C H A P T E R

2
Individual behaviour and learning in organisations

¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

Chapter learning objectives
1. Describe the four factors that influence individual behaviour and performance. 2. Identify five types of work-related behaviour. 3. Define learning. 4. Describe the A-B-C model of behaviour modification. 5. Explain how feedback influences individual behaviour and performance. 6. Identify five elements of effective feedback. 7. Describe the three features of social learning theory. 8. Outline Kolb s model of experiential learning.

¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

2

role perceptions and situational factors (MARS). ability.Customer service at Singapore Air Singapore Airlines provides exceptional customer service by paying attention to the four drivers of individual behaviour and performance: motivation. Courtesy of Singapore Airlines ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 3 .

MARS model of behaviour and performance Role perceptions Motivation Individual behaviour and performance Situational factors Ability ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 4 .

Employee motivation Internal forces that affect a person s voluntary choice of behaviour  direction  intensity  persistence M A R BAR S 5 ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione .

Employee ability Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task  competencies  personal characteristics that lead to superior performance  person  job matching select qualified people develop employee abilities through training redesign job to fit person's existing abilities M A R BAR S 6 ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione .

Employee role perceptions Beliefs about what behaviour is required to achieve the desired results:  understanding what tasks to perform  understanding relative importance of tasks  understanding preferred behaviours to accomplish tasks M A R BAR S 7 ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione .

Situational factors Environmental conditions beyond the individual s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behaviour     time people budget work facilities M A R BAR S 8 ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione .

Types of work-related behaviour workJoining the organisation Exhibiting organisational citizenship Performing required tasks Remaining with the organisation Types of workwork-related behaviour Maintaining work attendance ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 9 .

Definition of learning A relatively permanent change in behaviour (or behaviour tendency) that occurs as a result of a person s interaction with the environment ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 10 .

Behaviour modification  We operate on the environment  alter behaviour to maximise positive consequences and minimise adverse consequences  Operant versus respondent behaviours  Law of effect  likelihood that an operant behaviour will be repeated depends on its consequences ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 11 .

A-B-Cs of behaviour modification Antecedents What happens before behaviour Behaviour What person says or does Consequences What happens after behaviour Example Attendance bonus system is announced Employee attends scheduled work Employee receives attendance bonus ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 12 .

Contingencies of reinforcement Consequence is introduced Behaviour increases/ maintained Positive reinforcement No consequence Consequence is removed Negative reinforcement Behaviour decreases Punishment Extinction Punishment ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 13 .

Schedules of reinforcement Behaviours 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Continuous Fixed ratio Variable ratio Time (Days) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Fixed interval Variable interval ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 14 .

Courtesy of Nova Chemicals ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 15 .Behaviour mod at Nova Chemicals Nova Chemicals million dollar recruitment and retention program cut absenteeism rates by 25 per cent and improved long-term employment at its construction site.

Behaviour modification limitations  Can t reinforce non-observable behaviour  Reinforcer tends to wear off  Variable ratio schedule is a form of gambling  Ethical concerns about perceived manipulation ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 16 .

Learning through feedback  Any information about consequences of our behaviour  Clarifies role perceptions  Corrective feedback improves ability  Positive feedback motivates future behaviour ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 17 .

MultiMulti-source (360 degree) feedback Supervisor Customer Project leader CoCo-worker Evaluated employee CoCo-worker Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 18 .

Giving feedback effectively Specific Relevant Effective feedback Frequent Credible Timely ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 19 .

Social learning theory  Behavioural modelling  observing and modelling behaviour of others  Learning behaviour consequences  observing consequences that others experience  Self-reinforcement  reinforcing our own behaviour with consequences within our control ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 20 .

Kolb¶s experiential learning model Concrete experience Active experimentation Reflective observation Abstract conceptualisation ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 21 .

Developing a learning orientation  Value the generation of new knowledge  Reward experimentation  Recognise mistakes as part of learning process  Encourage employees to take reasonable risks ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 22 .

complex and stressful problem . usually in teams. with immediate relevance to the company  concrete experience  learning meetings  team conceptualises and applies a solution to a problem ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 23 .Action learning  Experiential learning in which employees are involved in a real.

Overview of the next chapter  Perceptual processes of selective attention and social identity  Stereotyping and attribution processes  The self-fulfilling prophecy process  Types of diversity initiatives  How the Johari Window can improve our perceptions  The Big Five personality dimensions  The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 24 .

C H A P T E R 2 Individual behaviour and learning in organisations ¥ 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione .