Internal

OMA000001 GSM Fundamentals
ISSUE 4.0
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Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: > Grasp basic idea of GSM system such as frequency spectrum, frequency reuse etc. > Grasp the structure of the GSM system and the protocol used. > Grasp certain numbers that refer to BSS > Grasp the 4 kinds of channel combination and understand the idea of multi-frame. > Know some radio techniques > Get the idea of EDGE

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References 
BSS Feature Description  BSS Signaling Analysis Manual  BSC Technical Manual

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LTD.Chapter 1 GSM System Overview Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface Chapter 5 Radio Techniques Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. All rights reserved Page 4 .

each physical channel is characterized by a carrier frequency and a time slot number  Cellular systems are designed to operate with groups of low-power radios spread out over the geographical service area.GSM system overview  The GSM system is a frequency. LTD. This kind of technique is called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 5 ..and time-division cellular system. Each group of radios serve MSs presently located near them. this kind of technique is called Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)  Data for different users is conveyed in time intervals called slots . The area served by each group of radios is called a CELL  Uplink and downlink signals for one user are assigned different frequencies. several slots make up a frame.

LTD. All rights reserved Page 6 .GSM Development 1989 1991 1992 1994 1996 Standard Protocol for GSM take effect GSM system began to provide service in Europe(2G) System was named as Global System for Mobile Communication Provide services for the whole world Micro Cell Technique is used in GSM system HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Cell Technique Macro Cell and Micro Cell  A certain radio coverage area formed by a set of transceivers that connected to a set of antennas is called a CELL. So .  Macro Cell > In the beginning . At the same time it adopts the frequency reuse technique to improve the efficiency of the frequency utilization and also the whole capacity of the network. All rights reserved Page 7 . LTD. High-Power BTSs are adopted to provide services. it can only provide a few channels for subscribers. The BTS covers a wider area .  Micro Cell > Later the Low-Power BTS joins the system for getting a better service area with high capacity . but its frequency utilization is not efficient..

TDMA and CDMA..  GSM system adopt FDD-TDMA (FDMA and TDMA together). LTD.Multiple Access Technique  Multiple Access Technique allows many subscribers to use the same communication medium. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 8 .  There are three kinds of basic Multiple Access Technique : FDMA .

Time HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  The whole frequency spectrum available is divided into many individual channels (for transmitting and receiving) every channel can support the traffic for one subscriber or some control information. LTD.. All rights reserved Page 9 .FDMA  FDMA uses different frequency Frequency channels to accomplish communication.

. many signals are transmitted on the same frequency in different time. All rights reserved Page 10 .  A carrier is divided into Time channels based on time. that is . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.TDMA  TDMA accomplishes the Frequency communication in different timeslot. LTD. Different signals occupy different timeslots in certain sequence .

. LTD.CDMA  CDMA accomplishes the Frequency communication in different code sequences. All rights reserved Page 11 .  Special coding is adopted Time before transmission. then different information will lose nothing after being mixed and transmitted together on the same frequency and at the same time. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD..The Frequency Spectrum GSM 900 Uplink Downlink 890 915 935 960MHz Duplex Separation: Channel Bandwidth: HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved 45MHz 200KHz Page 12 .

All rights reserved 95MHz 200KHz Page 13 .The Frequency Spectrum DCS 1800 Base Station Receive Base Station Transmit 1710 1785 1805 1880MHz Duplex Separation: Channel Bandwidth: HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

2+0.4~457.6+0.2n Fu(n)=890+0.2(n-306) Fu(n)=824.2(n-512) Frequency Point Available 259<=n<=293 306<=n<=340 128<=n<=251 0<=n<=124 975<=n<=1023 0<=n<=124 955<=n<=1023 512<=n<=810 Downlink Frequency Fd(n)=Fu(n)+10 Fd(n)=Fu(n)+10 Fd(n)=Fu(n)+45 Fd(n)=Fu(n)+45 Fd(n)=Fu(n)+45 PCS 1900 Fd(n)=Fu(n)+80 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.2+0.2(n-128) Fu(n)=890+0.8~496 824~849 869~894 880~915 925~960 876~915 921~960 1850~1910 1930~1990 Uplink Frequency Fu(n)=450.4~467.2(n-1024) Fu(n)=1850.6 460.6 478. All rights reserved Page 14 ..2n Fu(n)=890+0.The Frequency Spectrum Frequency Spectrum GSM 450 GSM 480 GSM 850 E-GSM 900 R-GSM 900 Range (MHz) 450.2(n-259) Fu(n)=479+0.2(n-1024) Fu(n)=890+0.8~486 488.

LTD. The quality of communication must be ensured.Frequency Reuse   The frequency resource of mobile system is very limited. The different Subscribers can use the same frequency in different places.  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 15 ..

Frequency Reuse 7(Site)X 1(Cell) reuse 7 2 3 2 1 6 5 4 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 16 . LTD..

All rights reserved Page 17 .. LTD.Frequency Reuse 1 5 9 6 2 10 3 7 11 8 4 12 R 4 site X 3 cells reuse HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Cell Types

Omni-directional Cell

Omni

1 1

120 Degree Cell

120 degree

2

3
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Chapter 1 GSM System Overview Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface Chapter 5 Radio Techniques Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction

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GSM-GPRS Network Component
MSC/VLR GSM /GPRS BSS MS BTS PCU BSC MS BTS
GPRS Backbone

GMSC

PSTN ISDN

BSC HLR/AUC

SS7 SMS system

SGSN GGSN OMC CG BG

Internet, Intranet

Other PLMN

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All rights reserved Page 21 . Intranet SMS system SGSN Ga OMC CG BG Gp GGSN Gi Other PLMN HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Interface Between Different Entities MSC/VLR GSM /GPRS BSS MS BTS PCU BSC MS Um BTS GPRS backbone GMSC PSTN ISDN Abis BSC A HLR/AUC C/D/Gs SS7 Gb Gr/Gs/Gd/Ge Gc Internet. LTD..

.Mobile Station²MS MS=ME+SIM International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) ± Mobile Equipment International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) ± Subscriber Identity Module HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 22 .

All rights reserved Page 23 . LTD..Subscriber Identity Module ± SIM  International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)  Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)  Location Area Identity (LAI)  Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) SIM HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Base Station Subsystem ± BSS MSC  The Base Station Controller ± BSC  The Base Transceiver Station BSS TC/SM BSC BTS ± BTS  The Trans-coder ± TC and Sub multiplexer (SM) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 24 .

All rights reserved Page 25 . LTD..Packet Control Unit-----PCU MSC  Packet data switching  Bridge between SGSN and BSC  Provide Pb and BSS TC/SM BSC BTS PCU GPRS Backbone Gb interface SGSN HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

.The Network Switching System NSS OMC AUC HLR EIR EC MSC/VLR PSTN Mobile-service Switching Center Home Location Register Visitor Location Register Equipment Identity Register Authentication Center Echo Cancellor HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. ± MSC ± HLR ± VLR ± EIR ± AUC ± EC BSS Page 26 All rights reserved . LTD.

Mobile-service Switching Center ± MSC      Call Processing Operations and Maintenance Support Interface management Inter-network & Inter-working Billing HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. All rights reserved Page 27 . LTD.

LTD..Home Location Register ± HLR      Subscriber ID (IMSI and MSISDN) Current subscriber VLR (current location) Supplementary service information Subscriber status (registered/deregistered) Authentication key and AuC functionality HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 28 .

) Location Area Identity(LAI) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI) Allocating the Roaming Number HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Visitor Location Register ± VLR     Mobile Status (IMSI attached / detached / busy / idle etc. LTD. All rights reserved Page 29 ..

LTD. not the subscriber!! IMEI is Checked in Black/Grey List HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 30 ..Equipment Identity Register ± EIR  White List  Black List  Grey List IMEI is Checked In White List If NOT found EIR focus on the equipment .

. All rights reserved Page 31 .OMC Functional Architecture Event/Alarm Management Security Management MMI OS Fault Management Performance Management DB Configuration Management HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

. LTD.Chapter 1 GSM System Overview Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface Chapter 5 Radio Techniques Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 32 .

. All rights reserved Page 33 . Location area.. cell cell HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO... Location area.Service Area Service Area PLMN service area PLMN service area MSC service area..... PLMN service area MSC service area..... LTD....

MCC: Mobile Country Code It consists of 3 digits .. All rights reserved Page 34 . LTD.LAI MCC MNC Location Area Identification LAC The LAI is the international code for a location area. The value 0000 and FFFF is invalid. For example: The MCC of China is "460" MNC: Mobile Network Code It consists of 2 digits . For example: 460-00-0011 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. For example: The MNC of China Mobile is "00" LAC: Location Area Code It is a two bytes hex code.

LTD. For example : 460-00-0011-0001 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.CGI CGI: Cell Global Identification The CGI is a unique international identification for a cell The format is LAI+CI LAI: Location Area Identification CI: Cell Identity.. All rights reserved Page 35 . This code uses two bytes hex code to identify the cells within an LAI.

It comprises 3 bit.. All rights reserved . used to distinguish different cells assigned the same frequency! Page 36 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.BSIC BSIC Base Station Identification Color Code) NCC BSIC BCC NCC: PLMN network color code. LTD. BCC: BTS color code. It comprises 3 bit. It allows various neighboring PLMNs to be distinguished.

135. SN: Subscriber Number. NDC: National Destination Code. Format:H0 H1 H2 H3 ABCD Example: 86-139-0666-1234 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. 137. For example: The CC of China is "86". All rights reserved Page 37 . For example: The NDC of China Telecom is 139. LTD.MSISDN CC NDC SN National (significant) Mobile number Mobile station international ISDN number CC: Country Code.. 138. 136.

All rights reserved Page 38 . For example: The MNC of China Telecom is "00" MSIN: Mobile Subscriber Identification Number.IMSI Not more than 15 digits 3 digits 2 digits MCC MNC NMSI IMSI MSIN MCC: Mobile Country Code It consists of 3 digits . For Example of IMSI : 460-00-666-9777001 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. For example: The MCC of China is "460" MNC: Mobile Network Code It consists of 2 digits . LTD. H1H2H3 S ABCDEF For example: 666-9777001 NMSI: National Mobile Subscriber Identification MNC and MSIN form it together.

.  The VLR controls the allocation of new TMSI numbers and notifies them to the HLR. All rights reserved Page 39 .  TMSI is used to ensure that the identity of the mobile subscriber on the air interface is kept secret. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.TMSI TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identification)  The TMSI is assigned only after successful subscriber authentication.  The TMSI consists of 4 bytes( 8 HEX numbers) and determined by the operator.

6 bit. All rights reserved Page 40 . SP: 1 bit . It is determined by the manufacturer. 2 bit. determined by the type approval center FAC: Final assembly code. It is issued by the manufacturer of the MS.IMEI IMEI: International Mobile Station Equipment Identification TAC FAC SNR SP IMEI TAC: Type approval code. Check the IMEI in your MS : *#06# HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. SNR: Serial number. 6 bits. Not used.

All rights reserved Page 41 ..Chapter 1 GSM System Overview Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface Chapter 5 Radio Techniques Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

LTD..577ms The logical channel consists of the information carried over the physical channels 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 Timeslot The information carried in one time slot is called a ³burst´ TDMA FRAME HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved TDMA FRAME Page 42 .Physical Channel and Logical Channel The physical channel is the medium over which the information is carried: 200KHz and 0.

All rights reserved Page 43 . Control Channel (CCH) : Or Signaling Channel. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. include data and speech.Two types of Logical Channel Traffic Channel (TCH) : Transmits traffic information. transmits all kinds of control information.

8 Page 44 .Traffic Channel (TCH) TCH Traffic Channels Speech Data TCH/FS TCH/HS TCH/9.4 TCH Traffic Channel TCH/FS Full rate Speech Channel TCH/HS Half rate Speech Channel TCH/9.4Kb/s HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.6kb/s TCH/4. All rights reserved TCH/4.6 Data Channel 9.6 TCH/2.4 Data Channel 2.8 Data Channel 4..8kb/s TCH/2.

CH. LTD.Control Channel (CCH) CCH (Control Channels) DCCH SDCCH ACCH BCCH SACCH CCCH SCH RACH CBCH FCCH BCH Synch. FACCH Broadcast Control Channel ± BCCH Common Control Channel ± CCCH Dedicated Control Channel ± DCCH Associated Control Channel ± ACCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. PCH/AGCH Page 45 All rights reserved .

All rights reserved Page 46 FCCH .. LTD. Channels BCH CCH SCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Broadcast Control Channel ± BCCH The information carried on the BCCH is monitored by the MS periodically when it is in idle mode BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel FCCH: Frequency Correction Channel SCH: Synchronization Channel BCCH Synch.

RACH: Random Access Channel PCH: Paging Channel AGCH: Access Granted Channel CBCH: Cell Broadcast Channel RACH uplink CBCH downlink CCH CCCH PCH/AGCH downlink HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 47 ..Common Control Channel ± CCCH The CCCH is responsible for transferring control information between all mobiles and the network. LTD.

. SDCCH: Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel ACCH: Associated Control Channel SACCH: Slow Associated Control Channel FACCH: Fast Associated Control Channel CCH DCCH SDCCH ACCH FACCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Dedicated Control Channel ± DCCH DCCH is assigned to a single wireless connection for measurement and handover purpose. LTD. All rights reserved Page 48 SACCH .

All rights reserved Page 49 .. LTD.Uplink Logical channel CCH RACH CCCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH TCH/F TCH/H DCCH DCH TCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Downlink Logical channel FCCH CCH BCCH SCH BCCH CCCH PCH AGCH SDCCH DCH DCCH SACCH FACCH TCH TCH/F TCH/H HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 50 . LTD..

How to use these channels? Power-off Search for frequency correction burst Search for synchronous burst Extract system information FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SDCCH TCH FACCH Idle mode Monitor paging message Send access burst Allocate signaling channel Dedicated mode Set up the call Allocate voice channel Conversation Idle mode Release the call HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. All rights reserved Page 51 .

PAGCH > Private control channel: PACCH. PRACH. All rights reserved Page 52 . LTD.. PTCCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Packet logic channel  Packet data channel (PDCH) TCH > Comprising packet service channel and packet control channel TCH  Packet service channel (PDTCH) > Combined into the single-directional service channel  Packet control channel BCCH CCCH SACCH > Broadcast control channel: PBCCH > Public control channel: PPCH.

. LTD.GSM Logical Channel Combination Main BCCH combination ± FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH SDCCH combination ± SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8 Combined BCCH ± BCCH + CCCH +SDCCH/4 + SACCH/4 TCH/FR combination ± TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/F TCH/HR combination ± TCH/H + FACCH/H + SACCH/H HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 53 .

GPRS and circuit services use the same BCCH and CCCH in the cell. > Mode 3: PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH  In case of small GPRS traffic. the packet public channel should be configured in the cell. only combination mode 3 is needed in the cell  With the increase of traffic. > Mode 2: PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH.. In this case.Combination of packet logic channel  Packet logic channels (PDCH) can be combined via the following three modes > Mode 1: PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH. All rights reserved Page 54 . LTD. Channel combination mode 1 and mode 2 should be adopted HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD.GSM Multi-frames TDMA Frames 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 46 47 48 49 50 51 ± Frame Multi-frames CONTROL CHANNELS HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. All rights reserved Page 55 .

.GSM Multi-frames TDMA Frames 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 21 22 23 24 25 26 ± Frame Multi-frames TRAFFIC CHANNELS HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 56 . LTD.

Chapter 1 GSM System Overview Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface Chapter 5 Radio Techniques Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. All rights reserved Page 57 . LTD.

Power Control Both Uplink and Downlink power settings can be controlled independently and individually. 5W 0. All rights reserved Page 58 .8W Saves battery power Reduces co-channel and adjacent channel interference 8W BCCH ------Does not attend Power control HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

All rights reserved Page 59 . LTD.DTX and VAD Discontinuous Transmission ± DTX Voice Activity Detection ± VAD Battery Saving Interference reduction HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

LTD.Timing Advance (TA) The mobile phone should send the signal in advance! TA Transmission delay t Transmission delay t HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 60 ..

. All rights reserved Page 61 .Multi-path Fading  Diversity  Frequency Hopping Time Dispersion HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

not all antennas experience fades at the same time. All rights reserved Page 62 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.e..Diversity ± What¶s Diversity?  Receive diversity provides an effective technique for both overcoming the impact of fading across the radio channel and increasing the received signal to interference ratio. LTD.e.  The former is achieved by ensuring ³uncorrelated´ (i. low enough correlated) fading between antenna branches i.

Kinds of Diversity  Time diversity t Coding. All rights reserved Page 63 . LTD. interleaving  Frequency diversity f Frequency hopping  Space diversity Multiple antennas  Polarization diversity Dual-polarized antennas  Multi-path diversity Equalizer HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

LTD.Frequency Hopping Frequency f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 Frame Time HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. All rights reserved Page 64 .

.Chapter 1 GSM System Overview Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface Chapter 5 Radio Techniques Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 65 .

.GSM Development Evolution 3G 2. LTD.6 kbps GSM HSCSD 115 kbps GPRS EDGE HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 66 .5G 384kbps 2Mbps IMT-2000 2G 57.6 kbps 9.

0 40.4 17.2 50.0 21. LTD.0 13.4 59.0 CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 GMSK HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Data rate of EDGE and GPRS Kbps 60.4 15.6 10.8 8.0 0.8 20. All rights reserved 8PSK Page 67 .8 11.0 30.0 9.6 22.6 14..0 54.2 44.4 GPRS EGPRS 29.

All rights reserved Page 68 . MCS-9 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..Huawei EDGE Test Result Downlink. 4 TS.

All rights reserved Page 69 .Summary  The basic idea of GSM  The frequency spectrum used in GSM  The structure of GSM  Certain service area and numbers  Some radio techniques used in GSM  Evolution of GSM HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.

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