Renewable Energy Sources

PRESENTED BY:--

ØJITENDRA KUMAR LAL(77/05) •NIT JAMSHEDPUR

NON-CONVENTIONAL/RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

What is Renewable energy ?

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‘ Any sustainable energy source that comes from natural environment.’

It means energy is generated from absolutely natural powers and this energy sources can be replenished.

What is Renewable Energy?
As the name suggests, exists perpetually and in abundant in the environment. Ready to be harnessed, inexhaustible. It is a clean alternative to fossil fuels. “energy that is derived from natural process that are replenished

Various forms of renewable
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Solar energy Wind energy Bio energy Hydro energy Geothermal energy Wave and tidal energy

SOLAR ENERGY

Salient Features
•Energy from the sun is called solar energy. •The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. •Solar energy is the most readily available and free source of energy since prehistoric times. •It is estimated that solar energy equivalent to over 15,000 times the world's annual commercial energy consumption reaches the earth every year.

Application Of Solar Technology
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Solar lighting. Solar thermal. Water heating. Water treatment. Cooking. Solar vehicles. Electricity Generation Using: n Photovoltaic Cells. n Solar Concentrators.

Wind Energy

Wind Energy
•Wind energy is basically harnessing of wind power to produce electricity , using wind turbines. •Wind as a source of energy is plentiful, inexhaustible and pollution free

How Wind Is Produced
Winds are caused because of two factors :1. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere. 2. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun.

Wind Energy Technology
The basic wind energy conversion device is the wind turbine. These turbines are generally grouped into two types:1.Vertical-axis wind turbines, in which the axis of rotation is vertical with respect to the ground means perpendicular to the wind stream.

2. Horizontal-axis turbines, in which the axis of rotation is horizontal with respect to the ground means parallel to the wind stream.

SCENARIO Of Wind Energy Till Now…
ØWorldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 94.1 GW. ØWind produces about 1% of world-wide electricity use. Wind Energy in India :ØIndia ranks FIFTH in the world(1426MW) in Wind power generation. ØThere are 39 wind potential stations in Tamil Nadu, 36 in Gujarat, 30 in Andhra Pradesh, 27 in Maharashtra, 26 in Karnataka, 16 in Kerala, 8 in Lakshadweep, 8 Rajasthan, 7 in Madhya Pradesh, 7 in Orissa, 2 in West Bengal, 1 in Andaman Nicobar and 1 in Uttar Pradesh.

Advantages of Wind energy.

•The wind energy is free, inexhaustible and does not need transportation. .Wind mills will be highly desirable and economical to the rural areas which are far from existing grids. . Wind power can be used in combination with hydroelectric plants. Such that the water level in the reservoir can be maintained for longer periods.

Bio Energy
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Bioenergy is derived from biological sources.It includes biomass, the biological material used as a biofuel. It is the most important fuel used in over 90% of the rural households and about 15% of the urban households, energy and manure are derived. Thus the biogas plants are the cheap sources of energy in rural areas. Bio Gas and its Compositions Bio gas contains 55-70% methane and 30-45% carbon dioxide as well as small quantities of(N2, H2, H2S) some gases. It is lighter than the air and has an ignition temperature of approximately 700oC. The

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METHODS USUALLY EMPLOYED
Biogas Plants
Various components of the plant:ØDigester ØAn inlet tank ØGas holder/dome ØOutlet tank ØDistribution pipeline(s)
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ØA manure pit Using only local resources, namely cattle waste and other organic wastes, energy and manure are derived , thus the biogas plants are the cheap sources of energy in rural areas.

The types of biogas plant designs popular are: Ø Floating drum type. Ø Fixed dome-type. Ø Bag-type portable digester.

Biomass Briquetting
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Briquette is also termed as "Biocoal". The process of densifying loose agro-waste into a solidified biomass of high density. It can be conveniently used as a fuel.

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Application
Water pumping. Electricity generation. Heat generation. High Efficiency Wood Burning Stoves. Bio fuels.

Hydro Energy

Hydropower or Hydro-energy is power that is derived from the force or energy of moving water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

Hydrologic Cycle

Hydropower to Electric Power

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Types of Hydroelectric Installation

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Hydropower Design Terminology
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Head
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Water must fall from a higher elevation to a lower one to release its stored energy. The difference between these elevations (the water levels in the forebay and the tailbay) is called head. high-head (800 or more feet) medium-head (100 to 800 feet) low-head(less than 100 feet)

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Dams: three categories
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Power is proportional to the product of head x flow

Scale of Hydropower Projects
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Large-hydro n More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid Medium-hydro n 15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid Small-hydro n 1 - 15 MW - usually feeding into a grid Mini-hydro n Above 100 kW, but below 1 MW n Either stand alone schemes or more often feeding into the grid Micro-hydro n From 5kW up to 100 kW n Usually provided power for a small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid. Pico-hydro n From a few hundred watts up to 5kW n Remote areas away from the grid.
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Conventional Impoundment Dam

Hydropower – Pros and Cons

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Current Scenario in India
•Estimated potential of about 10,000 MW. •A total of 183.45 MW small Hydro project have been installed in India by the end of March 1999. •Small Hydro Power projects of 3 MW capacity have been also installed individually and 148 MW project is under construction .

Geo-Thermal Energy

Geo-thermal power is energy generated by heat stored in the earth, or the collection of absorbed heat derived from underground, in the atmosphere and oceans. It can be used in two ways:Geothermal Heating. Geothermal Electricity. Geothermal technologies include: Geothermal heat pump. Hot dry rock geothermal energy.

Geothermal Prospects
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Environmentally very attractive. Attractive energy source in right locations. Likely to remain an adjunct to other larger energy sources. Exploration risks and up-front capital costs remain a barrier.

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Tidal Energy

TIDES
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Tides are generated by the combination of the Moon and Sun’s gravitational forces in combination with Earth’s rotation.
Bays and inlets amplify the height of the tide. In order to be practical for energy production, the height difference needs to be at least 5 meters Only 40 sites around the world of this magnitude. Overall potential of 3000GW from movement of tides.

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Types of Tides
1.Spring Tidesn Of maximum range n When the gravitational forces due to the Sun and the Moon add together. 2.Neap Tidesn Of minimum range n When the two forces oppose each other. In one year there are approximately 705 full tidal cycles.

How it works
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First generation, barrage-style tidal power plants. Works by building Barrage to contain water after high tide, then water has to pass through a turbine to return to low tide. Second generation, using Tidal stream

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DISADVANTAGES:

ADVANTAGES:
ii. No pollution iii. Renewable resource iv. More efficient than wind because of the density of water v. Predictable source of energy vs. wind and solar vi. Second generation has very few disadvantages i. Does not affect wildlife ii. Does not affect silt deposits iii. Less costly – both in

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ii. iii. iv. v.

Presently costly i. Expensive to build and maintain ii. A 1085MW facility could cost as much as 1.2 billion dollars to construct and run Connection to the grid Technology is not fully developed Barrage style only produces energy for about 10 hours out of the day Barrage style has environmental affects i. Such as fish and plant

WAVE ENERGY
Waves are caused by a number of forces
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Wind. Gravitational pull from the sun and moon. Changes in atmospheric pressure. Earthquakes Waves created by wind are the most common waves. Unequal heating of the Earth’s surface generates wind, and wind blowing over water generates waves.

Wave Power Designs

Tapered Channel Wave Power

Disadvantages
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Depends on the waves - sometimes you'll get loads of energy, sometimes nothing. Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong. Must be able to withstand very rough weather. Disturbance or destruction of marine life. Possible threat to navigation from.

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Renewable Share

Global Consumption and Alternative production

Renewable vs. Non-renewable

Conventional energy sources
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These are fossil fuels;coal,oil,petroleum and natural gas. Fossil fuels,that contain hydrocarbons, found top layer of the Earth’s crust. ‘Non-renewable’ sources;they cannot be produced again after they have been used. They produce a lot of pollution and environmental problems.

WHY FOSSIL FUELS ARE STILL USED ??

Just because of their costs?..

Energy Cost
Solar 32$cent/kwH,but coal 4$cent/kwH … nCosts are the main reason of energy consumption nBut,fossil fuel reserves will be exhausted.
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Global Warming

Loss of Arctic Ice
The Arctic Ice cap could disappear completely well before the end of the century under the impact of global warming.

Observed Sea Ice

Polar Bears on Thin Ice

Studies of ice cores indicate a rapid rise in greenhouse gases in the past 150 years.

CONCLUSION
we need renewable energy
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Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Renewable energy will not run out. Ever. Other sources of energy are finite and will some day be depleted.

Thank u for listening us ))

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