychology

Use of philosophy

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Everlasting Education of the mind is the primary focus The teachers are the source of knowledge Traditional teaching methods are used Values, religion, philosophy, logic literature

‡ Humans are basically good ‡ Focus is on the child, ‡ Education is a social process and the learning is a miniature of society ‡ Teachers as facilitator of learning

‡ Aim of education- to educate the rational person; to cultivate the intellect ‡ Role of education teachers help students think with reason. Socratic questioning ‡ Focus in the curriculum classical subjects, literary analysis. ‡ Curriculum trends- use of great books and return to liberal arts.

‡ Intellectual development ‡ The focus is on the mastery of subject matter and cognitive growth ‡ Present oriented ‡ Focus is on the 3R s (Reading Riting and Ritnmetic ) ‡ Back to basic and cultural literacy

‡ Learner centered towards positive self concept and self actualization ‡ Facilitator and counselor ‡ Centers around humanities ‡ Lacks focus on cognitive and intellectual development

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Controversial issues and problems Reconstructing societies values International education Teachers act as agents of change and reform in various educational projects including research.


‡ P. Bilbao, et al (2008) Curriculum Development ‡ F. Reyes,(2000) Engineering the Curriculum a Guidebook for Educators and School Managers

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