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Analyzing Still and Moving images

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Visual analysis assumed to µreflect¶ or µmirror¶ The rational argument has been preferred over the appeal to the emotions Independent or combination with written or verbal dimension .

Sensual Theories Gestalt ("The Whole is Different From the Sum of Its Parts") Constructivism (Short-Term Memory Builds Images) Ecological .

"The Whole is Different From the Sum of Its Parts" .

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Perceptual Theories Semiotics (The Study of Signs) Ferdinand de Saussure (Swiss Linguist) Charles Pierce (American Philosopher) Iconic signs ± (Direct One-to-One Relationship--Photographs)) Indexical signs ± (An Assumed Connection--Smoke From an Exhaust) Symbolic signs ± (Meaning Must Be Learned--Words) .

Iconic .

Indexical .

white«. green.Symbolic 786 Colors like orange. .

Personal Problems. Temperature) Culture (What and How We Learn to Get By) Words (Explanations Are Always Needed) .Cognitive (Your Mind at Work) Memory (The Past Affects the Present) Projection (Giving Objects Added meaning--Tarot Cards) Expectation (Assumptions About What Must Be Present) Selectivity (Active Looking) Habituation (Normal Appearances Can Dull Vision) Salience (Relative Importance to the Viewer) Dissonance (Distractions--Noise.

Four approaches Analysing news visuals as Distortion Symbolism Semiotic systems Epistemological guarantee .

Distortion µCamera can lie¶ Phallic images. misleading selections. significant omissions and sense changing croppings Production based distortion Eg: Rushdie¶s rushes . fake Distortion analysis addresses visual manipulation.

Symbolism .

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which help give meaning to individual and social experience Relation between language and meaning is arbitrary. The system of the language pre-exists the individual .Semiotic systems Concerned with how meaning is created between two signs with in the system especially in language Saussure¶s view on languageRelational. not referential Organized on internal system.

excitement Imposed conclusion .authority Smallness.public distance Social relationship Power.Berger¶s semiotic film conventions Signifier ( shot &film) Close-up Medium-shot Long shot Full shot Pan down Pan up Zoom in Fade in Fade out Cut Wipe Definition Face only Most of body Setting &charactors Full body of person Camera looks down Camera looks up Camera moves in Image appears on blank screen Image screen goes blank Switch from one image to another Image wiped off screen Signified Intimacy Personal relationship Context.weakness Observation .scope.focus Beginning Ending Simultaneity.

Against British criminal justice bill Daily mail The Guardian .

Analyzing visuals as epistemological guarantee Generalized objectivity claims of news Positioning of images. document or record Authoritative µfactuality´ Meinhof in her study identifies interrelation between news text and pictures Overlap Displacement Dichotomy .