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the process of decisionmaking and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented).


broadly defined as the sound exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority to manage a country s resources for development


institutions.GOVERNANCE  It involves the institutionalization of a system through which citizens. and groups in a society articulate their interests. organizations. exercise their rights. and mediate their differences in pursuit of the collective good 4 .

international governance. national governance and local governance 5 .GOVERNANCE  can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance.

6 .GOVERNANCE  Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented. an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision.

ACTORS OF GOVERNANCE Government is one of the actors in governance 7 .

other actors may include influential land lords.ACTORS OF GOVERNANCE  Other actors involved in governance vary depending on the level of government that is under discussion. for example. finance institutions political parties. research institutes. NGOs. religious leaders. associations of peasant farmers. 8 . In rural areas. cooperatives. the military etc.

9 . which is one of the most important factors determining whether or not development takes place.THE ROLE OF GOVERNANCE IN DEVELOPMENT Good governance is central to the operations of an effective state.

THE ROLE OF GOVERNANCE IN DEVELOPMENT Successful governance means better delivery of  health. and  a population that has an open and responsive government.  stability and security. 10 .  stronger and more equitable economic growth.  education and other services.


could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives 12 .CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 1. Participation .

It is important to point out that representative democracy does not necessarily mean that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society would be taken into consideration in decision making 13 . Participation .CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 1.

Participation needs to be informed and organized. This means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand.CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 1. Participation . 14 .

Rule of law .CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 2. 15 .Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 2. regulations and codes 16 .government enforces equally transparent laws. Rule of law .

particularly those of minorities. Rule of law .CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 2. 17 .It also requires full protection of human rights.

Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force. Rule of law . 18 .CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 2.

civil society and. Transparency . outside institutions and governments. 19 .government actions. decisions and decision-making processes are open to an appropriate level of scrutiny by others parts of government. in some instances.CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 3.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 3.Transparency means decisions taken and enforcement are done manner that follows and regulations. Transparency . that their in a rules 20 .

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 3.It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. Transparency . 21 .

Transparency .CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 3.It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media. 22 .

Responsiveness government has the capacity and flexibility to respond rapidly to societal changes. and is willing to critically re-examine the role of government.CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 4. takes into account the expectations of civil society in identifying the general public interest. 23 .

24 .CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 4.Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. Responsiveness .

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 5. Consensus oriented . .There are several actors and as many view points in a given society.Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this 25 can be achieved. .

cultural and social contexts of a given society or 26 community.This can only result from an understanding of the historical.It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. .CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 5. Consensus oriented . .

Equity and inclusiveness . This requires all groups. .A society s well being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society. but particularly the most vulnerable.CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 6. have opportunities to improve 27or maintain their well being.

government strives to produce quality public outputs. at the best cost. including services delivered to citizens.CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 7 . 28 . Effectiveness and efficiency . and ensures that outputs meet the original intentions of policymakers.

The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment. Effectiveness and efficiency . 29 .Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal.CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 7 .

government is able and willing to show the extent to which its actions and decisions are consistent with clearly-defined and agreed-upon objectives.CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 8 . Accountability . 30 .

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 8 . . 31 .Accountability is a key requirement of good governance.Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Accountability .

Accountability .In general an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its 32 decisions or actions .Who is accountable to whom varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution.CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 8 . .

Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law. Accountability .CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 8 . 33 .

GOOD GOVERNANCE AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY  governance satisfies the needs and interests of different stakeholders  Its reputation and good will are enhanced  good governance requires checks and balances and responsible oversight to insure that many factors and points of view are considered 34 .