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Mohammad Ahmad Choudhry Professor Department of Electrical Engineering

Purpose of LR
Non-Degree Research PhD Research MS Research Capstone or Final year Project
A Capstone Project Is A Large Project That Is Meant To Be The Final Piece Of An Undergraduate Degree. It Will Usually Require A Great Deal Of Research And Effort, And Is Supervised By A Professor Or Teacher.
Dr. Lili Ann SMM4999 - Literature Review 2

What is LR?
1 A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period. 1 A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and

SMM4999 - Literature Review 3

What is LR?
1 A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. 1 It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. 1 Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. 1 And depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant.
SMM4999 - Literature Review 4

classification. 1 A review may be a self-contained unit -. A review is a required part of grant and research proposals and often a chapter in theses and dissertations. 1 Generally.What is LR? 1 The format of a review of literature may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. and comparison of prior research studies. SMM4999 .Literature Review 5 .an end in itself -. and theoretical articles. the purpose of a review is to analyze critically a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary. reviews of literature.or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary research.

1 The evaluation of the literature leads logically to the research question. SMM4999 . 1 In the context of a research paper or thesis the literature review is a critical synthesis of previous research.Literature Review 6 . 1 A review may form an essential part of the research process or may constitute a research project in itself.What is LR? 1 A literature review is the effective evaluation of selected documents on a research topic.

. constructed in an arbitrary way SMM4999 .. uses rigorous and consistent methods A µpoor¶ literature review is«. is a critical evaluation «.. confusing and longwinded «... is a synthesis of available research «. has appropriate breadth and depth «..Literature Review 7 .What is LR? A µgood¶ literature review«. «. confined to description «. «.an annotated bibliography «. narrow and shallow «. has clarity and conciseness «.......

literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. 1 Literature reviews also provide a solid background for a research paper's investigation. Comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field is essential to most research papers. SMM4999 .Why write LR? 1 Literature reviews provide you with a handy guide to a particular topic.Literature Review 8 . If you have limited time to conduct research.

Why write LR? 1 For professionals.Literature Review 9 . the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field SMM4999 . they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. 1 For scholars.

Why write LR? 1 The purpose of a literature review is for you to take a critical look at the literature (facts and views) that already exists in the area you are researching.Literature Review 10 . 1 It demonstrates the relevance of the research. SMM4999 . 1 A literature review is not a shopping list of everything that exists. but a critical analysis that shows an evaluation of the existing literature and a relationship between the different works.

Literature Review 11 . conference proceedings. SMM4999 . newspapers. 1 Literature reviews are written occasionally in the humanities. reports. journal articles. theses and dissertations. 1 Sometimes a literature review is written as a paper in itself. and documentaries. magazines.Why write LR? 1 Literature can include books. but mostly in the sciences and social sciences. internet (electronic journals). in experiment and lab reports. they constitute a section of the paper.

Why write LR? 1 In the context of a research paper on a thesis. 1 The background may consider one or more of the following aspects depending on the research question being posed: 1 1 1 1 1 Theoretical background ± past.Literature Review 12 . present or future Clinical practice ± previous or contemporary Methodology and/or research methods Previous findings Rationale and/or relevance of the current study SMM4999 . the literature review provides a background to the study being proposed.

Why write LR? 1 In a broader context Hart (1998) lists the following purposes of a review: 1 Distinguishing what has been done from what needs to be done. 1 Identifying relationships between ideas and practice.Literature Review 13 . SMM4999 . 1 Discovering important variables relevant to the topic. 1 Synthesising and gaining a new perspective. 1 Establishing the context of the topic or problem.

1 Relating ideas and theory to applications. SMM4999 . 1 Understanding the structure of the subject.Why write LR? 1 Rationalising the significance of the problem. 1 Identifying methodologies and techniques that have been used.Literature Review 14 . 1 Placing the research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments. 1 Enhancing and acquiring the subject vocabulary.

previous research 1 Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies 1 Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort 1 Point the way forward for further research 1 Place one's original work (in the case of theses or dissertations) in the context of existing literature SMM4999 .Why write LR? 1 Its purpose is to: 1 Place each work in the context of its contribution to the understanding of the subject under review 1 Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration 1 Identify new ways to interpret.Literature Review 15 . and shed light on any gaps in.

such as definitions and/or a history? SMM4999 .Literature Review 16 . websites)? 1 Should you summarize. seek clarification from your supervisor/lecturer: 1 Roughly how many sources should you include? 1 What types of sources (books.What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Clarify 1 If your assignment is not very specific. synthesize. or critique your sources by discussing a common theme or issue? 1 Should you evaluate your sources? 1 Should you provide subheadings and other background information. journal articles.

The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read are also excellent entry points into your own research.What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Find models 1 Look for other literature reviews in your area of interest or in the discipline and read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or ways to organize your final review. You can simply put the word "review" in your search engine along with your other topic terms to find articles of this type on the Internet or in an electronic database. SMM4999 .Literature Review 17 .

The narrower your topic.What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Narrow your topic 1 There are hundreds or even thousands of articles and books on most areas of study.Literature Review 18 . the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to get a good survey of the material. Your instructor will probably not expect you to read everything that's out there on the topic. SMM4999 . but you'll make your job easier if you first limit your scope.

What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Consider whether your sources are current 1 Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible. Information even two years old could be obsolete.Literature Review 19 . for instance. In the sciences. SMM4999 . treatments for medical problems are constantly changing according to the latest studies.

or social sciences. if you are writing a review in the humanities. history. 1 You can also use this method to consider what is "hot" and what is not.Literature Review 20 . 1 Try sorting through some other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. because what is important is how perspectives have changed through the years or within a certain time period.What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 However. SMM4999 . a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed.

This means that you will not just simply list your sources and go into detail about each one of them. SMM4999 . not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized. one at a time.Literature Review 21 . 1 No. is usually organized around ideas.What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Find a focus 1 A literature review. like a term paper.

consider instead what themes or issues connect your sources together. 1 Do they present one or different solutions? 1 Is there an aspect of the field that is missing? 1 How well do they present the material and do they portray it according to an appropriate theory? 1 Do they reveal a trend in the field? 1 A raging debate? 1 Pick one of these themes to focus the organization of your review.Literature Review 22 .What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 As you read widely but selectively in your topic area. SMM4999 .

SMM4999 . your thesis statement will not necessarily argue for a position or an opinion.Literature Review 23 . Yes! Literature reviews have thesis statements as well! However.What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Construct a working thesis statement 1 Then use the focus you've found to construct a thesis statement. rather it will argue for a particular perspective on the material.

1 More and more cultural studies scholars are accepting popular media as a subject worthy of academic consideration.Literature Review 24 .What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Some sample thesis statements for literature reviews are as follows: 1 The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines surgery and medicine. SMM4999 .

and you've narrowed it down to a thesis statement.Literature Review 25 . subtopics. 1 Now what is the most effective way of presenting the information? 1 What are the most important topics.What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Consider organization 1 You've got a focus. etc. that your review needs to include? 1 And in what order should you present them? SMM4999 ..

What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Develop an organization for your review at both a global and local level: 1 First. and. the body of the review containing the discussion of sources. a conclusion and/or recommendations section to end the paper.Literature Review 26 . literature reviews also must contain at least three basic elements: an introduction or background information section. cover the basic categories 1 Just like most academic papers. SMM4999 . finally.

1 Conclusions/Recommendations: Discuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature so far. or methodologically (see below for more information on each).What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Introduction: Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review. such as the central theme or organizational pattern. thematically.Literature Review 27 . 1 Body: Contains your discussion of sources and is organized either chronologically. Where might the discussion proceed? SMM4999 .

SMM4999 . The findings can be related to the aims of the study you are proposing to do. It serves as a kind of map. Literature reviews at postgraduate level should be evaluative and not merely descriptive. The reader is thus provided with a coherent background to the current study. 1 The conclusion of the review needs to sum up the main findings of your research into the literature. 1 The body of the review depends on how you have organised your key points.Literature Review 28 .What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 The introduction should provide the reader with the scale and structure of your review. For example possible reasons for similarities or differences between studies are considered rather than a mere identification of them.

Literature Review 29 .What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Organizing the body 1 Once you have the basic categories in place. Create an organizational method to focus this section even further. 1 To help you come up with an overall organizational framework for your review. then you must consider how you will present the sources themselves within the body of your paper. consider the six typical ways of organizing the sources into a review: 1 1 1 1 1 1 Chronological By publication By trend Thematic Methodological Questions for Further Research SMM4999 .

What should I do before writing the literature review? 1 Similar to primary research.Literature Review 30 . development of the literature review requires four stages: 1 Problem formulation²which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues? 1 Literature search²finding materials relevant to the subject being explored 1 Data evaluation²determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic 1 Analysis and interpretation²discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature SMM4999 .

What should you write? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 the accepted facts in the area the popular opinion the main variables the relationship between concepts and variables shortcomings in the existing findings limitations in the methods used in the existing findings the relevance of your research suggestions for further research in the area. SMM4999 .Literature Review 31 .

those in support of a particular position.Literature Review 32 . and those offering alternative theses entirely) 1 Explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others 1 Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument. those against.g.What should you write? 1 Literature reviews should comprise the following elements: 1 An overview of the subject. issue or theory under consideration. are most convincing of their opinions. and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research SMM4999 . along with the objectives of the literature review 1 Division of works under review into categories (e.

g.Literature Review 33 . recent scientific findings)? 1 Objectivity²Is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point? 1 Persuasiveness²Which of the author's theses are most/least convincing? 1 Value²Are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject? SMM4999 . narratives. primary historical material. case studies. consideration should be given to: 1 Provenance²What are the author's credentials? Are the author's arguments supported by evidence (e. statistics.What should you write? 1 In assessing each piece.

Literature Review 34 . 1 Headings/sub-headings: these help to separate ideas. 1 Text boxes: you can use these for quotations or paraphrasing to separate them from the rest of your text. especially from the abstract. This gives an uncluttered effect. SMM4999 . It is also pleasing to the eye.What should you write? 1 Layout 1 Make your literature review have an academic and professional appearance. Here are some points to make the look of your report appealing to the reader 1 White space: leave space between sections.

What should you write? 1 Graphics: centre your graphics. but the important thing to do is to be consistent.Literature Review 35 . 1 Pagination: you can number pages or sections or both. The content page and abstract page usually have a separate numbering system to the body of your literature review. to have space around them. Try not to bury graphics in your text. The cover page normally is not numbered. such as diagrams or tables. SMM4999 .

What should you write? 1 Language focus 1 Create a balance between direct quotation (citation) and paraphrasing. The verb tense chosen depends on your emphasis: 1 When you are citing a specific author's findings. have found. use the present perfect tense: (have shown. demonstrated). use the present tense: (demonstrates. and 1 When you are citing several authors or making a general statement. 1 When you are writing about an accepted fact. SMM4999 . finds). little research has been done).Literature Review 36 . Avoid too much direct quoting. use the past tense: (found.

Literature Review 37 . analyse and evaluate? Are the recommendations reasonable? Does the table of contents correspond with the actual contents? Are page numbers correct? Have I acknowledged all sources of information through correct referencing? Have I checked spelling. concise and academic? Does the abstract summarise the entire review? Does the introduction adequately introduce the topic? Is the body organised logically? Does the conclusion interpret. grammar and punctuation? Have I carefully proof-read the final draft? SMM4999 .What should you write? 1 Final checklist 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Have I fulfilled the purpose of the literature review? Is it written at a level appropriate to its audience? Are its facts correct? Is all the information included relevant? Are the layout and presentation easy on the eye? Is the language clear.

How to review? 1 The whole process of reviewing includes: a. Organising the content g. Searching for literature b. Sorting and prioritising the retrieved literature c. Writing the review SMM4999 . Evaluative reading of papers e.Literature Review 38 . Comparison across studies f. Analytical reading of papers d.

1 Key points for a review may concern areas of similarities and/or differences in: 1 Research aim(s) or hypotheses 1 Research design and sampling 1 Instruments and procedures used 1 How data were analysed 1 Results or findings 1 Interpretations SMM4999 .Literature Review 39 .How to review? 1 Comparison across studies 1 The aim is to extract key points by comparing and contrasting ACROSS studies. instead of reading one paper after another.

e.: .types of data .data analysis .morality .methods .methodology .epistemology .philosophy .g.How to review? 1 Find similarities and differences between studies at different levels.interpretation 40 .

How to review? 1 Set out your thinking on paper through maps and trees. Feature map Classifies and categorises your thought in tabular form Links between concepts and processes.Literature Review 41 Concept map Tree construction . or shows relationship between ideas and practice Shows how topic branches out into subthemes and related questions or represents stages in the development of a topic. SMM4999 .

µbut¶. µin contrast¶. µtherefore¶. Use a new paragraph for another aspect or another topic.Literature Review 42 .How to review? 1 Tips on writing Sentences Express one idea in a sentence. Group sentences that express and develop one aspect of your topic. Transition Words SMM4999 .g. µhence¶. Incorrect use of punctuation can affect the meaning. Use words that link paragraphs and which show contrast and development to your argument e. Ensure that all your sentences have a subject. Consistent Grammar colours and semi-colours. µas a result¶. verb and object. µthus¶. Paragraphs Use sentences and paragraphs with appropriate use of commas.

Insufficient information .Literature Review 43 .Omission of recent work SMM4999 .Vagueness due to too much or inappropriate generalisations .How to review? Pitfalls .Irrelevant material .Omission of contrasting view .Limited range .

Literature Review 44 . Researchers have developed ideas and tools for supporting video editing. From a general video archive point of view. They have defined a seamless video editing in the gradient domain.Example Early works have addressed some of the problems and issues discussed in video retrieval. A digital video archive serving different categories of users should offer a more structured way of describing video contents SMM4999 . for example in [8]. which is usually not integrate able. the problem with this tool is the lack of support for managing video document structures. They have also described how semantic information about video can be structured and used for content-based access. The spatio-temporal gradient fields of target videos are modified or mixed to generate a new gradient field.

It distinguished between six different tennis strokes.Example Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are statistical tools that have been used successfully in modelling difficult tasks such as speech recognition [15] or biological sequence analysis [16]. In [8]. Inspired by a similar speech application.Literature Review 45 . The labels were classified based on discrete HMMs. This system divided the image into meshes and counted the number of pixels representing the person for each mesh. In [14] layered HMMs were proposed to model single person office activities at various time granularities SMM4999 . an HMM is used as a representation of simple actions which are recognized by computing the probability that the model produces the visual observation sequence. Hidden Markov model (HMM) has also been applied to activity recognition. The numbers were composed to a feature vector that was converted into a discrete label by a vector quantizer. The first approach for the human movements based on HMMs was described in [13].

either audio or visual track data alone). In [4]. However. An action scene was characterized by temporally localized properties of video shots which have little or no recurring similar visual contents [5]. the average video shot activity and the duration are used as features for the categorization of movies according to the actions. On the other hand. 46 . Although these visual characters are undoubtedly good indicators of rapidly evolving action contents. this audio alone method may lead to many potential false detected cases because many sounds often mix different noises and other similar background sound. they are not enough to determine the desired action.Example Most of the existing work relies on using only a single source of information (example. audio-based action detection was independently performed on the sound track in [6].

Literature Review Edge Count Rule-based classifiers Recognition result FIGURE 2. Abdullah et al.N.3 Schematic diagram for video classification Source: L. 47 .Example Video Pre-processing Classification Genre Motion Shot Colour Feature Extraction Edge Feature Extraction Event Camera Object Length Edge Detection Edge Clustering Colour Histogram Object Pan Zoom Translation Duration SMM4999 . 2005.

instances in each concept commercial. crouchingdown. The system only makes classifications when it believes the input is µgood enough¶ for discrimination between the possible actions Davis & Tyagi 2006 Probabilistic reliableinference framework Hidden Markov Model (HMM) output likelihoods and action priors Maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) Motion Walking.Example Research Lin et al.Literature Review 48 . properties of the data sets representing the Able to identify a high semantic concepts percentage of positive such as weather. standing. 2007 Technique A priori algorithm Association rule mining Pre-filtering architecture Features Used Audiovisual Domain Weather Sports Commercial Disadvantage / Future Direction Advantage Reduce the amount of Due to the different misclassification errors. they proposed to use different strategies to merge the rules. and sitting SMM4999 . and sports. running. bendingforward.