Prasoon Jain

7 February 2012

GAP MODEL
Jitendra Kumar Dixit

1

Each GAP arise due to inconsistencies & deficiencies in the management process. In the GAP model. The GAP model of service is divided in two parts.Zeithaml and Berry . One part relates to the internal process in a customer and the other part relates to the process involved between service provider & consumer.Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 GAP MODEL ¶GAP· was of service quality was developed developed by Parusuraman . five steps are identified. 2 . taking in to consideration the process discrepancies between the elements of the service management process.

Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 Word ²of ²mouth communication Personal Needs Expected Services Past Experience consumer -------------------GAP5 Perceived Services ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GAP4 Marketer External Service Delivery communication (Including pre & s to consumers post -contracts) GAP3 ---------------------------------- GAP 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- ----Management perceptions of consumer expectation GAP2 Translation of perceptions in to service quality specifications 3 .

The reasons for the gap to arise may be many.Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 et us examine how gap arises and possible reasons for each gap to develop in a service organization.Management Perception gap (The difference between expected services by customers and the management·s perceptions of consumer expectations) Service companies often fail to understand properly the expectations of consumers. GAP One. 4 .

Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 The key factors leading to GAP One are as followsExpected Services Insufficient marketing research Inaccurate information from marketing research Poorly interpreted information about expectations No demand analysis Lack of interactions between management and customers Insufficient upward & downward communication No market segmentation No relationship focus GAP 1 Management perceptions of consumer expectation 5 .

Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 GAP Two: Quality specifications gap (The difference between the company perception of customer expectation and customer driven service designs and standards) Translation of the service quality specifications is really a complex job the service providers have to handle. GAP Two may occur due to the following reasons-Lack of customer ²driven service standards Lack of formal process for setting service quality goals Unclear service designs Unsystematic new service development process Lack of support from top management Translation of perceptions in to service quality specifications GAP 2 Management perceptions of consumer expectation 6 .

The standards must be supported by adequate and appropriate resources such as people .Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 GAP Three. Employees motivation and satisfaction play an important role in the process. 7 . systems and technology . Service delivery gap (The difference between customer driven services designs and standards and service delivery) Formulation of clear guidelines for performing services may not assure quality service performance.

role ambiguity. improper evaluation .Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 The possible major reasons for GAP three are as followsComplicated and / or rigid process specifications Deficiencies in human resource policies such as ineffective recruitment.absence of team sprit among employees Failure to match demand &capacity Lack of proper customer education and training & so on Service Delivery (Including pre & post contracts) GAP 3 Translation of perceptions in to service quality specifications 8 . role conflict.

These expectations will serve as standards against which the customer evaluates the experienced quality of services.Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 GAP Four. The promises made through communication media potentially raise customer expectations. Market communication gap (The difference between service delivery and external communications to customers) Service companies make promises through external marketing process to current as well as potential customers. 9 .

Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 Service Delivery (Including pre & post contracts) GAP 4 External communications to consumers The discrepancy between actual services and the promised one may occur due to the following reasonsWhen a company fails to integrate marketing communications with service operations Over-promising in external communications campaign Failure to manage customer expectations Failure to perform according to specifications 10 .

11 .Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 GAP Five.Perceived service quality gap (The gap between perceived service and expected services) The reasons for this gap are difficult to analyze but organizations can reasonably expect some negative effects when such a gap arises.

Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 GAP five may results the followingBad reputations Lost customers Negative corporate or local image Service companies need not look for negative results only in this process. GAP 5 Expected Services Perceived Services 12 . If the perceived quality exceeds the expected quality. the customer are satisfied and it will benefit the organization.

13 .Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 GAP analysis model guides the management to find out the real reasons for quality problems and to discover appropriate ways to close such gaps.

Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 ´Jee Haanµ HP Gas ² ´Promise yahi. weight sahiµ 14 .

Customer expectations are not merely limited to receiving refill on time . Based on extensive marketing research to understand the needs and expectations of the customer . HP Gas has been positioned to provide totally hassle free experience to the customers.Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited(HPCL) is the second largest company with over 16 million customers service through a network of 1823 distributors across the country. HP gas has embarked up on a new initiative to build brand image by increasing focus on consumers need and expectations. 15 . but also cover value added service's.

which is valid all over the country.Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 To effectively manage customer expectations. HP Gas now offers distinct set of value added services to its customers. customer service enquiries and emergency services have been provided through 4 digit single number. 16 .  Delivery of cylinders is assured with in 24 hours & delivery timing have been extended from 8 am to 8 pm on all seven days in a week.  Installation of new connections is done with in 24 hours and a single point contact for cylinder refill booking.

Hp gas launch the concept ´Jee Haanµ along with ´Promise Yahi .Prasoon Jain 7 February 2012 Keeping in view the concerns of the customer HPGas. Weight Sahiµ campaign reinforce a strong positive service orientation thereby building a strong market share through greater satisfaction 17 .. for the first time in India provided the option of checking the weight of a gas cylinder right at the door steps. Every delivery man carries a weighing scale for this purpose.