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KLYSTRON-TUBE

‡ In a klystron: ‡ The electron gun produces a flow of electrons. ‡ The bunching cavities regulate the speed of the electrons so that they arrive in bunches at the output cavity. ‡ The bunches of electrons excite microwaves in the output cavity of the klystron. ‡ The microwaves flow into the waveguide , which transports them to the accelerator. ‡ The electrons are absorbed in the beam stop.

KLYSTRON-TUBE
In a klystron: The electron gun produces a flow of electrons. The bunching cavities regulate the speed of the electrons so that they arrive in bunches at the output cavity. The bunches of electrons excite microwaves in the output cavity of the klystron. The microwaves flow into the waveguide , which transports them to the accelerator. The electrons are absorbed in the beam stop.

‡ Flowing air excites vibrations in the cavity of the whistle. ‡ The vibrations flow into the surrounding air as sound waves .KLYSTRON-TUBE ‡ In an organ pipe: ‡ Blowing into the organ pipe produces a flow of air.

The vibrations flow into the surrounding air as sound waves .KLYSTRON-TUBE In an organ pipe: Blowing into the organ pipe produces a flow of air. Flowing air excites vibrations in the cavity of the whistle.

the electron beam passes through a single resonant cavity. The electron beam is velocity modulated when it first passes through the cavity. . The electrons are fired into one end of the tube by an electron gun. After passing through the resonant cavity they are reflected by a negatively charged reflector electrode for another pass through the cavity.KLYSTRON-TUBE ‡ In the reflex klystron. where they are then collected.

thus ensuring a maximum of energy is transferred from the electron beam to the RF oscillations in the cavity. . At regions far from the optimum voltage.KLYSTRON-TUBE ‡ The formation of electron bunches takes place in the drift space between the reflector and the cavity. The level of modulation applied for transmission is small enough that the power output essentially remains constant. This effect is used to good advantage for automatic frequency control in receivers. no oscillations are obtained at all. which results in some loss of output power. but also in a variation in frequency. and in frequency modulation for transmitters. The reflector voltage may be varied slightly from the optimum value. The voltage on the reflector must be adjusted so that the bunching is at a maximum as the electron beam re-enters the resonant cavity.

these are referred to as modes. ‡ Modern semiconductor technology has effectively replaced the reflex klystron in most applications. .KLYSTRON-TUBE ‡ There are often several regions of reflector voltage where the reflex klystron will oscillate. The electronic tuning range of the reflex klystron is usually referred to as the variation in frequency between half power points²the points in the oscillating mode where the power output is half the maximum output in the mode.

. A beam of electrons is produced by a thermionic cathode (a heated pellet of low work function material). and accelerated by high voltage electrodes (typically in the tens of kilovolts). is captured in a collector. The electric field causes the electrons to bunch: electrons that pass through during an opposing electric field are accelerated and later electrons are slowed. To reinforce the bunching. and this will in turn excite a voltage across the gap of subsequent resonant cavities. a klystron may contain additional "buncher" cavities. The RF current carried by the beam will produce an RF magnetic field. its natural frequency to produce a voltage which acts on the electron beam. causing the previously continuous electron beam to form bunches at the input frequency. In the output cavity. RF energy is fed into the input cavity at. This beam is then passed through an input cavity. with reduced energy. The spent electron beam. the developed RF energy is coupled out. or near.KLYSTRON-TUBE ‡ ‡ Explanation Klystrons amplify RF signals by converting the kinetic energy in a DC electron beam into radio frequency power.

KLYSTRON-TUBE .

In the moving frame of the electron beam. While passing through the first cavity. .KLYSTRON-TUBE ‡ In the two-chamber klystron. the velocity modulation is converted to density modulation. The electron beam. the velocity modulation is equivalent to a plasma oscillation. is constrained to travel through a cylindrical drift tube in a straight path by an axial magnetic field. bunches of electrons. i. so in a quarter of one period of the plasma frequency. accelerated by a positive potential. The signal induced in the second chamber is much stronger than that in the first. the electron beam is injected into a resonant cavity. As the bunched electrons enter the second chamber they induce standing waves at the same frequency as the input signal.e. the electron beam is velocity modulated by the weak RF signal.

where they are then collected. The voltage on the reflector must be adjusted so that the bunching is at a maximum as the electron beam reenters the resonant cavity. thus ensuring a maximum of energy is transferred from the electron beam to the RF oscillations in the cavity. The electron beam is velocity modulated when it first passes through the cavity. The formation of electron bunches takes place in the drift space between the reflector and the cavity. .Reflex klystron ‡ In the reflex klystron (also known as a 'Sutton' klystron after its inventor). After passing through the resonant cavity they are reflected by a negatively charged reflector electrode for another pass through the cavity. The electrons are fired into one end of the tube by an electron gun. the electron beam passes through a single resonant cavity.

This tube is called a reflex klystron because it repels the input supply or performs the opposite function of a [Klystron]. The reflector voltage may be varied slightly from the optimum value. and in frequency modulation for transmitters. which results in some loss of output power. these . ‡ There are often several regions of reflector voltage where the reflex klystron will oscillate. no oscillations are obtained at all. The level of modulation applied for transmission is small enough that the power output essentially remains constant.The Reflex Klystron ‡ The voltage should always be switched on before providing the input to the reflex klystron as the whole function of the reflex klystron would be destroyed if the supply is provided after the input. At regions far from the optimum voltage. but also in a variation in frequency. This effect is used to good advantage for automatic frequency control in receivers.

The Reflex Klystron .

The Reflex Klystron .

. The electrons in the beam are velocity-modulated before the beam passes through the cavity the second time and will give up the energy required to maintain oscillations. The feedback required to maintain oscillations within the cavity is obtained by reversing the beam and sending it back through the cavity. This negative element is the repeller mentioned earlier. referred to as the REPELLER. The electron beam is modulated as it was in the other types of klystrons by passing it through an oscillating resonant cavity. This type of klystron oscillator is called a reflex klystron because of the reflex action of the electron beam. The electron beam is turned around by a negatively charged electrode that repels the beam.The Reflex Klystron ‡ The Reflex Klystron ‡ Another tube based on velocity modulation. is the REFLEX KLYSTRON (figure 2-9). The reflex klystron contains a REFLECTOR PLATE. but here the similarity ends. instead of the output cavity used in other types of klystrons. and used to generate microwave energy.

. and (3) negative repeller voltage used to turn the electron beam around. and the entire body of the tube. (2) positive resonator voltage (often referred to as beam voltage) used to accelerate the electrons through the grid gap of the resonant cavity. The electrons are focused into a beam by the electrostatic fields set up by the resonator potential (B+) in the body of the tube.The Reflex Klystron ‡ Three power sources are required for reflex klystron operation: (1) filament power. Note in figure 2-9 that the resonator potential is common to the resonator cavity. the accelerating grid.

illustrates the three possible ways an electron can be affected as it passes through the gap (velocity increasing. The changing electrostatic field affects the electrons in the beam as they pass through the grid gap. view (B). depending upon the polarity of the electrostatic field as they pass through the gap. Figure 2-10. As a result. view (A). These oscillations cause an electrostatic field across the grid gap of the cavity that changes direction at the frequency of the cavity. The amount of velocity change is dependent on the strength and polarity of the grid voltage. decreasing. Some are accelerated and some are decelerated. or remaining constant).The Reflex Klystron ‡ The resonator potential also causes the resonant cavity to begin oscillating at its natural frequency when the tube is energized. Since the resonant cavity is oscillating. . the grid potential is an alternating voltage that causes the electrostatic field between the grids to follow a sine-wave curve as shown in figure 2-10. the velocity of the electrons passing through the gap is affected uniformly as a function of that sine wave.

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At times 4 and 5.The Reflex Klystron ‡ The variation in grid voltage causes the electrons to enter the space between the grid and the repeller at various velocities. At time 3. the electrons give up energy because their velocity is reduced as they pass through the grids. . views (A) and (B). the electrons at times 1 and 2 are speeded up as they pass through the grid. For example. the grid field is reversed. in figure 2-10. the field is passing through zero and the electron is unaffected.

view (A). When the grid field provides maximum deceleration. the electron is forced by the repeller voltage to stop. Those moving at slower velocities. This action is also illustrated in figure 2-10. move only a short distance from the grid before being affected by the repeller voltage. the returning electrons supply the regenerative feedback required to maintain cavity oscillations. the returning electrons release maximum energy to the grid field which is in phase with cavity current. . and return toward the grid. such as the electron at time 4. the electrons will form a bunch around the constant-speed electrons. Thus. reverse direction. If the repeller voltage is set at the correct value. The electrons moving at higher velocities travel further beyond the grid before reversing direction because they have greater momentum.The Reflex Klystron ‡ The distance the electrons travel in the space separating the grid and the repeller depends upon their velocity. When this happens. The electrons will then return to the grid gap at the instant the electrostatic field is at the correct polarity to cause maximum deceleration of the bunch.

The reflex klystron will continue to oscillate if the electrons remain in the repeller field longer than 3/4 cycle (as long as the electrons return to the grid gap when the field is of the proper polarity to decelerate the electrons). Figure 2-11 shows the effect of the repeller field on the electron bunch for 3/4 cycle and for 1 3/4 cycles. If the electrons remain in the field for longer than 3/4 cycle. . the difference in electron transit time causes the tube performance characteristics to change. The differences in operating characteristics are identified by MODES OF OPERATION. Although not shown in the figure. the constant-velocity electrons may remain in the repeller field for any number of cycles over the minimum 3/4 cycle.The Reflex Klystron ‡ The constant-speed electrons must remain in the reflecting field space for a minimum time of 3/4 cycle of the grid field for maximum energy transfer. The period of time the electrons remain in the repeller field is determined by the amount of negative repeller voltage.