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NONRENEWABLE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES

HMMMM....
What do you think nonrenewable resources are? Break it down... Nonrenewable? Resource?

NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES

A nonrenewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be re-made or re-grown at a scale comparable to its consumption.

MINERAL RESOURCES

MINERAL RESOURCES

NUCLEAR FISSION ENERGY
Nuclear fission uses uranium to create energy. Nuclear energy is a nonrenewable resource because once the uranium is used, it is gone!

COAL, PETROLEUM, AND GAS

Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are considered nonrenewable because they can not be replenished in a short period of time. These are called fossil fuels.

HOW IS COAL MADE ???

HOW ARE OIL AND GAS MADE ???

WHAT WAS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COAL AND OIL/GAS?

HMMMM....
If nonrenewable resources are resources that cannot be re-made at a scale comparable to its consumption, what are renewable resources?

RENEWABLE RESOURCES
Renewable resources are natural resources that can be replenished in a short period of time. Solar Geothermal Wind Biomass Water

SOLAR
Energy from the sun. Why is energy from the sun renewable?

WATER or HYDROELECTRIC
Energy from the flow of water. Why is energy of flowing water renewable?

ENERGY FROM HEAT STORED IN H20

WIND

Energy from the wind. Why is energy from the wind renewable?

BIOMASS
Energy from burning organic or living matter. Why is energy from biomass renewable?

GEOTHERMAL
Energy from Earth·s heat. Why is energy from the heat of the Earth renewable?

‡ Natural steam from the production wells power the turbine ‡generator. The steam is condensed by evaporation in the cooling ‡tower and pumped down an injection well to sustain production. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office

Like all steam turbine generators, the force of steam is used to spin the turbine blades which spin the generator, producing electricity. But with geothermal energy, no fuels are burned. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office

Turbine blades inside a geothermal turbine generator.

© 2000 Geothermal Education Office

Turbine generator outdoors at an Imperial Valley geothermal power plant in California. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office

© 2000 Geothermal Education Office

FUSION POWER

STAR POWER

www.td.anl.gov

ADVANTAGES
UNLIMITED SUPPLY NO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS NO RADIATION

FUELS
DUETERIUM: COULD LAST MILLIONS OF YEARS TRITIUM IS BRED FROM LITHIUM LITHIUM: COULD LAST FOR ATLEAST 1000 YEARS

COMBINING HEAVY HYDROGEN ISOTOPES INTO HELIUM RELEASES THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF POWER

en.wikipedia.org

www.jet.efda.org

Dueterium + Dueterium Tritium +Proton Helium + neutron

FUSION REACTIONS
To get molecules to fuse, the repulsion forces must be overcome by:
Gravity (as in stars) Magnetic fields on plasma Rapid pulse of energy to a fusion fuel (hydrogen bomb or a pulse of a laser, ion or electron beam)

How can a plasma be confined ?

www.jet.efda.org

STAR FUSION

en.wikipedia.org

PLASMA

www.jet.efda.org

Plasmas occur at very high temperatures the electrons are stripped from the atomic nuclei. (Image courtesy CEA, France)

HYDROGEN BOMB

en.wikipedia.

Magnetic confinement
Particles move freely along field lines: how to stop the losses in that direction ?

pinching the field lines at the end -> reflection ( mirror ) -> linear arrangement ‡ closing the field lines on themselves -> toroidal confinement ‡ however: a pure toroidal field does not work www.jet.efda.org ‡ need a helical field
two solutions

TORUS

www.jet.efda.org

VACUUM CHAMBER OF THE TOKAM

MAGNETIC FIELD IN TOKAMAK

www.jet.efda.org

TOKAMAK

www.jet.efda.org

HEATING THE PLASMA

w.jet.efda.org

www.jet.efda.org ITER

estimated cost : 4 000 Million R (m) Euro 6.2
a (m) VP (m3) IP (MA) Bt (T) H,O Paux (MW) PE (MW) Q (PfusF in FT, /P P 2 850 15(17) 5.3 0.5, 1.85 4040-90 80+ 10 2.5%, 0.7

ITER will be a nuclear machine: 1.5 x

1020

neutrons/s

)

What is a plasma : fourth state of Matter

Increasing Temperature
A plasma is electrically conducting and very reactive

www.jet.efda.org

Energy: Forms and Changes

Nature of Energy
‡ Energy is all around you!
± You can hear energy as sound. ± You can see energy as light. ± And you can feel it as wind.

Nature of Energy
‡ You use energy when you:
± hit a softball. ± lift your book bag. ± compress a spring.

Nature of Energy

Living organisms need energy for growth and movement.

Nature of Energy
‡ Energy is involved when:
± ± ± ± a bird flies. a bomb explodes. rain falls from the sky. electricity flows in a wire.

Nature of Energy
‡ What is energy that it can be involved in so many different activities?
± Energy can be defined as the ability to do work. ± If an object or organism does work (exerts a force over a distance to move an object) the object or organism uses energy.

Nature of Energy
‡ Because of the direct connection between energy and work, energy is measured in the same unit as work: joules (J). ‡ In addition to using energy to do work, objects gain energy because work is being done on them.

Forms of Energy
‡ The five main forms of energy are:

± Heat ± Chemical ± Electromagnetic ± Nuclear ± Mechanical

Heat Energy
‡ The internal motion of the atoms is called heat energy, because moving particles produce heat. ‡ Heat energy can be produced by friction. ‡ Heat energy causes changes in temperature and phase of any form of matter.

Chemical Energy
‡ Chemical Energy is required to bond atoms together. ‡ And when bonds are broken, energy is released.

Chemical Energy

‡ Fuel and food are forms of stored chemical energy.

Electromagnetic Energy
‡ Power lines carry electromagnetic energy into your home in the form of electricity.

Electromagnetic Energy
‡ Light is a form of electromagnetic energy. ‡ Each color of light (Roy G Bv) represents a different amount of electromagnetic energy. ‡ Electromagnetic Energy is also carried by X-rays, radio waves, and laser light.

Nuclear Energy
‡ The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy.

Nuclear Energy
‡ When the nucleus splits (fission), nuclear energy is released in the form of heat energy and light energy. ‡ Nuclear energy is also released when nuclei collide at high speeds and join (fuse).

Nuclear Energy

The sun¶s energy is produced from a nuclear fusion reaction in which hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei.

Nuclear Energy
‡ Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy.

Most of us live within 10 miles of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant which converts nuclear energy into electromagnetic energy.

Mechanical Energy
‡ When work is done to an object, it acquires energy. The energy it acquires is known as mechanical energy.

Mechanical Energy
‡ When you kick a football, you give mechancal energy to the football to make it move.

Mechanical Energy
When you throw a balling ball, you give it energy. When that bowling ball hits the pins, some of the energy is transferred to the pins (transfer of momentum).

Energy Conversion
‡ Energy can be changed from one form to another. Changes in the form of energy are called energy conversions.

Energy conversions
‡ All forms of energy can be converted into other forms.
± The sun¶s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. ± Green plants convert the sun¶s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).

Other energy conversions
± In an electric motor, electromagnetic energy is converted to mechanical energy. ± In a battery, chemical energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. ± The mechanical energy of a waterfall is converted to electrical energy in a generator.

Energy Conversions
‡ In an automobile engine, fuel is burned to convert chemical energy into heat energy. The heat energy is then changed into mechanical energy.

Chemical Heat Mechanical

States of Energy
‡ The most common energy conversion is the conversion between potential and kinetic energy. ‡ All forms of energy can be in either of two states:
± Potential ± Kinetic

States of Energy: Kinetic and Potential Energy

‡ Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion. ‡ Potential Energy is stored energy.

Kinetic Energy
‡ The energy of motion is called kinetic energy. ‡ The faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has. ‡ The greater the mass of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has. ‡ Kinetic energy depends on both mass and velocity.

Kinetic Energy
K.E. = mass x velocity 2

What has a greater affect of kinetic energy, mass or velocity? Why?

Potential Energy
‡ Potential Energy is stored energy.
± Stored chemically in fuel, the nucleus of atom, and in foods. ± Or stored because of the work done on it:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Stretching a rubber band. Winding a watch. Pulling back on a bow¶s arrow. Lifting a brick high in the air.

Gravitational Potential Energy
‡ Potential energy that is dependent on height is called gravitational potential energy.

Potential Energy
‡ Energy that is stored due to being stretched or compressed is called elastic potential energy.

Gravitational Potential Energy
‡ A waterfall, a suspension bridge, and a falling snowflake all have gravitational potential energy.

Gravitational Potential Energy
‡ If you stand on a 3meter diving board, you have 3 times the G.P.E, than you had on a 1-meter diving board.

Gravitational Potential Energy
‡ ³The bigger they are the harder they fall´ is not just a saying. It¶s true. Objects with more mass have greater G.P.E. ‡ The formula to find G.P.E. is G.P.E. = Weight X Height.

Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion

Roller coasters work because of the energy that is built into the system. Initially, the cars are pulled mechanically up the tallest hill, giving them a great deal of potential energy. From that point, the conversion between potential and kinetic energy powers the cars throughout the entire ride.

Kinetic vs. Potential Energy

At the point of maximum potential energy, the car has minimum kinetic energy.

Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversions
‡ As a basketball player throws the ball into the air, various energy conversions take place.

Ball slows down

Ball speeds up

The Law of Conservation of Energy ‡ Energy can be neither created nor destroyed by ordinary means.
± It can only be converted from one form to another. ± If energy seems to disappear, then scientists look for it ± leading to many important discoveries.

Law of Conservation of Energy
‡ In 1905, Albert Einstein said that mass and energy can be converted into each other. ‡ He showed that if matter is destroyed, energy is created, and if energy is destroyed mass is created.
2

»E = MC

Vocabulary Words
energy mechanical energy heat energy chemical energy electromagnetic energy nuclear energy kinetic energy potential energy gravitational potential energy energy conversion Law of Conservation of Energy

BIOCHEMICAL CYCLES

Biogeochemical Cycles

Big Question

Why Are Biogeochemical Cycles Essential to Long-Term Life on Earth?

‡ A biogeochemical cycle is the complete path a chemical takes through the Earth¶s four major reservoirs:
± atmosphere ± hydrosphere (oceans, rivers, lakes, groundwaters, and glaciers) ± lithosphere (rocks and soils) ± biosphere (plants and animals).

‡ Chemicals enter storage compartments - sinks ‡ Amount that moves between compartments is the flux

‡ net sink - when input exceeds output ‡ net source - if output exceeds input.

Essential Elements
‡ 24 elements are required for life ‡ Macronutrients are required in large quantities
± carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.

‡ Micronutrients are required in small/medium quantities, or not at all in some organisms
± Copper, sodium, iodine

Geological Cycle
‡ The formation and change of Earth materials through physical, chemical, and biological processes

The Tectonic Cycle
‡ Lithosphere is comprised of several plates floating on denser material ‡ Plates move slowly relative to each other ± plate tectonics

‡ Divergent plate boundaries occur at spreading ocean ridges ‡ Convergent plate boundaries occur when plates collide

‡ Plate movements change the location of continents and alter atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns ‡ Plate boundaries are geologically active, producing volcanoes and earthquakes

Hydrologic Cycle
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Evaporation Precipitation Runoff Groundwater

‡ 97% of water is stored in oceans, 2% in glaciers and ice caps, 1% as freshwater on land or atmosphere ‡ Drainage basins or watersheds are the area contributing runoff to a stream or river ‡ Vary in size from a hectare to millions of square miles (e.g. Mississipi River drainage basin) ‡ Human impacts include dam

Rock Cycle
‡ Igneous rocks form from molten material such as lava. Broken down by physical and chemical weathering ‡ Sedimentary rocks form from accumulation of weathered material in depositional basins

‡ Metamorphic rocks are formed from sedimentary rocks exposed to heat, pressure or chemically active fluids

Rock Cycle

Biogeochemical Cycles in Ecosytems
‡ Begins with inputs from reservoirs such as atmosphere, volcanic ash, stream runoff, ocean currents, submarine vents ‡ Chemicals cycle through physical transport and chemical reactions (e.g. decomposition) ‡ All ecosystems ³leak´ chemicals to other ecosystems.

Annual Calcium Cycle in a Forest Ecosystem

Soluble in water and easily lost through runoff

Annual Sulfur Cycle In a Forest Ecosystem

Includes gaseous forms (sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide) and cycles much faster than calcium

Carbon Cycle
‡ Carbon is vital for life but is not abundant ‡ Enters biological cycles through photosynthesis to produce organic forms of carbon

Carbon Cycle in a Pond

‡ Large inorganic carbon reservoir in oceans ‡ Dissolved CO2 is converted to carbonate and bicarbonate ‡ Transferred from land by rivers and wind

Fossil Fuels
‡ Decomposition of dead organisms may be prevented by lack of oxygen or low temperatures ‡ Burial in sediments over thousands or millions of years transforms the stored organic carbon into coal, oil or natural gas

Global Carbon Cycle

Global Carbon Cycle

Case of the missing carbon!
± Analysis shows contribution of 8 .5 bill. tons into the atmosphere but less than ½ stays there«where does it go? ± 7 billion from fossil fuels and 1.5 billion from deforestation

Case of the missing carbon!
± Appears oceans are acting as carbon sinks as are forests and grasslands. ± But which area is more critical, and which one dominates. ± Will these blessings last?
‡ If they stop functioning we could face drastic changes even before 2050.

Case of the missing carbon!
± Global tests of CO2 show less in the north than the south despite larger northern outputs ± Why is this the case? ± If land plants are doing the work then there should be a corresponding oxygen increase. ± If it is dissolving in the oceans then there should be no added oxygen.

Case of the missing carbon!
± Results (best guess):
‡ Ocean is soaking up 2.4 billion tons globally ‡ Land plants do the most work in the northern hemisphere
± Forests literally breath in the carbon but appetite changes dramatically due to season, amount of sunlight, rainfall, and age of forests

‡ Marine organisms undergo photosynthesis as well ‡ So that leaves about 2.9 units unaccounted for between these groups.

Case of the missing carbon!
± Biggest threats:
‡ Decline in forest growth ‡ Killing of ocean phytoplankton due to rising sea temperatures ‡ Death of forests due to spread of disease and insects ‡ Melting permafrost layer ‡ Land clearing for development and agriculture ‡ Ofcourse continued output of carbon from fossil fuel burning

Nitrogen Cycle
‡ Essential for manufacturing proteins and DNA ‡ Although 80% of atmosphere is molecular nitrogen, it is unreactive and cannot be used directly ‡ Nitrogen fixation converts nitrogen to ammonia or nitrate

Nitrogen Fixation
‡ Some organisms have a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixing bacteria ‡ Found in root nodules in some plants, or in the stomach of some herbivores ‡ Nitrogen fixation also occurs through lightning and industrial processes

Denitrification
‡ When organisms die, denitrifying bacteria convert organic nitrogen to ammonia, nitrate, or molecular nitrogen

Global Nitrogen Cycle

Phosphorus Cycle
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ No gaseous phase Slow rate of transfer Released by erosion of exposed rock Absorbed by plants, algae, and some bacteria Exported from terrestrial ecosystems by runoff to oceans May be returned through seabird guano

Global Phosphorus Cycle

Phosphate Mining
‡ Impact on landscape by open-pit mining