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Emotions and Attitude

Class: Ex-PGDM Date: June 28, 2011 Presented by: Kanhaiya Manda (04) Shanta Kakodkar (14) Arun Kumar Nigam (24)

What is Attitude?
An evaluative statement which can be favorable or unfavorable about objects, people or events. It reflect how we feel about something.

I Like smoking

I like playing football

I hate my boss

I dislike my supervisor! Negative attitude towards supervisor I m looking for other work. My supervisor is unfair. I ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen. .How does one form Attitude? My supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me.

and information a person has about the object Is the person s intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something The person s emotions or feelings about the object Cognitive Component (Cognitive = Evaluation) Affective Component (Affective = Feeling) Behavioral Component (Behavioral = Action) Sets the stage for the more critical parts of an attitude Leads to behavioral outcomes Understanding the components of attitude is particularly important when attempting to change attitudes .Components of Attitude Includes the beliefs. opinions.

but do we marry everyone? We may not like a certain brand. but does everybody becomes a cricketer? We like n number of girls. but will we say no if someone gifts us the same brand product? These are some cases of differences between a person s attitude and his behavior. What is this called then? .Does behavior always follows attitude? We love Cricket.

Cognitive Dissonance Condition or situation in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflicts.why we joined SIMS Ex-PGDM . People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior. According to Leon Festinger (A Researcher in 1960) Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable. Ex: How we try to rationalise . They do this by altering their attitudes or the behavior or by developing a rationalisation for the discrepancy.

Working at wrong place Degree of individual influence over elements (Control over the elements) Ex: Corruption Rewards involved in dissonance . but we still eat by thinking that we won t do this next time or we won t do this offten. Desire to reduce dissonance depends on Importance of elements creating dissonance Ex: Telling Lie.Desire to Reduce Dissonance Difficult to avoid dissonance completely Ex: Eating junk food is not good for health.

(EX: Experience of Accident) . whereas general attitudes tend to best predict general behavior. Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur when social pressure to behave in a certain ways hold exceptional power. and the more likely it is to shape our behavior. Ex: Employee from Cigarette. Ex: Asking about intention to staying with an organisation and asking about his job satisfaction More we talk about or express our attitude towards a subject. self interest. the more we are likely to remember it. or identification with individuals or groups that a person values Specific attitudes tend to predict specific behaviors. if an attitude refers to something with which the individual has direct personal experience.Measuring Attitude Behavior Relationship Important attitudes tend to show a strong relationship to behavior Important Attitudes fundamental values. Arranged Marriages Stronger attitude behavior relationship.

Attitudes in Organisation Job Satisfaction A person's evaluation of his or her job and work context A collection of attitudes about specific facets of the job Job Content Supervisor Career Progress Job Satisfaction CoCo-workers Pay and Benefits Working Conditions .

EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction Active Exit Destructive Voice Constructive Neglect Loyalty Passive .

Job Satisfaction and Work Outcomes Happy workers are somewhat more productive. but: General attitude is a poor predictor of specific behaviors Job performance affects satisfaction only when rewarded Job satisfaction and motivation have little effect in jobs with little employee control Job satisfaction increases customer satisfaction and organizational profitability Because it affects mood positive behaviors to customers Decreases turnover more consistent. familiar service .

Psychological Empowerment Employees beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment.Attitudes in Organisation Job Involvement Job Involvement The degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth. . Employee with strong level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do. their competence the meaningfulness of their job. and the perceived autonomy in their work.

and involvement in an organization Continuance commitment Belief that staying with the organization serves your personal interests Normative commitment Obligation to remain with the organisation for moral or ethical reasons. . identification with.Attitudes in Organization Organizational Commitment Affective commitment Emotional attachment to.

Emotions Emotions are intense feelings that arise spontaneously rather than through conscious effort .

Attitudes vs. Emotions Attitudes Judgments about an object Emotions Feelings toward an object Based mainly on rational logic Based on awareness of our senses Usually stable for days or longer Occur briefly. usually lasting minutes .

Types of Emotions Anger Cheerfulness Nervousness Happiness Stress Negative Positive Emotions Emotions Frustration Excitement Fear Self Confidence Anxiety .

Emotions help interpret the world. Differentiate managers from computers.Functions of Emotions It is not just enough to be rational. and in deciding to implement or avoid. Social Function Decision Making Function Role of Emotion in Memory Studies have shown that emotionally charged events are remembered better . Helps in analysing the need. If only logic was enough to make to a decision we wont need managers robots would have been enough. aggression all affect thinking and decision making. Ex: fear prevents us from taking dangerous or risky decisions. instinct. In social interaction it is very important to know ones emotions and the emotions of the person you are interacting with. Emotions like motivation. Helps in decision making in critical situations.

Sources of Emotions and Moods Personality: the personality of the individual decides to what extent and intensity a person experiences a particular emotion or mood Stress: stress can worsen our mood. The more the stress the more negative the emotion Social Activities: social activities usually increase positive mood and emotions Sleep: less sleep or poor quality sleep puts people in a bad mood Exercise: regular exercise enhances positive emotions Age: emotional experience improves with age and as we grow older we experience fewer negative emotions Gender: studies have shown that woman experience emotions more intensely and are more emotionally expressive than men .

Impact of Emotions on Attitude Can be measured through physiological cues like facial expression. vocal changes and body rate measures like increased body tension and increased heart rate. it is more resistant to change. non verbal communication also affect attitude Self Efficacy: confidence that the person has in dealing with the situation determines his resistance to an emotional appeal . The impact of an emotional appeal on attitude is influenced by: Attitude Accessibility: if your attitude towards a particular object or event is easily accessible to you. Issue Involvement: If involvement in the issue is high it is more difficult to change attitude with emotional appeal Characteristics of the Source: quality of content of the message. personality of the source.

Emotional Labor Effort. and to hide true emotions Potentially stressful with surface acting Less stress through deep acting . planning and control needed to express organizationally-desired emotions during interpersonal transactions Emotional labor higher when job requires: Frequent and long duration display of emotions Displaying a variety of emotions Displaying more intense emotions Challenges of Emotional Labor: Cultural implications Difficult to display expected emotions accurately.

Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence is a persons ability to: Be aware of his own emotions Detect emotions in others Manage the emotional cues and information successfully The ability to persist in the face of set backs and failures .

subordinates.Pros and Cons of Emotional Intelligence Pros: Emotional Intelligence can help a person influence people and manage relationships with colleagues. customers and bosses Emotions have the power to motivate and knowing how to make the right use of emotions keeps the work force positive and motivated Teams that have emotionally intelligent people would perform more efficiently as they spend more time solving problems than blaming others Cons: Emotional Intelligence is a very vague concept that is studied by different researchers from different angles Unlike general intelligence it is not possible to quantify and measure Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence is very closely related to intelligence and personality and has nothing new to offer .

. Leadership: effective leaders use feelings to convey their messages. A positive attitude increases the chances of a sale Interpersonal conflict: emotional intelligence helps to identify the emotional elements in a conflict and get the conflicting parties to work through their emotions.Applications of Emotions in the Corporate World Selection of Employees: EI is considered by employers while selecting employees specially in the service industries which require high social interaction Decision Making: positive emotions help make good decisions. This is called Emotion Contagion. When the leaders are enthusiastic and active they energise their subordinates and convey a sense of enthusiasm and optimism in them. solve problems and speed up the decision making process Customer Service: a positive emotion from an employee makes a customer react positively.

.Generating Positive Emotions at Work The emotions-attitudes-behavior model illustrates that attitudes are shaped by ongoing emotional experiences. successful companies actively create more positive than negative emotional episodes. Thus.

Employee-Customer-Profit Chain Company Practices Satisfied Employees Less attrition Consistent service Customer s Perceived Value Satisfied customers Customer referrals Higher Revenue Growth and Profits .