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Basic Features of Interviews
Types of Interviews
Types of Interviews
Unstructured or Nondirective Interview
Structured or Directive Interview
Interview Content Types of Questions Situational Interview Behavioral Interview Job-Related Interview Stress Interview TAR HRM 5 .
Administering the Interview Unstructured Sequential Interview Web-Assisted Interviews Structured Sequential Interview Computerized Interviews Ways in Which Interviews Can Be Conducted Panel Interview Phone and Video Interviews Mass Interview TAR HRM 6 .
What Can Undermine An Interview¶s Usefulness? First Impressions (Snap Judgments) Nonverbal Behavior and Impression Management Interviewer¶s Misunderstanding of the Job Factors Affecting Interviews Applicant¶s Personal Characteristics Candidate-Order (Contrast) Error and Pressure to Hire Interviewer Behavior TAR HRM 7 .
Designing and Conducting An Effective Interview w The Structured Situational Interview Use either situational questions or behavioral questions that yield high criteria-related validities. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: 7±8 Job Analysis Rate the Job¶s Main Duties Create Interview Questions Create Benchmark Answers Appoint the Interview Panel and Conduct Interviews TAR HRM 8 .
How to Conduct a More Effective Interview Suggestions : 1 2 3 4 5 6 Structure Your Interview Prepare for the Interview Establish Rapport Ask Questions Close the Interview Review the Interview TAR HRM 9 .
Effective Interviews w Structure the Interview: 1. situational or behavioral questions. Use job knowledge. 9. 2. 3. 5. 6. and objective criteria to evaluate interviewee¶s responses. 7±10 TAR HRM 10 . Take brief. If possible. Train interviewers. 10. Base questions on actual job duties. Use the same questions with all candidates. 7. fair. poor) to rate answers. Use descriptive rating scales (excellent. Use multiple interviewers or panel interviews. 4.Close the interview positively and review it soon. unobtrusive notes during the interview. Take control of the interview. 8. use a standardized interview form.
What would you do? Past Behavior Questions 3. Based on your past work experience. training.Examples of Questions That Provide Structure Situational Questions 1. What experience have you had with direct point-of-purchase sales? Job Knowledge Questions 7. What steps would you follow to conduct a brainstorming session with a group of employees on safety? 8. Suppose you were giving a sales presentation and a difficult technical question arose that you could not answer. The co-worker was more experienced than you and claimed the new procedure was better. what is the most significant action you have ever taken to help out a co-worker? 4. Would you use the new procedure? 2. or other qualifications do you have for working in a teamwork environment? 6. What factors should you consider when developing a television advertising campaign? TAR HRM 11 . Can you provide an example of a specific instance where you developed a sales presentation that was highly effective? Background Questions 5. What work experiences. Suppose a co-worker was not following standard work procedures.
3.Suggested Supplementary Questions for Interviewing Applicants 1. 12. 23. 8. working alone or working with groups? What motivated you to do better at your last job? Do you consider your progress in that job representative of your ability? Why? Do you have any questions about the duties of the job for which you have applied? Can you perform the essential functions of the job for which you have applied? TAR HRM 12 . 5. 7. 15. 6. 24. 21. 11. 18. 14. 19. 4. 17. 22. 20. 9. How and why did you choose this line of work? What did you enjoy most about your last job? What did you like least about your last job? What has been your greatest frustration or disappointment on your present job? Why? What are some of the pluses and minuses of your last job? What were the circumstances surrounding your leaving your last job? Did you give notice? Why should we be hiring you? What do you expect from this employer? What are three things you will not do in your next job? What would your last supervisor say your three weaknesses are? What are your major strengths? How can your supervisor best help you obtain your goals? How did your supervisor rate your job performance? In what ways would you change your last supervisor? What are your career goals during the next 1±3 years? 5±10 years? How will working for this company help you reach those goals? What did you do the last time you received instructions with which you disagreed? What are some things about which you and your supervisor disagreed? What did you do? Which do you prefer. 10. 2. 13. 16.
Interview Questions to Ask TAR HRM 13 .
PREPARING FOR THE INTERVIEW HRM TAR 14 .
Location etc. Growth Opportunities Work Environment Education & Prior Experience x Skills & Knowledge primarily required & why? x Can someone without these skills & knowledge be trained and be useful in this role? x Is the background of the last incumbent influencing us? x Are we compromising because we are in a hurry? x Are we violating any equal opportunity or other legal issues while creating the Job Description? TAR HRM 15 . Benefits.JOB ANALYSIS Recruitment specialists from within HR must understand x x x x x x Duties & Responsibilities Education & Prior Experience Reporting relationships including matrix reporting Salary.
Management style. Initiative. Personality. Maturity. Responsiveness TAR HRM 16 . Assertiveness.JOB ANALYSIS Education & Prior Experience x What demonstrated abilities/ Subject Matter expertise are we looking for? x In depth knowledge in _________ required x Extensive experience in _________ required x Knowledge of _______ would be an advantage x Proven track record of ______ needed x Educational Qualification? Can we do with less? x Trade off between educational qualifications/ work experience x Intangible Requirements like: Appearance. Attitude. Creativity & Imagination.
JOB ANALYSIS Reporting Relationships What position will this job report to? Direct & Indirect (Matrix)? What positions report directly and indirectly to this job? Where does the job appear on the organization chart? What is the relationship between this job and other jobs in the department & organization? x These help in determining the personality traits desired x x x x Salary. Benefits. Location x What is the salary range for the job? x What is the applicant¶s current salary? x Is it close to the maximum? Higher than the maximum? x Lower than the minimum? x Company¶s policy regarding salary increases? x Salary break-up? Fixed/Variable/Monthly components/Annual components? Taxable/Non-taxable? Monthly take-home? x Sign-on or Joining Bonus? TAR HRM 17 .
FPS. Petrol. Location x Explain the benefits in detail x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Medical Insurance/Life Insurance Vacation days Hard Furnishing/Soft Furnishing Superannuation.JOB ANALYSIS Salary. Driver¶s Salary. Gratuity etc. Leave Travel Allowance ESOP Legal benefits like PF. Benefits. ALSA Flexi Package Car. Maintenance etc. Geographic Location including location within a city Transferability between locations Relocation Expenses reimbursements Travel Policies and Frequency of Travel Reimbursement of Travel Expenses Use of Own transport and Company Transport for local travel Schedules TAR HRM 18 .
JOB ANALYSIS Growth Opportunities x x x x x x x x x x x Frequency of performance Appraisals Salary Reviews and increases Policies regarding Promotions Growth within the department and within the organization IJP Policies Training for new roles Physical Working Conditions Safety regulations & Policies Do not hide unpleasant aspects of working conditions If possible show the applicant the location Dress Code Work Environment TAR HRM 19 .
machinery to be used Working Conditions and Environment TAR HRM 20 .JOB DESCRIPTION w While preparing for an interview the job description has to be conveyed to the interviewee clearly and unambiguously Arrange the duties & responsibilities in a logical sequential order Avoid generalizations or ambiguous words List the main tasks Use Non-technical language Use specific examples of duties Indicate the frequency of occurrence of each duty Do not refer to specific people even if the applicant knows them Indicate equipment.
THE RIGHT FIT w Right fit evaluation: Identifying what the candidate has accomplished either at past jobs or through performance of relevant non-job-specific tasks What the person is willing to do the tangible skills and abilities he has x Ask questions as to how he would use his skills in the job he is being considered for The intangibles x Willingness to accept criticism x Ability to function in a different job environment x Disposition toward working with others whose approach to problem solving may differ from their own x Interest in learning from such colleagues/ seniors x Ability to work as part of a diverse team x Degree of Flexibility and ability to adjust to sudden changes x Knack for multitasking TAR HRM 21 .
THE INTERVIEW PROCESS HRM TAR 22 .
water etc. coffee. Prepare a Competency grid indicating which interviewer to cover which competency HRM TAR .The Interview Process Pre Interview The preparation checklist ± step by step instructions for preparing for the interview Selecting a venue Informing Reception In case of an unanticipated delay the reception should take care of the candidate and offer him tea.
The Interview Process w Opening the Interview Greet the candidate & put him at ease x Introduce yourself by giving your name & position x State that you appreciate the candidate¶s interest in the position & organization and thank him for sparing his time Explain the Interview¶s purpose x Both of you a chance to get acquainted x Help you learn more about the candidate¶s background & experience x Help the candidate understand the position & organization Describe the interview plan by explaining that x Review the candidate¶s qualifications & experience x Provide information on and answer questions about the position and organisation HRM TAR .
The Interview Process w Key background Review Application Materials Review Educational Background x Check for Gaps Jobs/experience x Review the information provided and seek clarity on any area where you need more information x Check for Gaps x If any period is listed as Consultant or self employed seek details HRM TAR .
The Interview Process w Planned Behavioural Questions Validation of Competencies using the STAR technique STAR x The Situation or Task the candidate faced x The Action the candidate took x The Result of the Candidate¶s actions Here we are looking for past performance/experience data only x Do not ask futuristic questions x Ask questions that will yield behavioral information under each target competence x Ask follow up questions to pin down STARs x The competencies being looked for have to be derived from the Job Description Follow it up with Motivational Fit Questions HRM TAR .
location and answers to any questions the candidate may have End the interview by explaining the next steps and thanking the candidate for his time HRM TAR . organization.The Interview Process w Closing the Interview Review to check if you have left out anything x Ask additional questions if necessary Provide information on the position.
The Interview Process w After the Interview Check the notes you have made and compile them properly Rate the candidate in the competencies that you have verified Decide on the next step ± whether someone else has to interview If some STAR¶s need to be validated in the follow up ref check. make a note of them HRM TAR .
Behavioral Questions ± the STAR w Situation or Task It is the background or context in which the candidate took the action Situations are tasks are created by occurrences such as : x x x x x Changes in the candidate¶s job responsibilities or work processes Demands made by a Manager or Customer Challenges in meeting a deadline Challenges in getting along or getting work done by a colleague Etc. calls to our Insurance Office tripled TAR HRM 29 . Examples x The Customer wanted a change in the packaging and we had just lost our packaging design guy and his replacement had not joined x For two months after the earthquake.
Behavioral Questions ± the STAR w Actions What the candidate said or did and how he said or did. and everyone in the sales force TAR HRM 30 . I intiated a special bonus program for all employees to help in selling ± this included admin. Actions are at the heart of the STAR because they show us the Candidate¶s behavior Actions may include: x x x x The steps taken in completing a work assignment How he planned out the work for a particular project What he did to meet a tough deadline or avoid costly delays What a person said to cause a colleague to become angry Examples x Suddenly everyone wanted to buy extra homeowner¶s insurance. receptionists. people. With no time to hire and train extra representatives.
And we really celebrated when our office topped the sales for the quarter TAR HRM 31 . They tell us what changes or differences the person¶s actions made and whether the actions were effective and appropriate Example: x Even though everyone worked lots of nights and weekends. no one ever got burned out.Behavioral Questions ± the STAR w Results Results are the effects of the candidate¶s actions. Everyone felt appreciated and no one seemed to mind making some extra money.
then use follow up question w At times you will get STA but not R.Behavioral Questions ± the STAR The behavioral questions have to be pre-planned to bring out STARs in each competency area w If the questions do not yield a STAR. you can ask a question on how he would handle it differently if faced with a similar S or T w Do not allow futuristic answers to start with. You should then ask what results came out of his action. On receiving a negative R. TAR HRM 32 . Even if the result was negative it is a complete STAR.
Behavioral Questions ± the STAR w FALSE STARs Statements with lots of glitter but no substance Three Basic Types of false STARs x Vague Statements that might sound good but provide no specifics on what he actually did x Opinions ± these are his personal beliefs. or views which tell us how he feels but provide no information on what he did ± no behavior x Theoretical or future-oriented statements ± what he would do or like to do or would have done but not what he has actually done TAR HRM 33 . judgments.
Behavioral Questions ± the STAR w FALSE STARs Vague x I usually had no problems with the doctors. It seperates great leaders from average ones x I think if you ask any of my colleagues. we all pitched in and got it done x I always take time to find out what the customer wants and I have made a lot of customers happy that way Opinion x I think coaching is the most important skill a leader can have. Some of my colleagues did but I got along well with them x When it looked like we wouldn¶t make our deadline. they would say that I am a team player x I have to say : my enthusiasm helped to keep the people working with me motivated TAR HRM 34 .
A Partial STAR that needs Action TAR HRM 35 . x I was part of the negotiating team for my department when we negotiated our last contract. the bargaining on this one was tough.g. A and R covered. I wouldn¶t have started the work until I had approval on the design specifications x I would take all the support staff and assign them to project teams x I plan to get started on an advanced degree next year w Partial STARs Not all of S/T. Let me tell you. e. But in the end we got them to agree to most of our demands x .Behavioral Questions ± the STAR w FALSE STARs Future oriented x If it had been my decision. no one wanted to give us an inch.
there was no system for recording customer complaints. so I started to look for a replacement. it looked as if our software package was going to be obsolete in six months. It took me almost two hours to straighten everything out.A Partial STAR that needs Result x When I took up the job. I read up all the available programs and tested most of them x . but finally I got everyone into his or her rooms x . So I made an easy-to-use form on the Computer and showed everyone how to use it x . an half of the staff hadn¶t shown up.Behavioral Questions ± the STAR w Partial STARs x With the changes in technology.A Partial STAR that needs Action TAR HRM 36 .A Partial STAR that needs Result x When I got to work there were two busloads of senior citizens in the lobby waiting to be registered.
³Two people quit as a result´. ³I will´ TAR HRM 37 . e.. A complete STAR will always be in the past tense ± ³ The equipment malfunctioned´. ³The way I handle that´.g. ³I decided´. ³I plan to´. We need to know what he did in a specific situation. x The tense of the verb is normally a determinant of the type of STAR. e. how he handled a particular customer. ³ I did´. ³This way it works out well´. he is probably giving a vague false STAR. Present tense or future tense is normally a false STAR. x Any action description which is group oriented like ³we´. We need to know what the candidate did. We have got to make sure we get them all x Stay out of ³would´s ± future oriented False STAR x When a candidate uses words like ³typically´.Behavioral Questions ± the STAR Tips for handling STARs x Actions also can be inactions ± what a person did say or do in a certain situation x It does not matter in what order we get the STAR parts ± sometimes they come as RATS or ARTS..g. ³the team´ or ³our unit´ also might be vague. ³generally´ or ³usually´.
Interviewing for Motivational Fit Motivational Fit is defined as the extent to which acivities and responsibilities. the organization¶s mode of operations and values. the degree to which the work itself is personally satisfying TAR HRM 38 . and the community in which the individual will live and work are consistent with the type of environment that provides personal satisfaction.
x Location fit ± Both the City/Town as well as area within. Valuing the differences and making diverse people complement each other creates better groups TAR HRM 39 .Interviewing for Motivational Fit Satisfaction & Overlap ± We need to know whether there is sufficient overlap between what a person likes and what is available in the job to keep him satisfied There are three sub competencies within motivational fit x Job Fit ± If people enjoy certain responsibilities and activities that are critical to successful performance. Workforce Diversity & Motivational Fit x In a diverse workforce situation people have more obvious differences which make each of them unique x Good motivational fit does not mean ³looks and acts like me´. they are most likely to repeat them over time x Organization Fit ± this focuses on the organization¶s values & operations.
what and why a candidate found a role.Interviewing for Motivational Fit Although interviewing for motivational fit seems complicated . task or situation satisfying or dissatisfying TAR HRM 40 . it can be simplified by looking for two key pieces of information x When the candidate was most satisfied or dissatisfied with his work in the organization x Specifically what was satisfying or dissatisfying We should keep our eyes and ears open to a candidates responses in other questions/sections of the interview for possible motivational fit or the lack of it Rather than interviewing for STARs. we need to find when.
Sample Questions x Describe an aspect of your job that you find especially motivating x Tell me about a time when you found the environment highly motivating.Interviewing for Motivational Fit x When ± Begin by asking the candidate to identify a time when he was most or least satisfied with the work x What ± Continue by asking the candidate to describe what he was doing or experiencing that made him feel satisfied or dissatisfied x Why ± Complete the questioning by asking why the situation was satisfying or dissatisfying. please describe ithat environment in detail x What have you done to improve the motivational level of your team members? TAR HRM 41 .
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