Six box model( Marvin weisboard


7 s framework

Hard Elements Strategy Structure Systems

Soft Elements Shared Values Skills Style Staff

and formal processes and IT systems "Soft" elements. can be more difficult to describe. organization charts and reporting lines. and are less tangible and more influenced by culture. soft elements are as important.7 s frame work Hard" elements are easier to define or identify and management can directly influence them: These are strategy statements. on the other hand. .

Implications of the Star Model: Organization design is more than just structure Different strategies lead to different organizations For an organization to be effective. all the policies must be aligned with one another .Star Model Jay Galbraith developed his "Star Model" framework for analyzing organizations in the 1960s. . The framework consists of a series of design policies that are controllable by management and can influence employee behavior.

the selection and development of the right people ² in alignment with the other policies ² allow the organization to operate at maximum efficiency. they are the means of responding to information technologies Rewards provide motivation and incentives for desired behavior. . Processes have to do with the flow of information.Star Model (cont) In the Star Model. design policies fall into five categories. The first is strategy. And finally. The second is structure. which determines direction. which determines the location of decision-making power.


Star model effect of misalignment Strategy Structure Process Reward system People practice Confusion Friction Grid lock Internal competition Low . paths. h .Star model (cont) The preferred design process is composed in the following order: a .key processes.key people. d .information systems.roles and responsibilities. f .strategy. g .training and development. c .performance measures and rewards. b . e . . i .

More formally. well. it¶s just work. tasks are:  Activities conducted in an organization  What people do to advance the formal organization¶s strategy .Task: the theory Tasks.

Describe the organisational components by collecting data on the four components 6 Evaluation of the congruence between the various components 7 Identify the key factors requiring attention by linking the congruence analysis to the problem identified 8 Identification of action steps that might remove or reduce the problem . that is. Identification of symptoms of problem existence 2. 1. resources and strategy 3. Identification of outputs ± the desired and the actual 4. The congruence model outlines eight steps while analyzing organisational problems. the gap between the desired and the actual outputs 5. Specification of the key elements of the organisation environment.Eight steps of Nadler± Tushman¶s congruence model . Classification of the problems.

It makes the following key points: The external environment is the most powerful driver for organisational change Changes in the external environment lead to significant changes within an organisation ± its mission and strategy. It provides a link between an assessment of the wider institutional context and the nature and process of change within an organisation. its organisational culture and its leadership.Burke-Litwin model´ The ³Burke-Litwin model´ has been developed to examine organisational change and performance. .

These are more operational factors and changes in them may or may not have an organisation-wide impact Together these changes affect motivation.Burke Litwin model (Cont) Changes in these key factors lead to other changes within an organisation ± changes to structure. but also how they can be changed. . systems and management practices. This is useful in explaining not only how organisations perform. which in turn impacts on individual and organisational performance The model describes 12 organisational variables (incorporating the 7 variables of the 7-S model) and the relationships between them. Each of the variables interact and a change in any one of them can eventually impact on the others.

Burke Litwin model (Cont) Outline of the Approach: The model revolves around 10 organizational dimensions: External environment Mission and strategy Leadership Culture Structure Management practices Systems Climate Task-person Individual needs and values The model also distinguishes between transformational and transactional organizational dynamics in organizations. .

Burke Litwin model .

support. view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions. they build linkages to other stakeholders.Advocate.focus on structure.Catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support. experimentation. .Social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design . they assess the distribution of power and interests. environment. increase participation. they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences. share information. these leaders use symbols to capture attention.Structural Framework . whose leadership style is coalition and building . whose leadership style is inspiration. and adaptation. implementation.clarify what they want and what they can get. they empower. Symbolic Framework . and empowerment visible and accessible. then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. and move decision making down into the organization.Prophet. strategy. they discover and communicate a vision. advocate. Political Framework . use persuasion first. Human Resource Framework .

Environmental 6. global warming. health and safety. new product development. Economic 2. rate of technological obsolescence 5. e. unemployment. the euro. Legal 1. competition law. e.g4. Social 4. employment law . national income.g. e. 3ageing population. Political 3. Stock Market 3.g. exchange rates. Technological 5.PESTEL Factor Could include: 1. international trade. income distribution 4. inflation. e. e. attitudes to work. taxation policy 2. environmental issues e. innovation.g1 EU enlargement.g2 interest rates.g5.

optimistic. Tech innovation 3. Mergers 5. Entry by new comp 4. pessimistic . exchange rate 2.Scenario analysis Brainstorming 5 key drivers-scenarios are constructed 1. Competition for new staff Most likely.

Arenas-pdt. value creation 2. geo area. Differentiator-image . Vehicle-int dev . Staging-speed of expansion. mkt segment.Gap analysis Where we are? Where we want to go? How can we get there? Change strategy 1.pdt reliability 4. sequence of initiative 5. price. Low cost through scale adv-low cost/premium price . licensing. acquisition 3. core tech.customization.JV. franchising. style .

of the work environment.The past events and people talked about inside and outside the company. Who and what the company chooses to immortalize says a great deal about what it values. and what needs to be changed. Rituals and Routines . This determines what is expected to happen in given situations. and perceives as great behavior. you can begin to see the bigger picture of your culture: what is working. what isn't working. and what .the pattern or model .Cultural Web The Cultural Web identifies six interrelated elements that help to make up what Johnson and Scholes call the "paradigm" . By analyzing the factors in each. The six elements are: Stories .The daily behavior and actions of people that signal acceptable behavior.

quality systems. These include financial systems. and the unwritten lines of power and influence that indicate whose contributions are most valued. Control Systems . and strategic direction . a whole group of executives.This includes both the structure defined by the organization chart. The key is that these people have the greatest amount of influence on decisions. Organizational Structure .) Power Structures . how plush the offices are. and rewards (including the way they are measured and distributed within the organization.The visual representations of the company including logos.The pockets of real power in the company. and the formal or informal dress codes. or even a department. This may involve one or two key senior executives.The ways that the organization is controlled.Culture web (Cont) Symbols . operations.

Culture web .

Culture Mapping .

The difficulty is that beliefs are deeply personal things. Control . so in trying to define them at a global level.Artefacts . behavioural norms.Is power based around the structure of the organisation or capability of the individual? To what extent does this leverage negative or positive political action within the organisation? . reward systems.Physical evidence left in the wake of human interaction that can help to indicate a particular cultural bias. averaging or levelling will occur and some degree of compromise can take place. Beliefs . logos and office design. shared language.What does the organisation value and regard as being important? This is seen in the moral and ethical codes offered by the business. This can include rituals.

out and within the organisation? What is the accepted churn rate. suppliers and stakeholders? Flow . what is the balance between formal and informal recruitment processes and why do people leave the business? Generative . closed and secure groups? This gap between the open and hidden levels of discourse can be used to understand the difference between the espoused and actual cultural factors.What is the balance between the open and hidden elements within the business? To what extent will people open up and talk about issues in a shared environment and to what extent are issues held for debate in private. where the primary focus is on the customers.Discourse .How do people move in.Where is the energy expended? Is it on issues that are concerned with internal processes or is it externally orientated.To what extent does the organisation understand and drive its capability to innovate and learn? Do individuals feel that they are empowered to develop themselves? To what extent is knowledge shared between individuals and what infrastructure exists to facilitate the sharing of knowledge? . Energy .

pressure from a supervisor. as shown below. Driving Forces Driving forces are those forces affecting a situation that are pushing in a particular direction. incentive earnings. for diagnosing situations. and poor maintenance of equipment may be examples of restraining forces against increased production. It will be useful when looking at the variables involved in planning and implementing a change program and will undoubtedly be of use in team building projects. Restraining Forces Restraining forces are forces acting to restrain or decrease the driving forces. hostility. and competition may be examples of driving forces. Lewin assumes that in any situation there are both driving and restraining forces that influence any change that may occur. Apathy. Equilibrium is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces.Force field analysis Force field analysis is a management technique developed by Kurt Lewin. In terms of improving productivity in a work group. they tend to initiate a change and keep it going. . In our example.when attempting to overcome resistance to change. a pioneer in the field of social sciences. equilibrium represents the present level of productivity.

Force field analysis .

Boundaryless org Speed Flexibility Integration Innovation .

Types of org boundary Vertical boundary Horizontal boundary External boundary Geographic boundary .

Readiness to change Sponsorship Leadership Motivation Direction Measurement Org context Process/function Competitor benchmarking Customer focus Rewards Org structure Communication Org hierarchy Prior exp with change Morale Innovation Decision making .

It helps them ensure that their projects succeed where others fail.Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder Management is an important discipline that successful people use to win support from others. .

Identifying Your Stakeholders Your boss Shareholders Government Trades association s The press Senior executives Alliance partners Your coworkers Suppliers Your team Lenders Interest groups Customers Analysts The public Prospective customers Future recruits The community Your family .1.

2. Prioritize Your Stakeholders: .

Understanding your key stakeholders Assess each stakeholder .

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